GENERAL GEOPOLITICS AND GEOPOLITICS OF NATIONS. GEOPOLÍTICA GERAL E DOS PAÍSES.Cfr. Subpáginas.

GEOPOLÍTICA  GERAL.  GENERAL GEOPOLITICS. ALLGEMEINE GEOPOLITIK .PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL.   ACESSE  SUBPÁGINAS CLICANDO O DELTA  Δ

“Geopolitics is concerned with the interface of geography and international relations and the subject has had a chequered existence since the term was first coined by Rudolf Kjellen nearly a century ago. In Geopolitics: Past, Present and Future (1998 - 199 páginas),  Geoffrey Parker Pinter traces the history of Geopolitics from its origins in the late nineteenth century to its rediscovery in the 1970s by a new generation of geographers and political scientists who became aware of the importance of the geopolitical perspective to a fuller understanding of contemporary issues.Such issues include the persistence of ethnic, national and religious conflicts, environmental problems, inequalities in the apportionment of the world's physical and human resources and the impact of globalization. Parker highlights the inadequacy of existing geopolitical structures and the need to devise new ones more relevant to the needs of the contemporary world, paying particular attention to ideas of world order (ranging from the classical 'balance of power' to general systems theory, and the relevance of these to the better understanding of the contemporary world), and contemporary western approaches to the subject”. Source Google

Contents: 01, 02, 03,

01 

GEOPOLITICS, IN PRINCIPLE AND IN PRACTICE, 212 PAGES

BY RUSSEL H. FIFIELD AND G. ETZEL PEARCY, BOSTON, LONDON, 1944

https://archive.org/details/GeopoliticsInPrincipleAndInPractice212PagesByRusselH.FifieldAnd

02

Geopolitics (Geopolitik in German) was developed by Rudolf Kjéllen, a Swedish political scientist in 1905. As a subbranch of political geography, geopolitics focused on the spatial development and needs of the State. It combined Friedrich Ratzel's theory on the organic nature of the State along with Sir Halford J. Mackinder's Heartland Theory   to justify expansionistic practices of countries. 

 A GEOPOLITICA, na intersecção da Geografia com as Ciências Politicas,  é tão antiga como os próprios estudos geográficos,e pode ser considerada quer como importante ramo da Política Aplicada,  quer como parte integrante e inseparável da Geografia. Quanto á sua antiguidade  arriscaria afirmar que  o estrategista Péricles e o historiador militar grego, Tucídides, foram  geopolíticos acabados,quatro séculos antes da nossa era. A geopolítica começou a ser sistematizada com o nome de Politische Geographie, antes denominada Anthropogeographie, por Ratzel e foi rebatizada por Rudolf Kjellén em 1905.

Dada a má reputação que os estudos geopolíticos adquiriram, injustificadamente, a partir da segunda guerra mundial, a melhor forma de retomar o estudo da  Geopolítica é  exumando as obras dos geopolíticos nacionais e estrangeiros, enquadrando  os seus conteúdos nos momento e nos contextos históricos dos paises em que escreveram. Se o mau uso dos conhecimentos proporcionados por uma ciência, ou por simples ramo do saber, justificasse o seu banimento dos currículos escolares, e a sua inclusão irrevogável num librorum prohibitorum index, então toda a Química, toda a Física, toda a Matemática, toda a Biologia, deveriam também ser abandonadas, porque não há a menor possibilidade de encontrarmos entre as armas letais, hoje em amplo uso, até por honestos governos, alguma  que não seja o resultado da correta aplicação das leis e princípios daquelas respeitáveis  ciências, da Física, da Química , da Matemática e da Biologia. 

Uma bliografia preliminar de estudos geopolíticos de Ratzel E Kjellén A Backheuser pode ser downloadada de Archive.org. Darcy Carvalho Creator

03    CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS. MERJE  KUUS. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Critical geopolitics investigates the geographical assumptions and designations that enter into the making of world politics (Agnew 2003:2). It seeks to illuminate and explain the practices by which political actors spatialize international politics and represent it as a “world” characterized by particular types of places (Ó Tuathail and Agnew 1992:190). This strand of analysis approaches geopolitics not as a neutral consideration of pregiven “geographical” facts, but as a deeply ideological and politicized form of analysis. Eschewing the traditional question of how geography does or can influence politics, it investigates how geographical claims and assumptions function in political debates and political practice. In so doing, it seeks to disrupt mainstream geopolitical discourses: not to study the geography of politics within pregiven, commonsense places, but to foreground “the politics of the geographical specification of politics” (Dalby 1991:274). Critical geopolitics is not a neatly delimited field, but the diverse works characterized as such all focus on the processes through which political practice is bound up with territorial definition. [...] Cf. pdf

Merje Kuus is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of British Columbia. Her work focuses on geopolitics and contemporary Europe. Dr. Kuus is the author of Geopolitics Reframed: Security and Identity in Europe’s Eastern Enlargement (2007) as well as numerous articles on security, identity, and intellectuals of statecraft. She is currently working on a long-term project on the transformations of political space at the external borders of the EU.