1. Alfred Marshall by Peter Groenewegen, 2013.  

The Principles of Economics. Eighth Edition. Alfred Marshall. Introduction, Peter Groenewegen

"In 1890, during his sixth year as professor of economics at the University of Cambridge, Alfred Marshall published the first edition of what became his  major  book  on  the  subject,  Principles of  Economics.  Thirty  years later, in 1920, the book’s eighth edition appeared, a volume frequently reprinted (in 1922, 1925, 1930, 1936, 1938, reset and reprinted in 1949, 1952, 1956, 1959, ninth variorum edition in 1961, and so on). It greatly outsold the copies of the book sold during its author’s lifetime, which ended  in  1924  (26,297  copies  had  by  then  been  sold  in  England  and America;  39,890  were  sold  from  1924–25  to  1941–42).  Moreover,  the book was continuously in print throughout the twentieth century, and at  the  time  of  writing was  available  in  a  variety  of  different  reprints. The  eighth  edition  of  Marshall’s Principles  therefore  taught  thousands and thousands students of economics not only the foundations of the subject but also many of its more advanced parts. This makes Marshall’s Principles a true classic in the literature of economics, even in the special sense  in  which  
Marshall  himself  defined  classical  writers  in  a  letter  to James  Bonar  on  27  November 1898,  the  year  its  fourth  edition  was published. ‘A classical author…is one who by the form or the matter of his words or deeds has stated or indicated architectonic ideas in thought or sentiment,  which  are  in  some  degree  his  own,  and  which,  once created,  can  never  die 
but  are  an  existing  yeast  ceaselessly  working  in the  Cosmos’.  Marshall’s  Principles contain  many  of  these  architectonic ideas, which have become such important parts of the language of economists that their origin in Marshall’s book is often forgotten." 

The Principles of Economics. Eighth Edition. Alfred Marshall


§ 1.  POLITICAL ECONOMY or ECONOMICS is a study of mankind in the ordinary business of life;  it examines that part of individual and social  action  which  is most  closely  connected  with  the  attainment and with the use of the  material requisites of wellbeing. Thus it  is on the  one side a  study of wealth;  and on the  other,  Economics and  more important  side, a  part  of  the  study  of  man.    For  man's  f character has been moulded by his every-day work, and the material and a part resources   which   he  thereby   procures,   more than   by  any   other of influence  unless it  be that of  his religious ideals;  and the two great man. forming agencies of the  world's history have  been the  religious and the  economic.    Here  and  there  the  ardour  of  the  military  or  the artistic spirit  has,been for a  while  predominant :   but  religious and economic  influences  have  nowhere  been displaced  from  the  front rank  even  for  a  time;   and  they  have  nearly  always  been  more important  than all others put  together.  Religious  motives are more intense than economic, but their direct action seldom extends over so large  a  part  of  life.  For  the  business  by  which  a  person  earns  his Man'e livelihood  
generally :fills his thoughts during by far the  greater part of  those  hours  in  which  his  mind  is at  its  best;   during  them  his his dai!y character is being formed by the way in which he uses his faculties in work.[...]
Existe tradução em português.

2. Ibn Khaldûn: A Fourteenth-Century Economist.

"Ibn Khaldun, Abu Zayd, was born in Tunis on May 27, 1332. His given name was Abd ar Rahman, and his ethnic denomination was al-Hadrami. His family was connected with the Hafsid dynasty, then ruling North Africa, and, because of that connection, had settled in Tunisia, after having emigrated from Hadramawt to Spain, and remained there one century. In Tunis, although members of his family held high ranks in the civil services, they remained attached to the Spanish culture and considered themselves as being part of a foreign elite. Consequently, as a member of this aristocratic family, Ibn Khaldu'n was destined to occupy the highest ranks in the administration of the state and to take part in most of the political quarrels of North Africa. But because of his Spanish background, he never became a full member of his society and remained an exterior observer of his world. At this time, the oriental world was ruled by an aristocratic international technocracy which cultivated the arts and sciences. When people were, by birth or by education, members of that elite, they were offered high ranks and important technical positions by the kings and the sultans, who rented their services, they traveled from one city to the other, following a conqueror or escaping condemnation. Ibn Khaldun was, by birth and by education, part of this elite. He studied under the direction of famous scholars. In 1352, only twenty years old, he became master of the seal and started a political career which would last until 1375. His fortunes were diverse, but whether in a jail or in a palace, rich or poor, a fugitive or a minister, he always took part in the political events of his time, always remained in touch with other scholars, Muslims as well as Christians or Jews, and above all, he never stopped studying. From 1375 to 1378, he retired to Gal'at Ibn Salamah, a castle in the province of Oran, and started to write his history of the world, of which the Muqaddimah constitutes volume 1. In 1378, because he wanted to consult books in large libraries, he obtained the permission of the Hafsid ruler to go back to Tunis. There, until 1382, when he left for Alexandria, he was professor of jurisprudence. He spent the rest of his life in Cairo, where he died on March 17, 1406. The major work of Ibn Khaldun is his world history, but he wrote many other books, an autobiography, and a treatise on logic. His world history (Kitab al Ibar) is a general history of the Arabs, but also of the Jews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Persians, the Goths, and all the people known at that time. Like most of the authors of the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldun mixes philosophical, sociological, ethical, and economical considerations in his writings. From time to time, a poem enlightens the text. However, Ibn Khaldun is remarkably well organized and always follows an extremely logical pattern. In his short introduction (Muqaddimah) and the first of his seven books, Ibn Khaldun, after having praised history, tries to demonstrate that historical mistakes occur when the historian neglects the environment. Ibn Khaldun tries to find the influence that the physical, nonphysical, social, institutional, and economical environment has on history. Consequently, the Muqaddimah is mainly a book of history. However, Ibn Khaldun elaborates a theory of production, a theory of value, a theory of distribution, and a theory of cycles, which combine into a coherent general economic theory which constitutes the framework for his history.[...]

Darcy Carvalho,
21 de mar de 2019 05:37