ECONOMIA INTERNACIONAL

ECONOMIA INTERNACIONAL. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. SP. BRASIL. 28/10/2015
CONTENTS: 01 02 03 04
 

01_ Bibliografia Básica.

Um livro adequado para obter uma idéia teórica geral da área econômica denominada Economia internacional é o livro International Economics Theory and Practice, 2003, 783 páginas, por Paul R. Krugman  e Maurice Obstfeld , professores em Princeton e Berkeley , respectivamente. Trata-se da  edição internacional, escaneada na Alemanha , e disponível para download em


Em português há muitas traduções  na área da Economia Internacional, que podem ser encontradas nos mercados de livros on-line.

Na área internacional, um dos fatos mais importantes ainda é a extrema diversidade dos níveis de desenvolvimento econômico dos países  nos cinco continentes, e o salto econômico da Ásia nos últimos 65 anos.  Há 50 anos, uma linha de economistas a que pertencia  Gunnar Myrdal apregoava que a teoria econômica ensinada nas universidades americanas e européias não era aplicável aos países sub-desenvolvidos da época. Cf. o arquivo  South Asia Rowtree, e o livro de Myrdal citado abaixo.

Teoria Econômica das Regiões Subdesenvolvidas. Gunnar Myrdal

Gunnar Myrdal (1898 - 1987), Prêmio Nobel em 1974. Economista sueco. Economic Theory and Under-Developed Regions. Conteúdo: Primeira parte. O mecanismo das desigualdades economicas nacionais e internacionais; Segunda parte. As desigualdades econômicas , a consciência pública e a teoria econõmica. Livro importantí­ssimo no contexto do pensamento econômico e do desenvolvimentismo brasileiro, por pregar a inaplicabilidade da teoria economica neo-clássica aos países subdesenvolvidos. Dividiu os economistas brasileiros em dois campos adversos. A obra foi divulgada pelo Instituto Superior de Estudos Brasileiros em 1960.

https://archive.org/details/MyrdalGunnar18981987.TeoriaEconomicaERegioesSubdesenvolvidas

Na América, os técnicos  da CEPAL, Comissão Econômica para a América Latina, entidade  ligada às Nações Unidas,  também apresentaram análises e diagnósticos alternativos do sub-desenvolvimento latino- americano.

01 THE RATIONALE OF THE AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION NEW TRADE POLICIES

International trade is necessary but its effects, the good and the bad ones, are differently felt by the world trading countries. Since the US abandoned her isolationist policies, in the beginning of the XX century, and became, by well-known historical accidents, the chief economy of the world, the American people has payed with money and blood the construction of the so called Free World. After the Second Worl War, the United States sponsored the reconstruction of Europe and Japan, and spent boundless resources for spreading economic development in all parts of the world, through international institutions ad hoc created.  The so called world security still rests on the shoulders of the American tax payers. The irrational geopolitical and economic state of affairs, created in function of the existence of the Soviet Union, now long extinct, is having an artificial prolonged life, to support the maintenance of absolete international institutions and the continuance and preservation of no longer necessary American commitments abroad. Through her liberal ideology, vigorous during the Soviet era, the US has created economic competitors in Europe, Asia and in the Americas . Instead of sponsoring Russia immediate entrance into a new Western alliance, the US following the irrationality of fratricidal Europe, hesitate to embrace this Western country, favouring in this way the accelleration of the Asian inevitable economic hegemony. With this in mind the rationale of President Trump's Administration become clear and defensible, its aim is just to stop the deindustrialization of America, and insure full employement for Americans. The Economic tool box provides several instruments for attaining these basic aims. One of them is the tariff on imported goods. What is a tariff? An American  economist, Arthur J. Gosnell Professor of Economics, Rochester Institute of Technology will explain.

JUSTIFICATIVA DAS NOVAS POLÍTICAS COMERCIAIS DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO AMERICANA 

O comércio internacional é necessário, mas seus efeitos, os bons e os maus, são sentidos diferentemente pelos países comerciais do mundo. Desde que os EUA abandonaram suas políticas de isolamento, no início do século XX, e se tornaram, por conhecidos acidentes históricos, a principal economia do mundo, o povo americano pagou com dinheiro e sangue a construção do chamado Mundo Livre. . Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, os Estados Unidos patrocinaram a reconstrução da Europa e do Japão e gastaram recursos ilimitados para disseminar o desenvolvimento econômico em todas as partes do mundo, por meio de instituições internacionais criadas ad hoc. A chamada segurança mundial ainda depende dos ombros dos contribuintes americanos. O estado de coisas geopolítico e econômico irracional, criado em função da existência da União Soviética, há muito extinta, está tendo uma vida artificial prolongada, para sustentar a manutenção de instituições internacionais obsoletas, a manutenção e a preservação de compromissos americanos desnecessários no exterior. Através de sua ideologia liberal, vigorosa durante a Era Soviética, os EUA criaram competidores econômicos na Europa, Ásia e nas Américas. Em vez de patrocinar a entrada imediata da Rússia numa nova aliança ocidental, os Estados Unidos, seguindo a irracionalidade da Europa fratricida, hesitam em abraçar esse país ocidental, favorecendo assim a aceleração da inevitável hegemonia econômica asiática. Com isso em mente, a justificativa da administração do Presidente Trump se torna clara e defensável, seu objetivo é apenas o de impedir a desindustrialização da América e assegurar o pleno emprego dos americanos. A caixa de ferramentas econômicas fornece vários instrumentos para atingir esses objetivos básicos. Uma delas é a tarifa sobre produtos importados. O que é uma tarifa? Um economista americano, Arthur J. Gosnell Professor de Economia, Rochester Institute of Technology explicará.

What is a tariff? An American  economist explains. March 15, 2018 6.42am EDT 

http://theconversation.com/what-is-a-tariff-an-economist-explains-93392

The world is lurching ever closer to a full-blown trade war as the U.S., Europe, Canada, China and Mexico talk tariffs and retaliation. President Donald Trump made the initial salvo back in March, when he placed duties on steel and aluminum. These actions have prompted significant concern and discussion about the wisdom of this action. As an economist who shares some of those concerns, I believe it’s important to first understand what a tariff actually is and does before we can determine whether Trump’s new trade barriers are good or bad.

Two kinds of tariffs

A tariff, simply put, is a tax levied on an imported good. There are two types. A “unit” or specific tariff is a tax levied as a fixed charge for each unit of a good that is imported – for instance $300 per ton of imported steel. An “ad valorem” tariff is levied as a proportion of the value of imported goods. An example is a 20 percent tariff on imported automobiles. Both tariffs act in similar ways.

Tariffs are one of the oldest trade policy instruments, with their use dating back to at least the 18th century. Historically, the main objective of a tariff was to raise revenue. In fact, before ratifying the 16th Amendment in 1913 and formally creating the income tax, the U.S. government raised most of its revenue from tariffs. Even so, the main purpose of a tariff these days tends to be about protecting particular domestic industries from foreign competition, alongside raising revenue. Men work with cocoa beans in Enchi, Ghana, the world’s top exporter of the commodity. Reuters/Thierry Gouegnon

Examining a tariff’s impact

The impact of a tariff depends on whether the levying country is large or small – not in terms of size but the potency of its trade and ability to influence world prices. Ghana, for example, roughly the size of Minnesota with a population similar to Texas, is the world’s top exporter of cocoa. The Netherlands, meanwhile, slightly smaller than New Jersey, is the commodity’s biggest importer. As such, both countries’ trade policies can have a significant impact on the price of cocoa on global markets. So if the Netherlands were to levy a tariff on imports of Ghanaian cocoa to protect a nascent – and currently imaginary – industry of small Dutch cocoa bean growers, there would generally be three effects.

First, the price of the import good, cocoa, would rise, making it more costly for domestic consumers of the product. This would be bad news for Dutch chocolatiers – the Netherlands is the world’s biggest exporter of cocoa butter – and citizens – who eat a lot of chocolate. But it’d be good news for companies in the domestic import-competing industry – the experimental Dutch farmers growing cocoa plants in a greenhouse – because the good they produce is now cheaper than the import, and so the cocoa butter makers would buy more of the local variety.

Second, because the tariff-levying country is large, it drives down the export price of the good in question. So the pre-tariff price at which Ghana can export cocoa to the Netherlands declines, Ghanaian growers and producers make less money, and the country’s economy is hurt. Economists call this a “terms of trade gain” for the country imposing the tariff. Such a tariff ensures that the price of cocoa in the Netherlands does not rise by the entire amount of the tariff. Finally, the overall volume of trade in the product between the countries involved decreases because the demand for and supply of the good falls. If the tariff-levying country is small, however, there are only two effects: The good’s price will go up – domestic consumers will pay more, while producers will sell more – and the country’s trade of the product will decline. The action will have no impact on global prices.

Benefits and costs

For a “large” country, the benefits of a tariff are mixed. Consumers, whether businesses like Dutch cocoa butter makers or individuals who enjoy a tasty bar of dark chocolate, face higher prices and hence are the losers. The industry being protected, however, benefits by becoming more competitive and selling more of its wares. In addition, the government will gain a new source of revenue. The net effect boils down to whether any gains in the terms of trade are greater than the resulting “efficiency loss” – that is, how much the tariff artificially distorts consumption and production decisions in negative ways. If the magnitude of the terms of trade gain is larger than that of the efficiency loss, then the country benefits from the tariff. If not, then it loses. For a small country with no market impact, the terms of trade gain is zero, hence a tariff unambiguously makes it worse off.

Political economy of tariffs

The fact that a large country can, in some cases, be better off with a tariff has led some to suggest that such nations ought to, when necessary, levy “optimal tariffs” against their trade partners. An optimal tariff maximizes the difference between the terms of trade gain and the efficiency loss and hence is essentially a “beggar-thy-neighbor” trade policy. In other words, the problem with such strategic tariffs is that in addition to frequently being illegal, they are not implemented in a vacuum. Aggrieved trade partners are likely to respond with appropriate tariffs or other trade policy instruments of their own. These kind of sequential “tit-for-tat” actions can easily degenerate into a trade war. This is in part why trade economists are typically against restricted trade and for free trade.


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