DE REBUS BYZANTINIS HISTORY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF BYZANCE HISTORIA LINGUA E LITERATURA DE BIZÂNCIO

DE REBUS BYZANTINIS,  HISTÓRIA LÍNGUA E LITERATURA DO IMPÉRIO BIZANTINO. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. FEAUSP. SÃO PAULO. BRAZIL . 2019. L'HISTOIRE LA LANGUE ET LA LITTÉRATURE DE L'EMPIRE BYZANTINE

MODERN GREEK A HERITAGE OF BYZANCE. THE REHABILITATION OF BYZANTINE STUDIES. REABILITAÇÃO DOS ESTUDOS BIZANTINOS

"The Byzantine Empire. Byzantium was originally a Greek colony, founded ca 660 BC on the European side of the Bosporus. Because of its strategic location between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, the colony controlled the traffic between Asia and Europe. The city was completely razed by the Romans at the end of the 2nd century AD. In 326 Constantinople was built on the site of Byzantium, and in 330 the city became the capital of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire, which endured until 1453 and played an important role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Near East. Preserving the classical heritage and fusing it with the accomplishments of the new Christian learning, the Byzantine Empire cultivated a profound spiritual culture and a highly developed material culture". The Ucranian Encyclopedia

The history of Byzantium is generally divided into three major stages:

i) Late Antiquity, which encompasses Byzantine proto-history (from Constantine to Zeno), the remarkable principality of Justinian (527-565) and the government of his immediate successors;

(ii) the mid-Byzantine period between the crisis of the vii century (incursions by the Persians, the Arabs and the Lombards) and the unusual conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, including the Macedonian dynasty (867-1057) the most brilliant of all, and the famous Comnenian dynasty (1081-1185);

(iii) the late epoch, which includes resistance in the exile of Nicaea, the restoration of 1261, and finally the long political decay that accompanies the long dynasty of the Palaeologians, until the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans of Mehmet II in 1453."

"História breve do Império Bizantino (de 476 a 1453) por João Gouveia Monteiro A história de Bizâncio é geralmente dividida em três grandes etapas:

i) a Antiguidade Tardia, que engloba a proto-história bizantina (de Constantino a Zenão), o notável principado de Justiniano (527-565) e o governo dos seus sucessores imediatos;

ii) a época médio-bizantina, situada entre a crise do século vii (incursões dos Persas, dos Árabes e dos Lombardos) e a insólita conquista de Constantinopla pela Quarta Cruzada, em 1204, incluindo portanto a dinastia macedónica (867-1057), a mais brilhantes de todas, e a famosa dinastia dos Comnenos (1081-1185);

iii) a época tardia, que inclui a resistência no exílio de Niceia, a restauração de 1261 e, por fim, a prolongada decadência política que acompanha a longa dinastia dos Paleólogos, até à conquista de Constantinopla pelos Otomanos de Mehmet II, em 1453." 

ΑΝΑΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ. THE REHABILITATION OF BYZANTINE STUDIES.

Για σχεδόν είκοσι χρόνια, υπήρξαν έργα αποκατάστασης για όλα όσα σχετίζονται με την Ανατολική Χριστιανική Αυτοκρατορία. Οι εκφράσεις της βυζαντινής, της χαμηλής αυτοκρατορίας, που σίγουρα δεν έχασε περιφρονητική αίσθηση. Ωστόσο, αρχίζει να κατανοεί καλύτερα τον βυζαντινό κόσμο και να μελετήσει λεπτομερέστερα την ιστορία της ελληνικής αυτοκρατορίας. Οι προκαταλήψεις που έχουμε δει εδώ και καιρό διαλύονται σταδιακά. 

Στη Γαλλία, όπως και αλλού, έχουν αφιερωθεί σημαντικά έργα σε διάφορες φάσεις του παρελθόντος μέχρι τώρα άγνωστου. Η επιτυχία ορισμένων από αυτά τα κείμενα έχει ξεπεράσει το περιορισμένο κοινό προς το οποίο απευθύνονται. Όχι ότι τα βυζαντινά πράγματα είναι πάντα μοντέρνα. αλλά δεν φαίνεται ότι είναι πολύ αναγκαία.Η μελέτη αυτής της ιστορικής περιόδου έχει πολλές εκπλήξεις για εμάς.

 Η περιοχή είναι τόσο μεγάλη ώστε θα πρέπει να διερευνήσουν πολλές θέσεις για την εν λόγω έρευνα η επιστημονική ή ιστορικός είχε εδώ και καιρό την έλξη του άγνωστου. Έτσι, η βυζαντινή λογοτεχνία ήταν πολύ δύσκολο να μελετηθεί μέχρι σήμερα. Δεν είχαμε κανένα σοβαρό και ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο για το θέμα αυτό σε οποιαδήποτε ευρωπαϊκή γλώσσα. Αυτό το κενό ολοκληρώθηκε από τον κ. Krumbacher [1]. Εν τω μεταξύ, το βιβλίο του να μεταφραστεί στα γαλλικά, όσοι μπορούν να διαβάσουν γερμανικά δεν μπορεί πλέον να δικαιολογήσει καμία βιβλιογραφία δυσφήμιση χωρίς να γνωρίζει τίποτα γι 'αυτό. Αυτή η μελέτη παρέχει κανένα άλλο ενδιαφέρον, θα μπορούσε πάντα να βασίζεται στο γεγονός ότι οι Έλληνες συγγραφείς αυτών των κεντρικών αιώνες είναι η πραγματική σύνδεση - ή, αν θέλουμε η μετάβαση - μεταξύ αρχαίο πολιτισμό και σύγχρονη αναγέννηση. 

Δεν μας ενδιαφέρει όμως μόνο το αποτέλεσμα του παρελθόντος. Η ελληνική αυτοκρατορία ήταν, κατά το μεγαλύτερο μέρος της ύπαρξής της, το πιο σημαντικό κράτος του πολιτισμένου κόσμου εκείνης της εποχής. μέσα, τον Ελληνισμό, μετασχηματισμένο από τη χριστιανική θρησκεία και την υιοθέτηση παραδόσεωνD. Bikélas Βυζαντινή Λογοτεχνία. Review of Two Worlds Τόμος 110, 1892. D. Bikélas La Littérature byzantine .  Revue des Deux Mondes tome 110, 1892

TRANSLATION OF THE MODERN GREEK TEXT

For about twenty years there is, little by little, a work of rehabilitation in all that concerns the Eastern Christian empire. The expressions of Byzantinism, of the lower empire, have, it is true, lost nothing of their contemptuous meaning. However, one begins to appreciate better what has been the Byzantine world, to study in more detail the history of the Greek empire. The prejudices, through which we have seen it for so long, are gradually dissipating. In France, as well as elsewhere, important works have been devoted to various phases of this past so far unknown. The success of some of these writings has resonated beyond even the limited audience to which they addressed themselves. Not that Byzantine things are still fashionable; but it does not seem that much is needed.

The study of this historical period has many surprises for us. The field is so vast, so many parts remain to be explored, that the researches of the scientist or historian will long have the attraction of the unknown. Thus, Byzantine literature was very difficult to study to this day. We did not possess on this subject, in any language of Europe, a serious and complete work. This gap has been filled by Mr Krumbacher [1]. 

https://archive.org/details/geschichtederbyz00krumuoft/page/n8

While waiting for his book to be translated into French, those who can read German will no longer have an excuse if they denigrate this entire literature without knowing anything about it. This study does not offer any other interest, one could always invoke in its favor this fact, that the Greek writers of these long centuries constitute the true hyphen, - or, if one wants the transition, - between ancient civilization and modern renaissance. But it is not only as a result of the past that this time can interest us. The Greek Empire was, during most of its existence, the most important state of the civilized world of that time; inside, Hellenism, transformed by the Christian religion and the adoption of traditions. D. Bikélas Byzantine Literature. Review of Two Worlds Volume 110, 1892.

Depuis une vingtaine d’années il se fait, peu à peu, un travail de réhabilitation en tout ce qui concerne l’empire chrétien d’Orient. Les expressions de byzantinisme, de bas-empire n’ont, il est vrai, rien perdu de leur signification méprisante. Toutefois, on commence à mieux apprécier ce qu’a été le monde byzantin, à étudier d’une manière plus approfondie l’histoire de l’empire grec. Les préjugés, à travers lesquels on l’a pendant si longtemps vu, se dissipent graduellement. En France, aussi bien qu’ailleurs, des travaux importans ont été consacrés à diverses phases de ce passé jusqu’ici si méconnu. Le succès de quelques-uns de ces écrits a trouvé un écho au-delà même du public limité auquel ils s’adressaient. Non pas que les choses byzantines soient encore à la mode ; mais il semble qu’il ne s’en faut pas de beaucoup.

L’étude de cette période historique nous réserve bien des surprises. Le champ est si vaste, il en reste tant de parties à explorer, que les recherches du savant ou de l’historien auront longtemps l’attrait de l’inconnu. Ainsi, la littérature byzantine était fort difficile à étudier jusqu’à ce jour. Nous ne possédions sur ce sujet, dans aucune langue de l’Europe, un ouvrage sérieux et complet. Cette lacune vient d’être comblée par M. Krumbacher [1]. En attendant que son livre soit traduit en français, ceux qui peuvent lire l’allemand n’auront plus d’excuse s’ils dénigrent cette littérature tout entière, sans en rien savoir. Cette étude n’offrît-elle pas d’autre intérêt, on pourrait toujours invoquer en sa faveur ce fait, que les écrivains grecs de ces longs siècles constituent le véritable trait d’union,— ou, si l’on veut la transition, — entre la civilisation antique et la renaissance moderne. Mais ce n’est pas seulement comme faisant suite au passé que cette époque peut nous intéresser. L’empire grec a été, pendant la plus grande partie de son existence, l’état le plus important du monde civilisé d’alors ; au dedans, l’hellénisme, transformé par la religion chrétienne et par l’adoption des traditions. D. Bikélas La Littérature byzantine .  Revue des Deux Mondes tome 110, 1892

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. THE CHRISTIAN EMPIRE OF THE ORIENT

Initially, Byzantium, in Greek language Byzantion, was a small city-state by the Straits of  Bosphoros, founded circa 657 BCE by Byzas of Megara, and recolonized in the 5th century by the Spartans. Like ancient Babylon and Rome, Byzantium lent its name to a large empire that existed from 330 to 1453 CE. The citizens of this city were called Byzantines. In the 16th century the French Historian Jerome Wolf applied the term to include all the people of the empire ruled from Byzantium, now renamed Constantinople. its inhabitants however called it Basileion ton Romaion, Kingdom of the Romans, and themselves Rhomaioi.  Since 211 CE, when all the free people of the Roman empire were enfranchised and became Roman citizens, the Byzantines viewed themselves as Romans and their state as a continuationon of the Roman empire. Western Europeans (Latin, Germanic, Frankish), Russian, Hebrew, and other non-Greek sources speak of the Byzantines as Greeks and of their state as Graecia. […]

After the fall of the Roman Western Empire, the Byzantine Empire kept Greek and Roman culture alive for nearly a thousand years. It preserved this cultural heritage until it was taken up in the west during the Renaissance. The link below offers an ample  and simple  introduction to the Byzantine studies.

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory/chapter/byzantiums-legacy/

The line between Byzantium and Ancient Rome is very unsteady. For a long time, Western European science in general based on the fact that there is no separate history of Byzantium, but only a prolonged one thousand years fading Rome. And although this view is no longer a mainstream, we still need to start a conversation about Byzantium, as if not from the beginning, but from the middle. After all, Byzantium has no year of foundation, nor a founding father, like that of Rome with Romulus and Remus. Byzantium spontaneously sprouted from the inside of ancient Rome, but never divorced from it. After all, the Byzantines did not think of themselves as something separate: they did not know the words "Byzantium" and "Byzantine Empire"and reffered to themselves as Romans, appropriating the history of ancient Rome, or as some kind of Christians  appropriating the entire history of the Christian religion. Cf. History of Byzantium for Beginners.

LATIN AND GREEK THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF BYZANTIUM 

During its period of existence, id est, from 330 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Byzantine Empire had Latin and Greek as its two official languages. Gradually, a kind of  Greek, firmly rooted in the Atticist tradition, became the language of the administration and the one used for writing ; it is this archaizing Greek that is often referred to as Byzantine Greek. While Latin was loosing speakers, along the centuries, the spoken Greek language continued to develop apace and its course can be followed to some extent in the writings of the less-educated chroniclers (such as John Malalas, 6th century) and the hagiographers. Furthermore, the increasing political and military disintegration characteristic of the last few centuries preceding the fall of Constantinople brought with it a general decline in educational level, and works appeared that reflected quite closely the colloquial language of the time, although learned and pseudo-learned elements were never absent. While the differences between the Chronicle of the Morea (13th century), for example, and present-day spoken Greek are quite minor, Byzantium failed to produce a writer of the stature of Dante, capable of establishing once and for all the living vernacular as a worthy vehicle for great literature. Today Cyprus, the mainland Greece and the Hellenes in diaspora, use Demotic Greek as both the spoken and the written language. This idiom is Modern Greek, a continuation of the spoken Byzantine Greek. The Byzantine empire was a multinational state that was always very large, during all of its existence time, therefore, it should no be equaled to just Greece and the Greek- speaking islands, and certainly it was not ethnically uniform.

CONSTANTINI IMPERATORIS ORIGO. PARS PRIOR. ANONYMI VALESIANI :

[1] Diocletianus cum Herculio Maximiano imperavit annos XX. Constantius, divi Claudii optimi principis nepos ex fratre, protector primum, inde tribunus, postea praeses Dalmatiarum fuit. Iste cum Galerio a Diocletiano Caesar factus est. Relicta enim Helena priore uxore, filiam Maximiani Theodoram duxit uxorem, ex qua postea sex liberos Constantini fratres habuit. Sed de priore uxore Helena filium iam Constantinum habuit, qui postea princeps potentissimus fuit.

[2] Hic igitur Constantinus, natus Helena matre vilissima in oppido Naisso atque eductus, quod oppidum postea magnifice ornavit, litteris minus instructus, obses apud Diocletianum et Galerium, sub eisdem fortiter in Asia militavit; quem post depositum imperium Diocletiani et Herculi, Constantius a Galerio repetit; sed hunc Galerius obiecit ante pluribus periculis. Nam et in Sarmatas iuvenis equestris militans ferocem barbarum, capillis tentis raptum, ante pedes Galerii imperatoris adduxerat. Deinde Galerio mittente per paludem, equo ingressus suo, viam ceteris fecit ad Sarmatas, ex quibus plurimis stratis Galerio victoriam reportavit. Tunc eum Galerius patri remisit. Qui ut Severum per Italiam transiens vitaret, summa festinatione veredis post se truncati Alpes transgressus, ad patrem Constantium venit apud Bononiam, quam Galli prius Gesoriacum vocabant. Post victoriam autem Pictorum Constantius pater Eboraci mortuus est, et Constantinus omnium militum consensu Caesar creatus.

[3] Interea Caesares duo facti, Severus et Maximinus; Maximino datum est Orientis imperium: Galerius sibi Illyricum, Thracias, et Bithyniam tenuit. Severus suscepit Italiam et quicquid Herculius obtinebat. Postquam vero Constantius in Britannia mortuus est et Constantinus filius successit, subito in urbe Roma praetoriani milites Maxentium, filium Herculi, imperatorem crearunt. Sed adversum Maxentium iussu Galeri Severus duxit exercitum. Qui repente ab omnibus suis desertus est et Ravennam fugit. Dehinc Galerius cum ingentibus copiis Romam venit, minatus civitatis interitum et castra Interamnae ad Tiberim posuit. Tunc legatos ad urbem misit Licinium et Probum, per colloquium petens ut gener apud socerum, id est Maxentius apud Galerium, precibus magis quam armis optata mercaretur. Qui contemptus agnovit promissis motos multos suorum Maxenti partes suas deseruisse; quibus perturbatus retro versus est, et ut militi suo praedam quamcunque conferret, Flaminiam iussit auferri. Ille ad Constantinum refugit. Tunc Galerius in Illyrico Licinium Caesarem fecit. Deinde illo in Pannonia relicto, ipse ad Serdicam regressus, morbo ingenti occupatus sic distabuit, ut aperto et putrescenti viscere moreretur, in supplicium persecutionis iniquissimae ad auctorem scelerati praecepti iustissima poena redeunte. Imperavit annos XVIIII.

[4] Severus Caesar ignobilis et moribus et natalibus, ebriosus et hoc Galerio amicus. Hunc ergo et Maximinum Caesares Galerius fecit, Constantino nihil tale noscente. Huic Severo Pannoniae et Italiae urbes et Africae contigerunt. Quo casu Maxentius factus est imperator; nam desertus Severus a suis fugit Ravennam. Pro Maxentio filio evocatus illuc venit Herculius, qui per peiurium Severum deceptum custodiae tradidit et captivi habitu in Urbem perduxit et in villa publica Appiae viae tricensimo miliario custodiri fecit. Postea cum Galerius Italiam peteret, ille iugulatus est et deinde relatus ad octavum miliarium conditusque in Gallieni monumento. Igitur Galerius sic ebriosus fuit, urbs, cum iuberet temulentus ea quae facienda non essent, a praefecto admonitus, constituerit ne iussa eius aliquis post prandium faceret.

Interea Constantinus, apud Veronam victis ducibus tyranni, Romam petiit. Cum autem ad urbem Constantinus venisset, egressus ex urbe Maxentius campum supra Tiberim, in quo dimicaret, elegit. Ubi victus, fugatis omnibus suis, inter angustias arcentis populi periit, equo praecipitatus in fluvium. Postera die corpus ipsius levatum flumine et caput eius incisum in urbem perlatum est. De cuius origine mater eius, cum quaesitum esset, Syro quodam genitum esse confessa. Imperavit annos VI.

[5] Licinius in quibus ex Nova Dacia vilioris originis a Galerio factus imperator, velut adversum Maxentium pugnaturus. Sed oppresso Maxentio cum recepisset Italiam Constantinus, hoc Licinium foedere sibi fecit adiungi: ut Licinius Constantiam, sororem Constantini, apud Mediolanum duxisset uxorem. Nuptiis celebratis Gallias repetit Constantinus, Licinio ad Illyricum reverso. Post aliquantum deinde temporis Constantium Constantinus ad Licinium misit, persuadens ut Bassianus Caesar fieret, qui habebat alteram Constantini sororem Anastasiam, ut exemplo Maximiani inter Constantinum et Licinium Bassianus Italiam medius optineret. Et Licinio talia frustrante, per Senicionem Bassiani fratrem, qui Licinio fidus erat, in Constantinum Bassianus armatur. Qui tamen in conatu deprehensus, Constantino iubente convictus et stratus est. Cum Senicio auctor insidiarum posceretur ad poenam, negante Licinio fracta concordia est; additis etiam causis quod apud Emonam Constantini imagines statuasque deiecerat. Bellum deinde apertum convenit ambobus. Utriusque ad Cibalensem campum ductus exercitus. Licinio XXXV milia peditum et equitum fuere; Constantinus XX milia peditum et equitum duxit. Caesis post dubium certamen Licinianis viginti peditum milibus et equitum ferratorum parte, Licinius cum magna parte equitatus noctis auxilio pervolavit ad Sirmium. Sublata inde uxore ac filio et thesauris tetendit ad Daciam. Valentem ducem limitis Caesarem fecit. Inde apud Hadrianopolim Thraciae civitatem per Valentem collecta ingenti multitudine, legatos ad Constantinum de pace misit apud Philippos constitutum. Quibus frustra remissis, iterum reparato bello, in campo Mardiense ab utroque concurritur et post dubium ac diuturnum proelium Licini partibus inclinatis profuit noctis auxilium. Licinius et Valens credentes Constantinum, quod et verum erat, ad persequendum longius ad Byzantium processurum, flexi in partem Beroeam concesserunt. Ita Constantinus vehementer in ulteriora festinans, deprehendit Licinium remansisse post tergum. Fatigatis bello et itinere militibus, missus deinde Mestrianus legatus pacem petiit, Licinio postulante et pollicente se imperata facturum. Denuo, sicut ante, mandatum est Valens privatus fieret; quo facto pax ab ambobus firmata est, ut Licinius Orientem, Asiam, Thraciam, Moesiam, minorem Scythiam possideret. Deinde reversus Serdicam Constantinus hoc cum Licinio absente constituit, ut filii Constantini Crispus et Constantinus, filius etiam Licini Licinius, Caesares fierent et sic ab utroque concorditer regnaretur. Itaque Constantinus et Licinius simul consules facti. In Orientis partibus, Licinio Constantino consulibus, repentina rabie suscitatus Licinius omnes Christianos a palatio iussit expelli.

Mox bellum inter ipsum Licinium et Constantinum efferbuit. Item cum Constantinus Thessalonica esset, Gothi per neglectos limites eruperunt et, vastata Thracia et Moesia, praedas agere coeperunt. Tunc Constantini terrore et impetu represso, captivos illi impetrata pace reddiderunt. Sed hoc Licinius contra fidem factum questus est, quod partes suae ab alio fuerint vindicatae. Deinde cum variasset inter supplicantia et superba mandata, iram Constantini merito excitavit. Per tempora quibus nondum gerebatur bellum civile, sed item parabatur, Licinius scelere, avaritia, crudelitate, libidine saeviebat, occisis ob divitias pluribus, uxoribus eorum corruptis. Rupta iam pace utriusque consensu, Constantinus Caesarem Crispum cum grandi classe ad occupandam Asiam miserat, cui de parte Licinii similiter cum navalibus copiis Amandus obstabat. Licinius vero circa Hadrianopolim maximo exercitu latera ardui montis impleverat. Illuc toto agmine Constantinus inflexit. Cum bellum terra marique traheretur ,quamvis per arduum suis nitentibus, at tamen disciplina militari et felicitate Constantinus Licini confusum et sine ordine agentem vicit exercitum, leviter femore sauciatus. Dehinc fugiens Licinius Byzantium petit; quo dum multitudo dissipata contenderet, clauso Byzantio Licinius obsidionem terrenam maris securus agitabat. Sed Constantinus classem collegit ex Thracia. Dehinc solita vanitate Licinius Martinianum sibi Caesarem fecit. Crispus vero cum classe Constantini Callipolim pervenit; ibi bello maritimo sic Amandum vicit, ut vix per eos qui in litore remanserant vivus Amandus refugeret. Classis vero Licini vel oppressa vel capta est. Licinius, desperata maris spe, per quod se viderat obsidendum, Chalcedonam cum thesauris refugit. Byzantium Constantinus invasit, victoriam maritimam Crispo conveniente cognoscens. Deinde apud Chrysopolim Licinius pugnavit, maxime auxiliantibus Gothis quos Alica regalis deduxerat; tum Constantini pars vincens XXV milia armatorum fudit partis adversae, ceteris fugientibus. Postea cum legiones Constantini per liburnas venire vidissent, proiectis armis se dediderunt. Sequenti autem die Constantia, soror Constantini, uxor Licini, venit ad castra fratris et marito vitam poposcit et impetravit. Ita Licinius privatus factus est et convivio Constantini adhibitus, et Martiniano vita concessa est. Licinius Thessalonicam missus est; sed Herculii Maximiani, soceri sui, motus exemplo, ne iterum depositam purpuram in perniciem rei publicae sumeret, tumultu militaribus exigentibus in Thessalonica iussit occidi, Martinianum in Cappadocia. Qui regnavit annos XVIIII , filio et uxore superstite. Quamvis omnibus iam ministris nefariae persecutionis exstinctis, hunc quoque in quantum exercere potuit persecutorem digna punitio flagitaret.

[6] Constantinus autem ex se Byzantium Constantinopolim nuncupavit ob insignis victoriae memoriam. Quam velut patriam cultu decoravit ingenti et Romae desideravit aequari: deinde quaesitis ei undique civibus divitias multas largitus est, ut prope in ea omnes regias facultates exhauriret. Ibi etiam senatum constituit secundi ordinis; claros vocavit. Deinde adversum Gothos bellum suscepit et implorantibus Sarmatis auxilium tulit. Ita per Constantinum Caesarem centum prope milia fame et frigore extincta sunt. Tunc et obsides accepit inter quos Ariarici regis filium. Sic cum his pace firmata, in Sarmatas versus est, qui dubiae fidei probabantur. Sed servi Sarmatarum adversum omnes dominos rebellarunt, quos pulsos Constantinus libenter accepit et amplius trecenta milia hominum mixtae aetatis et sexus per Thraciam, Scythiam, Macedoniam, Italiamque divisit.

Item Constantinus imperator primus Christianus, excepto Philippo, qui Christianus admodum ad hoc tantum constitutus fuisse mihi visus est, ut millesimus Romae annus Christo potius quam idolis dicaretur. A Constantino autem omnes semper Christiani imperatores usque in hodiernum diem creati sunt, excepto Iuliano, quem impia (ut aiunt) machinantem exitalis vita deseruit. Item Constantinus iusto ordine et pio vicem vertit; edicto si quidem statuit citra ullam caedem hominum paganorum templa claudi. Mox Gothorum fortissimas et copiosissimas gentes in ipso barbarici soli sinu, hoc est in Sarmatarum regione, delevit.

Calocaerum quendam in Cypro aspirantem novis rebus oppressit. Dalmatium filium fratris sui Dalmatii, Caesarem fecit. Eius fratrem Hannibalianum, data ei Constantiana filia sua, regem regum et Ponticarum gentium constituit. Itaque Gallias Constantinus minor regebat, Orientem Constantius Caesar, Illyricum et Italiam Constans, ripam Gothicam Dalmatius tuebatur. Item Constantinus cum bellum pararet in Persas, in suburbano Constantinopolitano villa publica iuxta Nicomediam, dispositam bene rem publicam filiis tradens, diem obiit. Regnavit ann. XXXI. Sepultus est Constantinopoli. [The Miscellany              The Latin Library              The Classics Page]

 CONSTANTINI IMPERATORIS ORIGO. PARS PRIOR. ANONYMI VALESIANI :

[1] Diocletianus cum Herculio Maximiano imperavit annos XX. Constantius, divi Claudii optimi principis nepos ex fratre, protector primum, inde tribunus, postea praeses Dalmatiarum fuit. Iste cum Galerio a Diocletiano Caesar factus est. Relicta enim Helena priore uxore, filiam Maximiani Theodoram duxit uxorem, ex qua postea sex liberos Constantini fratres habuit. Sed de priore uxore Helena filium iam Constantinum habuit, qui postea princeps potentissimus fuit.

[2] Hic igitur Constantinus, natus Helena matre vilissima in oppido Naisso atque eductus, quod oppidum postea magnifice ornavit, litteris minus instructus, obses apud Diocletianum et Galerium, sub eisdem fortiter in Asia militavit; quem post depositum imperium Diocletiani et Herculi, Constantius a Galerio repetit; sed hunc Galerius obiecit ante pluribus periculis. Nam et in Sarmatas iuvenis equestris militans ferocem barbarum, capillis tentis raptum, ante pedes Galerii imperatoris adduxerat. Deinde Galerio mittente per paludem, equo ingressus suo, viam ceteris fecit ad Sarmatas, ex quibus plurimis stratis Galerio victoriam reportavit. Tunc eum Galerius patri remisit. Qui ut Severum per Italiam transiens vitaret, summa festinatione veredis post se truncati Alpes transgressus, ad patrem Constantium venit apud Bononiam, quam Galli prius Gesoriacum vocabant. Post victoriam autem Pictorum Constantius pater Eboraci mortuus est, et Constantinus omnium militum consensu Caesar creatus.

[3] Interea Caesares duo facti, Severus et Maximinus; Maximino datum est Orientis imperium: Galerius sibi Illyricum, Thracias, et Bithyniam tenuit. Severus suscepit Italiam et quicquid Herculius obtinebat. Postquam vero Constantius in Britannia mortuus est et Constantinus filius successit, subito in urbe Roma praetoriani milites Maxentium, filium Herculi, imperatorem crearunt. Sed adversum Maxentium iussu Galeri Severus duxit exercitum. Qui repente ab omnibus suis desertus est et Ravennam fugit. Dehinc Galerius cum ingentibus copiis Romam venit, minatus civitatis interitum et castra Interamnae ad Tiberim posuit. Tunc legatos ad urbem misit Licinium et Probum, per colloquium petens ut gener apud socerum, id est Maxentius apud Galerium, precibus magis quam armis optata mercaretur. Qui contemptus agnovit promissis motos multos suorum Maxenti partes suas deseruisse; quibus perturbatus retro versus est, et ut militi suo praedam quamcunque conferret, Flaminiam iussit auferri. Ille ad Constantinum refugit. Tunc Galerius in Illyrico Licinium Caesarem fecit. Deinde illo in Pannonia relicto, ipse ad Serdicam regressus, morbo ingenti occupatus sic distabuit, ut aperto et putrescenti viscere moreretur, in supplicium persecutionis iniquissimae ad auctorem scelerati praecepti iustissima poena redeunte. Imperavit annos XVIIII.

[4] Severus Caesar ignobilis et moribus et natalibus, ebriosus et hoc Galerio amicus. Hunc ergo et Maximinum Caesares Galerius fecit, Constantino nihil tale noscente. Huic Severo Pannoniae et Italiae urbes et Africae contigerunt. Quo casu Maxentius factus est imperator; nam desertus Severus a suis fugit Ravennam. Pro Maxentio filio evocatus illuc venit Herculius, qui per peiurium Severum deceptum custodiae tradidit et captivi habitu in Urbem perduxit et in villa publica Appiae viae tricensimo miliario custodiri fecit. Postea cum Galerius Italiam peteret, ille iugulatus est et deinde relatus ad octavum miliarium conditusque in Gallieni monumento. Igitur Galerius sic ebriosus fuit, urbs, cum iuberet temulentus ea quae facienda non essent, a praefecto admonitus, constituerit ne iussa eius aliquis post prandium faceret.

Interea Constantinus, apud Veronam victis ducibus tyranni, Romam petiit. Cum autem ad urbem Constantinus venisset, egressus ex urbe Maxentius campum supra Tiberim, in quo dimicaret, elegit. Ubi victus, fugatis omnibus suis, inter angustias arcentis populi periit, equo praecipitatus in fluvium. Postera die corpus ipsius levatum flumine et caput eius incisum in urbem perlatum est. De cuius origine mater eius, cum quaesitum esset, Syro quodam genitum esse confessa. Imperavit annos VI.

[5] Licinius in quibus ex Nova Dacia vilioris originis a Galerio factus imperator, velut adversum Maxentium pugnaturus. Sed oppresso Maxentio cum recepisset Italiam Constantinus, hoc Licinium foedere sibi fecit adiungi: ut Licinius Constantiam, sororem Constantini, apud Mediolanum duxisset uxorem. Nuptiis celebratis Gallias repetit Constantinus, Licinio ad Illyricum reverso. Post aliquantum deinde temporis Constantium Constantinus ad Licinium misit, persuadens ut Bassianus Caesar fieret, qui habebat alteram Constantini sororem Anastasiam, ut exemplo Maximiani inter Constantinum et Licinium Bassianus Italiam medius optineret. Et Licinio talia frustrante, per Senicionem Bassiani fratrem, qui Licinio fidus erat, in Constantinum Bassianus armatur. Qui tamen in conatu deprehensus, Constantino iubente convictus et stratus est. Cum Senicio auctor insidiarum posceretur ad poenam, negante Licinio fracta concordia est; additis etiam causis quod apud Emonam Constantini imagines statuasque deiecerat. Bellum deinde apertum convenit ambobus. Utriusque ad Cibalensem campum ductus exercitus. Licinio XXXV milia peditum et equitum fuere; Constantinus XX milia peditum et equitum duxit. Caesis post dubium certamen Licinianis viginti peditum milibus et equitum ferratorum parte, Licinius cum magna parte equitatus noctis auxilio pervolavit ad Sirmium. Sublata inde uxore ac filio et thesauris tetendit ad Daciam. Valentem ducem limitis Caesarem fecit. Inde apud Hadrianopolim Thraciae civitatem per Valentem collecta ingenti multitudine, legatos ad Constantinum de pace misit apud Philippos constitutum. Quibus frustra remissis, iterum reparato bello, in campo Mardiense ab utroque concurritur et post dubium ac diuturnum proelium Licini partibus inclinatis profuit noctis auxilium. Licinius et Valens credentes Constantinum, quod et verum erat, ad persequendum longius ad Byzantium processurum, flexi in partem Beroeam concesserunt. Ita Constantinus vehementer in ulteriora festinans, deprehendit Licinium remansisse post tergum. Fatigatis bello et itinere militibus, missus deinde Mestrianus legatus pacem petiit, Licinio postulante et pollicente se imperata facturum. Denuo, sicut ante, mandatum est Valens privatus fieret; quo facto pax ab ambobus firmata est, ut Licinius Orientem, Asiam, Thraciam, Moesiam, minorem Scythiam possideret. Deinde reversus Serdicam Constantinus hoc cum Licinio absente constituit, ut filii Constantini Crispus et Constantinus, filius etiam Licini Licinius, Caesares fierent et sic ab utroque concorditer regnaretur. Itaque Constantinus et Licinius simul consules facti. In Orientis partibus, Licinio Constantino consulibus, repentina rabie suscitatus Licinius omnes Christianos a palatio iussit expelli.

Mox bellum inter ipsum Licinium et Constantinum efferbuit. Item cum Constantinus Thessalonica esset, Gothi per neglectos limites eruperunt et, vastata Thracia et Moesia, praedas agere coeperunt. Tunc Constantini terrore et impetu represso, captivos illi impetrata pace reddiderunt. Sed hoc Licinius contra fidem factum questus est, quod partes suae ab alio fuerint vindicatae. Deinde cum variasset inter supplicantia et superba mandata, iram Constantini merito excitavit. Per tempora quibus nondum gerebatur bellum civile, sed item parabatur, Licinius scelere, avaritia, crudelitate, libidine saeviebat, occisis ob divitias pluribus, uxoribus eorum corruptis. Rupta iam pace utriusque consensu, Constantinus Caesarem Crispum cum grandi classe ad occupandam Asiam miserat, cui de parte Licinii similiter cum navalibus copiis Amandus obstabat. Licinius vero circa Hadrianopolim maximo exercitu latera ardui montis impleverat. Illuc toto agmine Constantinus inflexit. Cum bellum terra marique traheretur ,quamvis per arduum suis nitentibus, at tamen disciplina militari et felicitate Constantinus Licini confusum et sine ordine agentem vicit exercitum, leviter femore sauciatus. Dehinc fugiens Licinius Byzantium petit; quo dum multitudo dissipata contenderet, clauso Byzantio Licinius obsidionem terrenam maris securus agitabat. Sed Constantinus classem collegit ex Thracia. Dehinc solita vanitate Licinius Martinianum sibi Caesarem fecit. Crispus vero cum classe Constantini Callipolim pervenit; ibi bello maritimo sic Amandum vicit, ut vix per eos qui in litore remanserant vivus Amandus refugeret. Classis vero Licini vel oppressa vel capta est. Licinius, desperata maris spe, per quod se viderat obsidendum, Chalcedonam cum thesauris refugit. Byzantium Constantinus invasit, victoriam maritimam Crispo conveniente cognoscens. Deinde apud Chrysopolim Licinius pugnavit, maxime auxiliantibus Gothis quos Alica regalis deduxerat; tum Constantini pars vincens XXV milia armatorum fudit partis adversae, ceteris fugientibus. Postea cum legiones Constantini per liburnas venire vidissent, proiectis armis se dediderunt. Sequenti autem die Constantia, soror Constantini, uxor Licini, venit ad castra fratris et marito vitam poposcit et impetravit. Ita Licinius privatus factus est et convivio Constantini adhibitus, et Martiniano vita concessa est. Licinius Thessalonicam missus est; sed Herculii Maximiani, soceri sui, motus exemplo, ne iterum depositam purpuram in perniciem rei publicae sumeret, tumultu militaribus exigentibus in Thessalonica iussit occidi, Martinianum in Cappadocia. Qui regnavit annos XVIIII , filio et uxore superstite. Quamvis omnibus iam ministris nefariae persecutionis exstinctis, hunc quoque in quantum exercere potuit persecutorem digna punitio flagitaret.

[6] Constantinus autem ex se Byzantium Constantinopolim nuncupavit ob insignis victoriae memoriam. Quam velut patriam cultu decoravit ingenti et Romae desideravit aequari: deinde quaesitis ei undique civibus divitias multas largitus est, ut prope in ea omnes regias facultates exhauriret. Ibi etiam senatum constituit secundi ordinis; claros vocavit. Deinde adversum Gothos bellum suscepit et implorantibus Sarmatis auxilium tulit. Ita per Constantinum Caesarem centum prope milia fame et frigore extincta sunt. Tunc et obsides accepit inter quos Ariarici regis filium. Sic cum his pace firmata, in Sarmatas versus est, qui dubiae fidei probabantur. Sed servi Sarmatarum adversum omnes dominos rebellarunt, quos pulsos Constantinus libenter accepit et amplius trecenta milia hominum mixtae aetatis et sexus per Thraciam, Scythiam, Macedoniam, Italiamque divisit.

Item Constantinus imperator primus Christianus, excepto Philippo, qui Christianus admodum ad hoc tantum constitutus fuisse mihi visus est, ut millesimus Romae annus Christo potius quam idolis dicaretur. A Constantino autem omnes semper Christiani imperatores usque in hodiernum diem creati sunt, excepto Iuliano, quem impia (ut aiunt) machinantem exitalis vita deseruit. Item Constantinus iusto ordine et pio vicem vertit; edicto si quidem statuit citra ullam caedem hominum paganorum templa claudi. Mox Gothorum fortissimas et copiosissimas gentes in ipso barbarici soli sinu, hoc est in Sarmatarum regione, delevit.

Calocaerum quendam in Cypro aspirantem novis rebus oppressit. Dalmatium filium fratris sui Dalmatii, Caesarem fecit. Eius fratrem Hannibalianum, data ei Constantiana filia sua, regem regum et Ponticarum gentium constituit. Itaque Gallias Constantinus minor regebat, Orientem Constantius Caesar, Illyricum et Italiam Constans, ripam Gothicam Dalmatius tuebatur. Item Constantinus cum bellum pararet in Persas, in suburbano Constantinopolitano villa publica iuxta Nicomediam, dispositam bene rem publicam filiis tradens, diem obiit. Regnavit ann. XXXI. Sepultus est Constantinopoli. [The Miscellany The Latin Library The Classics Page]

QUOMODO CONSTANTINUS PRIMUS CHRISTIANUS IMPERATOR FACTUS SIT. 

Anno trecentesimo quinto p.Ch. n. ad comprobandam tetrarchiae rationem duo Augusti Diocletianus et Maximianus imperium abdicaverunt ut designati Constantius Clorus et Galerius, qui iam Caesares creati essent, sibi succederent. Eo tempore imperii reformatio et emendatio tetrarchica in summo discrimine versata est. Mox res in peius mutata est: nam non successio tranquilla fuit, immo vero in magnam perturbationem ob plures imperii petitores se convertit. Postremo, ut paucis dicam, inter Maxentium, Maximiani filium et Constantinum Constantii intestinum bellum exarsit. A.d. V Kal.Nov. anno trecentesimo duodecimo p.Ch.n., id est abhinc MDCC annos, apud pontem Milvium ad Romae portas supremum certamen pugnatum est. Ut Eusebius Caesareus narrat, paulo post meridiem Constantinus suis oculis super solem Christi signum luce figuratum conspexit cum verbis inscriptis “In hoc signo vinces”. Dum multa secum agitat nox supervenit. Serius in somnio ei visus est Iesus Christus adesse ostendens Crucis signum atque praecipere ut id fabricaret et proelians idem in auxilium vocaret. Insequenti die ex auro et gemmis aurifices iussit monogramma Christi (Chrismon) confici quod ex litteris Graecis “Ch” et “Rho”constat. Posito signo in labaro pro aquila vel, ut ab aliis traditum est, super militum scuta, Constantinus victor apud pontem Milvium evasit: Maxentius in Tiberis fluminis aqua periit eiusque exercitus gravissimam cladem accepit. Quo modo Flavius Valerius Constantinus imperator partis occidentalis Romani imperii factus est; suo socio Licinio partis orientalis imperium mandavit. Insequenti anno duo Augusti edictum Mediolanense proposuerunt quo “darent Christianis et omnibus liberam potestatem sequendi religionem quam quisque voluisset” ut a Lactantio relatum est. Nonnulli historici antiqui et hodierni plerumque negaverunt Constantinum se ad fidem Christianam convertisse qui fuisset opportunitati inserviens: quoquo modo res reputata est, satis est nostrae aetatis praeclari rerum scriptoris Santo Mazzarino sententiam proferre: “Contra Diocletiani opinionem, Constantinus non omnibus opibus atque viribus nixus est ad incendium exstinguendum quod vetus imperium consumebat, sed ex contrario novum aedificavit rebus exortis ab historiae cursu progressuque”.Scripsit Lydia Ariminensis.         http://ephemeris.alcuinus.net/historia.php?id=649

EXITIUM URBIS ROMAE.Urbs inclyta et Romani imperii caput, uno hausta est incendio

Les Wisigoths d'Alaric menacèrent Rome à partir de 408, en mettant la ville à sac en 410

Proh nefas, scripsit HIERONYMUS STRIDONENSIS orbis terrarum ruit, in nobis peccata non ruunt. Urbs inclyta et Romani imperii caput, uno hausta est incendio. Nulla est regio, quae non exules Romanos habeat. In cineres ac favillas sacrae quondam Ecclesiae conciderunt, et tamen studemus avaritiae. VIVIMUS QUASI altera die morituri, et aedificamus quasi semper in hoc saeculo victuri. Auro parietes, auro laquearia, auro fulgent capita columnarum, et nudus atque esuriens ante fores nostras Christus in paupere moritur. Legimus Aaron Pontificem isse obviam furentibus flammis, et accenso thuribulo, Dei iram cohibuisse (Num. 16). Stetit inter mortem, et vitam Sacerdos magnus, nec ultra vestigia ejus ignis procedere ausus est. Moysi loquitur Deus: Dimitte me, et delebo populum istum (Exod. 32. 10). Quando dicit: dimitte me, ostendit se teneri posse, ne faciat quod minatus est, Dei enim potentiam servi preces impediebant. Quis putas ille sub coelo est, qui nunc irae Dei possit occurrere? qui obviare flammis? et cum Apostolo dicere, Optabam ego anathema esse pro fratribus meis (Rom. 9. 3)? Pereunt cum pastoribus greges, quia sicut populus, sic Sacerdos. Moyses compassionis loquebatur affectu: Si dimittis populo huic, dimitte: sin autem, dele me de libro tuo (Exod. 32. 31. 32). Vult perire cum pereuntibus, nec propria salute contentus est. Gloria quippe regis, multitudo populi (Prov. 14). His Pacatula nostra nata est temporibus. Inter haec crepundia primam carpit aetatem, ante lacrymas scitura, quam risum; prius fletum sensura, quam gaudium. Necdum introitus, jam exitus. Talem semper putet fuisse mundum. Nesciat praeterita, fugiat praesentia, futura desideret. Haec ut tumultuario sermone dictarem, et post neces amicorum, luctumque perpetuum, infanti senex longo postliminio scriberem, tua, Gaudenti frater, impulit caritas: maluique parum, quam nihil omnino poscenti dare: quia in altero voluntas oppressa luctu, in altero amicitiae dissimulatio est.4. Proh nefas, orbis terrarum ruit, in nobis peccata non ruunt. Urbs inclyta et Romani imperii caput, uno hausta est incendio. Nulla est regio, quae non exules Romanos habeat. In cineres ac favillas sacrae quondam Ecclesiae conciderunt, et tamen studemus avaritiae. VIVIMUS QUASI altera die morituri, et aedificamus quasi semper in hoc saeculo victuri. Auro parietes, auro laquearia, auro fulgent capita columnarum, et nudus atque esuriens ante fores nostras Christus in paupere moritur. Legimus Aaron Pontificem isse obviam furentibus flammis, et accenso thuribulo, Dei iram cohibuisse (Num. 16). Stetit inter mortem, et vitam Sacerdos magnus, nec ultra vestigia ejus ignis procedere ausus est. Moysi loquitur Deus: Dimitte me, et delebo populum istum (Exod. 32. 10). Quando dicit: dimitte me, ostendit se teneri posse, ne faciat quod minatus est, Dei enim potentiam servi preces impediebant. Quis putas ille sub coelo est, qui nunc irae Dei possit occurrere? qui obviare flammis? et cum Apostolo dicere, Optabam ego anathema esse pro fratribus meis (Rom. 9. 3)? Pereunt cum pastoribus greges, quia sicut populus, sic Sacerdos. Moyses compassionis loquebatur affectu: Si dimittis populo huic, dimitte: sin autem, dele me de libro tuo (Exod. 32. 31. 32). Vult perire cum pereuntibus, nec propria salute contentus est. Gloria quippe regis, multitudo populi (Prov. 14). His Pacatula nostra nata est temporibus. Inter haec crepundia primam carpit aetatem, ante lacrymas scitura, quam risum; prius fletum sensura, quam gaudium. Necdum introitus, jam exitus. Talem semper putet fuisse mundum. Nesciat praeterita, fugiat praesentia, futura desideret. Haec ut tumultuario sermone dictarem, et post neces amicorum, luctumque perpetuum, infanti senex longo postliminio scriberem, tua, Gaudenti frater, impulit caritas: maluique parum, quam nihil omnino poscenti dare: quia in altero voluntas oppressa luctu, in altero amicitiae dissimulatio est. SANCTI EUSEBII HIERONYMI STRIDONENSIS PRESBYTERI EPISTOLAE SECUNDUM ORDINEM TEMPORUM QUARTA CLASSIS.  EPISTOLAE AB INEUNTE ANNO 401, USQUE AD 420, SIVE HIERONYMI VITAE FINEM.  EPISTULA CXXVIII.       

 http://www.patrologia-lib.ru/patrolog/hieronym/epist/epist04.htm


02=HISTORY OF BYZANTIUM . HISTOIRE DE BYZANCE. Historia de Bizâncio [11 de maio de 330 a 29 de maio de 1453]

Paul Lamerle, dans sa petite Histoire de Byzance, dans la colléction < Que sais-je?> écrit: L'objet de mon livre est de peindre, dans ses grandes lignes, l'histoire de l'empire dont Byzance fut la capitale. Il me semble donc naturel de prendre pour point de départ le 11 mai 330, jour où Constantin inaugura solennement  sur les rives du Bosphore la nouvelle capitale de l'empire romain: et pour point d'arrivée le 29 mai 1453, qui voit le dernier empereur bysantine tué en combatant sur les murailles et l'enrée des Turques dans la ville de Constantinople.

https://archive.org/details/HistoireDeByzanceParPaulLemerle.DeConstantinAConstantinXiPalaeologus

L'AGONIE DE L'EMPIRE ROMAIN D'OCCIDENT À CAUSE DE LA VÖLKERWANDERUNG OU MIGRATION DES PEUPLES DE 395 A 641

https://www.herodote.net/395_641-synthese-115.php

À la fin du IVe siècle, après la mort de Théodose, en 395, et la séparation définitive de l'empire romain entre une entité orientale et une entité occidentale, la « pax romana » n'est plus qu'un souvenir. Quelque part dans les steppes d'Asie centrale, des conditions climatiques difficiles ont poussé les rudes nomades de ces régions, qui vers l'Extrême-Orient et la Chine, qui vers l'Occident et l'Europe. Menacés par ces nomades (Huns et Turcs), les Germains accentuent leur pression sur les frontières de l'empire romain. Les empereurs concèdent à certaines tribus le droit de s'établir avec armes et bagages dans telle ou telle région dépeuplée. Les villes de l'empire se font peu sûres. Leurs habitants se réfugient dans les campagnes et se mettent sous la protection de riches et puissants propriétaires. Les échanges commerciaux et l'usage de l'écrit se raréfient. C'en est fini de l'Antiquité tardive, deux siècles durant lesquels Rome a brillé de ses derniers feux.

Invasions ou migrations ? Du IIIe siècle au Ve siècles, soit en un peu plus de deux siècles, se sont installés dans l'empire romain d'Occident des Germains isolés, en quête de terres ou d'un emploi dans les légions. Ils se portaient volontaires pour les travaux « dont les nationaux ne voulaient plus » selon une formule actuelle... Puis ont fait irruption de façon moins pacifique des tribus entières. Au total toutefois, ces migrants ont représenté des effectifs assez peu nombreux : environ 5% de la population de l'empire romain. Leurs déplacements ont été qualifié par l'historiographie traditionnelle de « Grandes Invasions ». À l'image de leurs collègues allemands, les historiens français préfèrent aujourd'hui les qualifier de Völkerwanderung ou « Migration des peuples ». Le terme d'invasion est plus approprié aux raids brutaux des Vikings, Hongrois et Sarrasins, aux IXe et Xe siècles.

Le christianisme s'érige en institution. La religion chrétienne devient pour beaucoup d'habitants de l'empire, surtout dans les villes d'Orient, une source de réconfort et d'espérance, en dépit de la concurrence d'autres religions d'origine orientale comme le culte de Mithra. Les empereurs la pratiquent presque sans interruption depuis Constantin 1er le Grand. Sa popularité lui vaut d'être élevée au rang de religion d'État sous le règne de Théodose 1er le Grand. En 381, deux ans après son arrivée au pouvoir, l'empereur fait interdire les opérations divinatoires. En 391 ou 392, enfin, il interdit l'accès aux temples païens et même les cultes domestiques. De persécutée, la nouvelle religion se fait à son tour persécutrice. À Alexandrie, en Égypte, où les chrétiens tiennent le haut du pavé, le décret de Théodose 1er interdisant les cultes païens donne lieu à de violentes manifestations. Le Serapeum, ou temple de Sérapis, est pillé et la statue du dieu brûlée. Les chrétiens tués dans l'assaut sont proclamés martyrs par l'empereur. À l'heure de mourir, en 395, Théodose 1er partage l'empire entre ses deux fils. À l'un l'Orient ; à l'autre l'Occident. Les contemporains ne se doutent pas que cette séparation sera définitive. Elle se retrouve aujourd'hui encore dans la frontière qui sépare la Croatie de la Serbie !

L'EMPIRE ROMAIN D'OCCIDENT FRACTIONNÉ EN ROYAUMES BARBARES BERCEAUX DES NATIONS D'AUJOUR'HUI. THE ROMAN EMPIRE OF OCCIDENT DIVIDED IN KINGDOMS OF BARBARES CRADLES OF TODAY'S NATIONS 

L'Occident débordé.  Envahi par les Germains en armes pendant l'hiver 406-407, l'empire romain d'Occident est fractionné en royaumes barbares. Sur les bords du Rhin dominent les Francs (qui donneront leur nom à la France), dans la plaine d'Alsace, les Alamans (d'où le nom d'Allemagne), sur le Rhône les Burgondes (d'où le nom de Bourgogne), autour de Toulouse les Wisigoths, en Italie les Ostrogoths de Théodoric le Grand, en Espagne les Vandales (d'où le nom d'Andalousie).

Rome est mise à sac par une bande de Barbares (410). Saint Augustin, évêque d'Hippone (aujourd'hui en Algérie), s'émeut de ce drame sans précédent qui affecte la Ville éternelle où les apôtres Pierre et Paul, premiers chefs de l'Église chrétienne, ont été martyrisés. Plus tard, sous le règne de l'impératrice Galla Placidia, les Huns, sous la conduite d'Attila, font une incursion en Gaule et menacent Lutèce, défendue par Sainte Geneviève. À Rome, cité ravagée par les invasions et l'insécurité, le dernier empereur d'Occident est déposé par un chef barbare le 4 septembre 476 et ses insignes renvoyés à l'empereur de Constantinople. L'empire d'Occident ne sera plus jamais relevé... sinon sous une forme très différente, trois siècles plus tard, par Charlemagne !

L'archéologie témoigne d'après l'historien Bryan Ward-Perkins (note) d'« un déclin saisissant du niveau de vie en Occident tout au long des Ve, VIe et VIIe siècles », l'époque des Huns et des Francs. «  Tout le monde en fut frappé : des paysans aux rois ». C'en est à peu près fini des circuits commerciaux d'une extrémité à l'autre du monde romain. Chaque territoire est réduit à ses seules ressources, avec de piètres résultats. « Cela peut sembler de prime abord incroyable : la Grande-Bretagne post-romaine tomba à un niveau très inférieur à celui de l'âge de fer pré-romain ». Quant à l'alphabétisation, elle finit par se cantonner au clergé. La situation se stabilise avec un jeune chef franc du nom de Clovis (de son nom dérive le prénom Louis qui sera celui de 19 rois de France). Clovis soumet toute la Gaule des Pyrénées au Rhin et au-delà. Il obtient le soutien du clergé par sa conversion au catholicisme, ce qui permettra à sa descendance de dominer l'Occident romain pendant trois siècles.

Les guerriers germains, à mesure qu'ils s'installent en Occident, mettent la main sur les meilleures terres et s'emparent bien évidemment du pouvoir. Des sociétés dualistes se mettent en place, dans lesquelles les populations romanisées et les populations barbares sont astreintes à des codes civils et pénaux distincts. Les mariages mixtes sont même souvent prohibés. La situation évolue sous l'impulsion du roi burgonde Gondebaud. Habile politique, celui-ci promulgue en 502 sur ses terres une loi joliment dite Gombette (d'après son nom). Cette loi a pour effet de rapprocher le statut juridique des sujets gallo-romains et des occupants barbares. Les uns et les autres ont plein accès aux fonctions civiles et militaires. Un comte burgonde et un comte gallo-romain administrent paritairement chaque cité. Les mariages mixtes sont désormais autorisés. Enfin les Burgondes ne se voient plus attribuer que la moitié (!) des terres et non plus les deux tiers. La loi Gombette va être imitée peu à peu dans les autres royaumes barbares et, en complément de la conversion des envahisseurs à la religion catholique, permettre l'accouchement d'un monde nouveau, accouchement ô combien long et douloureux !

L'Orient épargné.  L'empire d'Orient est, lui, relativement épargné par les Germains. Il se transforme en un État bureaucratique. À Constantinople, l'empereur prend rang de chef religieux et omnipotent. Il est vénéré de son vivant à la manière des rois orientaux. Le principal empereur d'Orient est Justinien. Son règne doit beaucoup aux qualités personnelles de son épouse Théodora, fille d'un simple dompteur d'ours et prostituée repentie. Justinien fait construire la basilique Sainte-Sophie, dédiée à la Sagesse (Sophia en grec). Il entame aussi la compilation du droit romain. Cet ouvrage juridique du nom de Digeste inspirera les légistes européens et notamment les rédacteurs du Code Civil. Nous lui devons une partie de nos lois. Après la mort de Justinien, l'empire d'Orient est soumis à de vives attaques de la part de nouveaux-venus au nord, Slaves et Bulgares, ainsi que des Perses, ses ennemis traditionnels. Un général victorieux du nom d' Héraclius revêt la pourpre, symbole de l'autorité impériale. Il transforme l'empire romain d'Orient en empire byzantin (du nom de Byzance, nom grec de Constantinople). Héraclius s'épuise à repousser les Bulgares et les Perses. À la veille de sa mort, en 641, il doit s'accommoder de la conquête de la Syrie et de l'Égypte par des intrus que personne n'attendait : des cavaliers arabes guidés par une nouvelle religion, l'islam. Jean-François Zilbermann.

Contrairement à ce qui est couramment admis, la date de 395, qui marque le partage de l'Empire romain en une pars occidentalis et une pars orientalis, n'est pas significative d'une volonté de désolidarisation qui aurait permis à l'Orient de se désengager de la question barbare et conduit l'Occident à sa perte. Quand Théodose Ier le Grand décida d'une corégence en confiant à ses deux fils Honorius et Arcadius les deux parts de l'Empire, il ne fit que reproduire la situation qui avait existé de 364 à 375, avec les co-empereurs Valentinien et Valens. Bien plus, Théodose avait demandé à Stilicon, généralissime des armées d'origine barbare – il était vandale –, d'être le tuteur des deux jeunes co-empereurs, ce qui était un facteur d'unité. En réalité, c'est en 408 que tout se joua, lors de la mort prématurée d'Arcadius. Alors qu'il venait d'installer Théodose II, le successeur d'Arcadius, Stilicon fut assassiné, ce qui mettait un terme au projet d'Empire unitaire qui avait été celui de Théodose Ier. C'est à ce moment que l'Empire d'Orient commença à jouer cavalier seul, ne venant pas, pour la première fois dans l'histoire de l'Empire, au secours de sa partie occidentale quand les Wisigoths d'Alaric menacèrent Rome à partir de 408, en mettant la ville à sac en 410. —  Patrick PÉRIN directeur du musée des Antiquités nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

The history of the Byzantine Empire, still remains, especially in the West, object of stubborn prejudices. It always appears just as the mere continuation and decay of the Roman Empire.  We still judge the Greeks of the Middle Ages as the crusaders did , who could not understand them, and as the popes, who used to excommunicated them. And Byzantine art, similarly, is too often considered as an immobile, hieratic art  impotent to renew itself, which, under the close supervision of the Church, had  its effort limited to repeat indefinitely the creations of some artists of genius. But, in fact, Byzantium was something else. Although she has gladly proclaimed herself the heiress and continuator of Rome, though her emperors, until the last day of the empire, were called kings of the Romans, although they never gave up the rights they claimed on the ancient and glorious capital of the empire, reality shows  that Byzantium became very quickly and was essentially an oriental monarchy, that should not be judged by comparison with the overwhelming memories of Rome. She was a state of the Middle Ages, placed on the extreme frontiers of Europe, on the edge of Asian barbarism. This state has had its many faults and its own vices, so that it would be childish to want to dissimulate them.  Byzantium knew all too frequently palace revolutions and military seditions; her people liked furiously circus games and even more theological disputes. Despite the elegance of her civilization, Byzantium habits were often cruel and barbarous, and at last she produced, with too much abundance, mediocre characters and vile souls. But, as it was, the Byzantine Empire state was great. It is not correct, in fact, to imagine that, during the thousand years that she survived, after the fall of the Roman Empire, Byzantium descended, with an uninterrupted march, towards ruin. On the contrary, to crises where she failed to succumb, many times have succeeded periods of incomparable splendor, unforeseen rebirths where the empire, that old woman, reappears like a girl, adorned with gold and pretious stones. In the sixth century, with Justinian, the monarchy, one last time, reconstruct itself as in the good times of Rome, and the Mediterranean becomes again a Roman lake. In the seventh century, the Isaurian emperors broke the momentum of Islam, the very time when Charles Martel saved Christendom at Poitiers. In the tenth century, the rulers of the Macedonian house make Byzantium the great power of the East, bringing to Syria their victorious arms, crushing the Russians on the Danube, drowning in blood the kingdom created by the tsars of Bulgarian. In the twelfth century, with the Comnenus, the Greek empire still makes good figure in the world, and Constantinople is one of the main centers of the European policy. So, for a thousand years, Byzantium has lived, and not just by the effect of some happy luck: she lived gloriously. She had, to drive forth her business, great emperors, illustrious statesmen, clever diplomats, victorious generals; and through them, she accomplished a great work in the world. She was, before the Crusades, the champion of Christendom in East against the infidels and, by its military value, on several occasions she has saved Europe. She was, in the face of barbarism, the center of an admirable civilization, the most refined, the most elegant. She was the educator of the East Slavic and Asian, whose peoples owe to her their religion, their literary language, their art, their government. The  all-powerful influence of Byzantium spread to the West, that received from her inimitable intellectual and artistic benefits. It is from there that proceed all peoples who today inhabit the East of Europe, and modern Greece. The western civilization owes much more to Christian Byzantium than to Athens of Pericles and Phidias. It is by all this, by what she did in the past as much as by what she has prepared for the future, that Byzantium deserves attention and interest. Charles Diehl Histoire of Byzantium (1910)

DU CANGE, CHARLES DU FRESNE, Sieur (1610-1688). Founder of Byzantine Studies

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Du Cange, Charles du FRESNE

DU CANGE, CHARLES DU FRESNE, Sieur (1610-1688), one of the lay members of the great 17th century group of French critics and scholars who laid the foundations of modern historical criticism, was born at Amiens on the 18th of December 1610. At an early age his father sent him to the Jesuits’ college at Amiens, where he greatly distinguished himself. Having completed the usual course at this seminary, he applied himself to the study of law at Orleans, and afterwards went to Paris, where in 1631 he was received as an advocate before the parliament. Meeting with very slight success in his profession, he returned to his native city, and in July 1638 married Catherine Dubois, daughter of a royal official, the treasurer in Amiens; and in 1647 he purchased the office of treasurer from his father-in-law, but its duties did not interfere with the literary and historical work to which he had devoted himself since returning to Amiens. Forced to leave his native city in 1668 in consequence of a plague, he settled in Paris, where he resided until his death on the 23rd of October 1688. In the archives of Paris Du Cange was able to consult charters, diplomas, manuscripts and a multitude of printed documents, which were not to be met with elsewhere. His industry was exemplary and unremitting, and the number of his literary works would be incredible, if the originals, all in his own handwriting, were not still extant. He was distinguished above nearly all the writers of his time by his linguistic acquirements, his accurate and varied knowledge, and his critical sagacity. Of his numerous works the most important are the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis (Paris, 1678), and the Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons, 1688), which are indispensable aids to the student of the history and literature of the middle ages. To the three original volumes of the Latin Glossarium, three supplementary volumes were added by the Benedictines of St Maur (Paris, 1733-1736), and a further addition of four volumes (Paris, 1766), by a Benedictine, Pierre Carpentier (1697-1767). There were other editions, and an abridgment with some corrections was brought out by J. C. Adelung (Halle, 1772-1784). The edition in seven volumes edited by G. A. L. Henschel (Paris, 1840-1850) includes these supplements and also further additions by the editor, and this has been improved and published in ten volumes by Léopold Favre (Niort, 1883-1887). An edition of the Greek Glossarium was published at Breslau in 1889.

Du Cange took considerable interest in the history of the later empire, and wrote Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrato (Paris, 1680), and an introduction to his edition and translation into modern French of Geoffrey de Villehardouin’s Histoire de l’empire de Constantinople sous les empereurs français (Paris, 1657). He also brought out editions of the Byzantine historians, John Cinnamus and John Zonaras, as Joannis Cinnami historiarum de rebus gestis a Joanne et Manuele Comnenis(Paris, 1670) and Joannis Zonarae Annales ab exordio mundi ad mortem Alexii Comneni (Paris, 1686). He edited Jean de Joinville’s Histoire de St Louis, roi de France(Paris, 1668), and his other works which may be mentioned are Traité historique du chef de St Jean Baptiste (Paris, 1666); Lettre du Sieur N., conseiller du roi (Paris, 1682); Cyrilli, Philoxeni, aliorumque veterum glossaria, and Mémoire sur le projet d’un nouveau recueil des historiens de France, avec le plan général de ce recueil, which has been inserted by Jacques Lelong in his Bibliothèque historique de la France (Paris, 1768-1778). His last work, Chronicon Paschale a mundo condito ad Heraclii imperatoris annum vigesimum (Paris, 1689), was passing through the press when Du Cange died, and consequently it was edited by Étienne Baluze, and published with an éloge of the author prefixed.

BYZANTINE LITERATURE. LITTERATURA BYZANTINA

Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrato (Paris, 1680)





PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale...), THE ORIGINAL IN GREEK WITH A LATIN TRANSLATION IS AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL VOLUMES AT DOCUMENTA CATHOLICA OMNIA.

SOURCE:Online Encyclopedia.Originally appearing in Volume V20, Page 883 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.

PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale, also Chronicum Alexandrinum or Constantinopolitanum, or Fasti Siculi), so called from being based upon the Easter canon, an outline of chronology' from Adam down to A.D. 629, accompanied by numerous historical and theological notes. The work, which is imperfect at the beginning and end (breaking off in the year 627), is preceded by an introduction on the Christian methods of reckoning time and the Easter cycle. It was written during the reign of Heraclius (610-641), and is generally attributed to an unknown Byzantine cleric and friend of the patriarch Sergius, who is specially alluded to as responsible for the introduction of certain ritual innovations. The so-called Byzantine or Roman era (which continued in use in the Greek Church until its liberation from Turkish rule) was adopted in the Chronicum for the first time as the foundation of chronology, in accordance with which the date of the creation is given as the 21st of March, 5507. The author is merely a compiler from earlier works, except in the history of the last thirty years, which has the value of a contemporary record. The chief authorities used were: Julius Sextus Africanus (3rd century); the consular Fasti; the Chronicle and Church History of Eusebius; John Malalas; the Arta martyrum; the treatise of Epiphanius, bishop of Constantia (the old Salamis) in Cyprus (fl. 4th century), on Weights and Measures. Editions: L. Dindorf (1832) in Corpus scriptorum hist. byzantinae, with Du Cange's preface and commentary; J. P. Migne, Patrologia graeca, xcii.; see also C. Wachsmuth, Einleitung in das Studium der alien Geschichte (1895) ; H. Gelzer, Sextus Julius Africanus and die byzantinische Chronographie, ii. r (1885); J. van der Hagen, Observationes in Heraclii imperatoris methodum paschalem (1736, but still considered indispensable) ; E. Schwarz in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, iii., pt. 2 (1899); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteralur (1897). PAS-DE-CALAIS, a maritime department of northern France, formed in 1790 of nearly the whole of Artois and the northern maritime portion of Picardy including Boulonnais, Calaisis, Ardresis, and the districts of Langle and Bredenarde, and bounded N. by the Straits of Dover (" Pas de Calais " ), E. by the department of Nord, S. by that of Somme, and W. by the English Channel. Pop. (1906), 1,012,466; Area 2606 sq. m. Except in the neighbourhood of Boulogne-sur-Mer with its cotes de fer or " iron coasts," the seaboard of the department, which measures 65 m., consists of dunes. From the mouth of the Aa (the limit towards Nord) it trends west-south-west to Gris Nez, the point of France nearest to England; in this section lie the port of Calais, Cape Blanc Nez, rising 44o ft. above the sandy shores, and the port of Wissant (Wishant). The seaside resorts include Boulogne, Berck-sur-Mer, Paris-Plage, Wimereux, &c. Beyond Griz Nez the direction is due south; in this section are the small port of Ambleteuse, Boulogne at the mouth of the Liane, and the two bays formed by the estuaries of the Canche and the Authie (the limit towards Somme). The highest point in the department (700 ft.) is in the west, between Boulogne and St Omer. From the uplands in which it is situated the Lys and Scarpe flow east to the Scheldt, the Aa north to the German Ocean, and the Slack, Wimereux and Liane to the Channel. Farther south are the valleys of the Canche and the Authie, running E.S.E. and W.N.W., and thus parallel with the Somme. Vast plains, open and monotonous, but extremely fertile and well cultivated, occupy most of the department. To the north of the hills running between St Omer and Boulogne, to the south of Gravelines and the south-east of Calais, lies the district of the Wattergands, fens now drained by means of canals and dikes, and turned into highly productive land. The climate is free from extremes of heat and cold, but damp and changeable. At Arras the mean annual temperature is 470; on the coast it is higher. The rainfall varies from 24 to 32 in., though at Cape Gris Nez the latter figure is much exceeded. Cereals are largely grown and give good yields to the acre; the other principal crops are potatoes, sugar-beet, forage, oil-plants and tobacco. Market gardening flourishes in the Wattergands. The rearing of livestock and poultry is actively carried on, and the horses of the Boulonnais are specially esteemed. The department is the chief in France for the production of coal, its principal coal-basin, which is a continuation of that of Valenciennes, centring round Bethune. The manufacture of beetroot-sugar, oil and alcohol distilling, iron-working, dyeing, brewing, paper-making, and various branches of the textile manufacture, are foremost among the industries of the department. Boulogne, Calais and Etaples fit out a considerable number of vessels for the cod, herring and • mackerel fisheries. Calais and Boulogne are important ports of passenger-transit for England; and Boulogne also carries on a large export trade in the products of the department. The canal system comprises part of the Aa, the Lys, the Scarpe, the Detlle (a tributary of the Lys passing by Lille), the Lawe (a tributary of the Lys passing by Bethune), and the Sensee (an affluent of the Scheldt), as well as the canals of Aire to Bauvin, Neuffosse, Calais, Calais to Ardres, &c., and in this way a line of communication is formed from the Scheldt to the sea by Bethune, St Omer and Calais, with branches to Gravelines and Dunkirk. The department is served by the Northern railway. Pas-de-Calais forms the diocese of Arras (archbishopric of Cambrai), belongs to the district of the I. army corps, the educational division (academie) of Lille and the circumscription of the appeal court of Douai. There are six arrondissements (Arras, Bethune, Boulogne, Montreuil-sur-Mer, St Omer and St Pol-sur-Ternoise). The more noteworthy places are Arras, the capital, Boulogne, Calais, St Omer, Bethune, Lens, Montreuil-sur-Mer, Bruay, Berck, Etaples and Aire-sur-la-Lys, which are noticed separately. Besides some of the towns mentioned, Lievin (22,070), Henin-Lietard (13,384), in the neighbourhood of Lens, are large centres of population. Other places of some importance are: Lillers (pop. 5341), which carries on boot-making and has a fine Romanesque church of the 12th century; Hesdin, which owes its regular plan to Charles V., by whom it was built; and St Poi, which has the remains of medieval fortifications and castles and gave its name to the famous counts of St Pol.
End of Article: PASCHAL CHRONICLE (Chronicum Paschale, also Chronicum Alexandrinum or Constantinopolitanum, or Fasti Siculi)

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