14 Geopolitics of Sweden. Geopolítica da Suécia

GEOPOLITICS OF  SWEDEN. GEOPOLÍTICA DA SUÉCIA . PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL [08/02/2014]

Contents: 01, 02, 03,

01    RUDOLF KJELLÉN      DER STAAT ALS LEBENSFORM (1917)
O Estado Como Forma de Vida por RUDOLF KJELLÉN. Der Staat als Lebensform Vierte Auflage.Dem Text dieser Ausgabe liegt erstmalig die schwedishe Fassung , Staten Som Lifsform, Stockholm, 1916 zu Grunde.Auf die Grundlagen Kjellens baut auf die Zeitshrift für Geopolitik herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Karl Haushofer, Münschen und Prof. Dr. E. Obst, Hannover. O Estado Como Forma de Vida, obra maior de Kjellén, reune seus esforços em diversos ramos da política teórica e prática.Título do capitulo II: Der Staat als Reich [ Geopolitik]. Creative Commons license: CC0 1.0 Universal




02   "Swedish Geopolitics from Rudolf Kjellén to a Swedish ‘Dual State’ ". Author:  Ola Tunander 
Research Professor  International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Norway
Introduction:   
Rudolf Kjellén wrote in the early 20 th century about the unified nation-state as a state of land and people, but he also wrote that the empires of the 20 th century would force the Central European states to unify into a league of states or state-bloc under the protection of a powerful Germany.

Kjellén’s understanding was very similar to Carl Schmitt’s Central European Grossraum and very similar to what later became NATO, but now with the USA not Germany as the central protecting power. This duality of nation-state and Grossraum is, in the single state, transformed into what Hans Morgenthau called a ‘dual state’ combining a regular state hierarchy of the nation-state and a security hierarchy linked to a the central power.

After the Second World War, Sweden was, despite its ‘neutrality policy’, placed under the US nuclear umbrella, and the duality of a ‘neutral’ Swedish government and a US-linked Swedish security elite was fused into Morgenthau’s ‘dual state’ with its ‘democratic hierarchy’ versus ‘security hierarchy’ with the latter intervening in case of emergency. However, this duality of democratic nation-state and a US/NATO Grossraum or in Kjellén’s words ‘state-bloc’ raises the issue of sovereignty.

The strength and unpredictability of the Swedish Social-Democratic government was worrisome to central US actors. In a crisis situation - and, even worse, in a pre-war situation - the ‘dual state’, or what we might call a ‘double sovereignty’ of nation state and state-bloc, might have been unacceptable. In the final analysis, the Schmittian sovereign is undivided.

http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/3/5/8/pages73580/p73580-1.php


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