01 Geopolitics. Geopolítica.Geopolitik. GÉOPOLITIQUE

GEOPOLÍTICA . GEOPOLITICS. GÉOPOLITIQUE. GEOPOLITIK. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. FEA-USP. SÃO PAULO. BRAZIL. 2019

PRESENTATION AND CRITIQUE OF GEOPOLITICS. INTRODUCTORY TEXTS

A Geopolítica ocupa-se do Estado considerado organismo vivo ou forma de vida, Lebensform, políticamente atuante no âmbito internacional, mas condicionado por seu teatro geográfico. O Estado, geopolítica e fisicamente, individualiza-se por sua localização, extensão e clima, pela dotação de recursos naturais no seu território, por sua dimensão demográfica, seus idiomas, cultura e desenvolvimentos econômico-tecnológico e nível de civilização. Nesta página poderão ser obtidos por download alguns textos introdutórios de Geopolítica clássica, que permitirão ao leitor re-construir seu próprio entendimento desta complexa área da Geografia Política. Depois da Segunda Guerra Mundial, os estudos geográficos e com eles a Geopolítica foram deliberadamente negligenciados, a ponto de a Geografia acabar excluída como disciplina independente das escolas secundárias, passando a ser superficialmente tratada como mero tópico na área dos estudos sociais. A indiferença geral com as crescentes ameaças à integridade territorial do Brasil demonstram a falta de uma consciência geopolítica ativa no público em geral e até em altas autoridade brasileiras. Os países do mundo enquadram-se em dois grupos de civilizações, a civilização européia ou ocidental e o conjunto complexo de civilizações orientais. A cristianização e a europeização do mundo, buscadas pelo imperialismo econômico ocidental nos últimos cinco séculos falharam. Geopoliticamente os resultados desse fracasso são a contração econômica e demográfica da Europa e a irrelevância do Cristianismo. Em futuro não remoto as civilizações orientais, fortalecidas por seu espetacular crescimento demográfico e assimilação perfeita da tecnologia ocidental terão maior importância que a civilização de cunho europeu. Paradoxalmente, esse resultado já está assegurado pela mundialização, estágio supremo da ideologia do livre-comércio.

Geopolitics is concerned with the State considered as a living organism or a form of life, Lebensform. The State is politically active in the international sphere, although irrevocably conditioned by its geographical theater. The State, geo-politically and physically, is individualized by its location, extent and climate, by the endowment of natural resources in its territory, by its demographic dimension, its languages, culture and economic-technological development and also not least by its level of civilization. From this page you can download some introductory texts of classical Geopolitics, which will allow readers to rebuild their own understanding of this complex area of Political Geography. After the World War II, geographical studies, and with them Geopolitics, were deliberately neglected, to the extent that Geography ended up by being excluded as an independent  discipline from the secondary schools. Geography started to be  superficially treated as a mere topic in the area of social studies. The general indifference to the growing threats to Brazil's territorial integrity demonstrates the lack of an active geopolitical awareness among the general public and even among high Brazilian government officials. The countries of the world fall into two groups of civilizations: the European, our Western civilization, and the complex set of Eastern civilizations. The Christianization and the Europeanization of the World brutally pursued by Western economic imperialism over the past five centuries have failed. Geo-politically the results of this failure are the present day economic and demographic contraction of Europe and the irrelevance of Christianity. In a  not too distant future, Eastern civilizations, strengthened by their spectacular demographic growth and perfect assimilation of Western technology, all that matters, will be of greater importance than the European civilization. Paradoxically, this result is already assured by globalization, the supreme stage of the free trade ideology. Samuel Huntington in his Clash of Civilizations  wrote: 

"Western civilization is both Western and modern. Non-Western  civilizations have attempted  to become modern  without  becoming Western. To date only Japan has fully succeeded in this quest. Non-Western civi­lizations will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth, technology, skills, machines  and weapons  that are  part of being  modern. They will also  attempt  to  reconcile this  modernity  with  their  traditional culture and values. Their economic and military strength relative to the  West  will increase.  Hence  the  West  will  increasingly  have  to accommodate these non-Western  modern civilizations whose power approaches  that  of  the  West  but  whose  values  and  interests  differ significantly from  those of the  West. This will require  the  West  to maintain  the  economic  and  military  power  necessary  to  protect  its interests in relation to these civilizations. lt will also, however, require the West to develop a more profound understanding of the basic reli­gious  and  philosophical  assumptions  underlying  other  civilizations and the ways in which people in those civilizations see their interests. lt will require an effort to identify elements of commonality between Western and other civilizations. For the relevant future, there will be no universal civilization, but instead a world of different civilizations, each of which will have to learn to coexist with the others".  

To date not just Japan has fully succeeded in the quest of becoming a perfect modern developed society, China and India followed her steps and became formidable economies, both are handcapped only by their lack of enough economic resources. As they develop without demographic contraction their pressions for access to resources outside their territories will become overwhelming. Geo-politicaly, this complex pressing issue reduces to just another exemple of inevitable quest for Lebensraum. Africa, Russia  and the Islamic countries, all geographically  close to the new Heartland, will be the first to suffer or profit from the moves of these two powerful new winds.

Critical geopolitics is not a neatly delimited field, but the diverse works characterized as such all focus on the processes through which political practice is bound up with territorial definition. 

Contents: 01 02 03 04

Die Definitionen von Geopolitik.

01  Geopolitics investigates the geographical assumptions and designations that enter into the making of world politics (Agnew 2003:2). 
In the second edition of his book about Geopolitics,   John Agnew,  Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles, provides an invaluable introduction to current critical debates over geopolitics and world politics. By Geopolitics, now-a-days,  we  understand the investigation of the geographical assumptions and designations that enter into the making of world politics, the term came into use at the end of the nineteenth century. Thinking globally was then formally connected by geopolitical reason to acting globally, but the actual practices of geopolitics began much earlier, when Europeans first encountered the rest of the world. 

Agnew's book ,Geopolitics, identifies and scrutinizes the central features of Geopolitics , from the sixteenth century to the present, paying close attention to its persisting conceptual underpinnings, novel turns and shifting impacts. The book focuses on four key concepts of the modern geographical imagination: visualizing the world as a whole; the definition of geographical areas as advanced or primitive; the notion of the state being the highest form of political organization; and the pursuit of primacy by competing states. The second edition is thoroughly revised to take into account recent world events and what they augur for the future of the modern geopolitical imagination, including the possibility that understanding of the geography of world politics and a new world politics can be rebuilt on alternative grounds. 

The study is exemplified by topical issues such as the US war on terrorism, the rise of China as a Great Power, the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, US President G. W. Bushidentification of a global axis of evil, and the re-emergence of Central Europe as a critical geopolitical region, the book shows how questions of the organization of power combine with those of geographical definition and highlights the crucial geopolitical certainties from as recently as fifteen years ago which have now either disappeared or are in question. Geopolitics provides an invaluable introduction to current critical debates over geopolitics and world politics. John Agnew is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles".


02  Russel H. Fifield and. Etzel Pearcy: Geopolitics, in principle and in practice212 pages. Boston. 1944


03  Wolfgang Baumann: Geopolitik: ein zeitgemäßer Beitrag zum gesamtstaatlichen Führungsverfahren?
La géopolitique - une contribution contemporaine au leadership à l'échelle de l'État? 

-- Geopolitics - a contemporary contribution to state-wide leadership?  Geopolítica - uma contribuição contemporânea para o processo de liderança de todo o estado? Геополитика - современный вклад в общегосударственное лидерство?Wolfgang Baumann und Gunther Hauser: Mitteleuropa – Im geopolitischen Interesse Österreichs; 2001; S. 19 – 20.

Im Wörterbuch für Sicherheitspolitik wird die „Geopolitik“
„als ein Wissenschaftsfeld an der Schnittstelle zwischen
Geographie, Politikwissenschaften, Geschichte und Soziologie“
beschrieben, die „die Beziehungen zwischen Raum und
politischen Gegebenheiten untersucht. Sie ist auch die Lehre
von der Raumgebundenheit der politischen Vorgänge sowie
über den Staat als geographischen Organismus und weiters die
Analyse des Einflusses der geographischen Bedingungen eines
Staates auf seine nationale und internationale Politik.“3
Die Geopolitik ist somit im Wesentlichen die langfristig gültige Lehre
vom Einfluss des geographischen Raumes auf die Politik eines
Staates.
4
Jeder Staat steht unter der Maßgabe der geologischen und
geographischen Gegebenheiten seines Staatsgebiets. Sie bestimmen,
welche Formen wirtschaftlicher, gesellschaftlicher und politischer
Organisation realisierbar sind. Die Geopolitik hat daher, neben der
historischen und sicherheitspolitischen, auch eine stark geographische
und politikwissenschaftliche interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung.
5
„Bekanntlich haben Faktoren wie zum Beispiel Klima und
Landschaft einen beträchtlichen Einfluss auf Menschen, Völker
und Staaten. Das Arbeitsleben in einem subtropischen Land
sieht anders aus als das in einem mitteleuropäischen. Die
2 Brockhaus Enzyklopädie: 19. Auflage; Band 8; Manheim 1989; S. 326.

3 Vgl. Ernst – Christoph Meier, Richard Roßmanith und Heinz-Uwe
Schäfer: Wörterbuch zur Sicherheitspolitik; 2003; S. 144.
4 Rainer Mennel: Der Balkan - Eine Studie zur Geostrategie und Politischen
Geographie eines alten Konfliktraumes; 1999; S. 11.
5 Wolfgang Baumann und Gunther Hauser: Mitteleuropa – Im geopolitischen
Interesse Österreichs; 2001; S. 19 – 20.
12
strategischen Gesamtplanungen eines Inselstaates müssen
anderen Kriterien folgen als die einer reinen Kontinentalmacht.
Um die dahinter stehenden Gesetzmäßigkeiten zu ergründen
und sie für die praktische Politik fruchtbar zu machen, hatte
sich nach den 80er Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts in zahlreichen
Ländern eine wissenschaftliche Disziplin etabliert, die man als
Geopolitik bezeichnet.“
Dies war die am 21. November 1994 in der Frankfurter Allgemeinen
Zeitung erschienene Einleitung einer Rezension des Buches
„Geopolitik heute. Deutschlands Chance?“ geschrieben von Heinz
Brill, dem Wissenschaftlichen Direktor im Zentralen
Forschungsbereich des Amtes für Studien und Übungen der
Bundeswehr.6
Der Begriff „Geopolitik“ bedarf jedoch einer klaren Abgrenzung vom
oftmals im gleichen Zusammenhang verwendeten Begriff
„Geostrategie“ und „Gesamtstrategie“. Die „Gesamtstrategie“ (engl.:
Grand strategy) ist die umfassende Konzeption für die Realisierung
außen- und sicherheitspolitischer Ziele im Sinne einer planmäßigen
Zusammenfassung aller politischen, wirtschaftlichen und
militärischen Mittel, die unter Berücksichtigung der geopolitischen,
geostrategischen und bündnispolitischen Faktoren im Rahmen der
gesetzmäßigen Vorgaben die Durchsetzung nationaler Interessen
allein oder in kollektiven Sicherheitsbündnissen gewährleisten soll.
Die „Geostrategie“ wiederum ist die planmäßige Realisierung
strategischer und sicherheitspolitischer Ziele unter Berücksichtigung
geopolitisch bestimmter regionaler und weltweiter Bedingungen.7
6 Lutz Unterseher: Deutschland als umworbene Macht - Zur Renaissance
geopolitischer Imagination in Russland und den USA; in: Europa zwischen
Krieg und Frieden. Geopolitische Hegemonie oder Gemeinsame
Friedensordnung; Österreichisches Studienzentrum für Frieden und
Konfliktlösung (Hrsg.); Agenda; Münster 1999; S. 169.
7 Vgl. Ernst – Christoph Meierm, Richard Roßmanith und Heinz-Uwe
Schäfer: Wörterbuch zur Sicherheitspolitik; 2003; S. 144.
13
Einige rückblickende Betrachtungen zur Geschichte des
geopolitischen Denkens mögen hier nützlich sein, um begriffliche
und ideengeschichtliche vertiefende Klarheit zu schaffen. Danach
folgt eine Analyse zum Stand der geopolitischen Forschung, um
abzuleiten, welchen Stellenwert die Geopolitik im gesamtstaatlichen
Führungsverfahren als anwendungsorientierte Wissenschaft in
Österreich besitzen sollte.
Die klassische Geopolitik
Die Klassische Geopolitik hat ihren Ursprung in der entstehenden
Weltordnung am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts. Als Folge des enormen
kolonialistischen Wettrennens der Großmächte um die Aufteilung des
afrikanischen Kontinents präsentierte sich die politische Weltkarte
erstmals fast ohne weiße Flecken. Alle wichtigen Mächte hatten ihre
Besitzansprüche auf Territorien abgesteckt, die nur wenige Jahrzehnte
zuvor auf europäischen Landkarten als leer und unbesiedelt
erschienen waren. Die expansive Phase des Kolonialismus war
vorbei. Der Kampf um die relative Effizienz der Verwaltung, den
strategischen Positionen und der militärische Vormacht zwischen den
Kolonialmächten kann als Ursprung des geopolitischen Denkens
bezeichnet werden.8 Vor allem Geopolitiker aus dem deutschen und
angelsächsischen Raum prägten den


--  In der  Brockhaus Enzyklopädie ist  die  Geopolitik  als eine  Grenzwissenschaft zwischen Geographie, Staatenkunde, Geschichte und Gesellschaftswissenschaft,  begründet  und  zu  einer Staatswissenschaft  erhoben von  R.  Kjellén,  in  Deutschland  u.a.  von K.  Haushofer  vertreten,  sucht  die  Beziehungen  zwischen  politischen Gegebenheiten und Raum zu erforschen. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg wurden in Deutschland geopolitische Theorien (z.B. Lebensraum) von Gruppen  der  extremen  politischen  Rechten  agitatorisch  vertreten (besonders von den Nationalsozialisten). 

Discussions  of contemporary writings on geopolitics

CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS. MERJE  KUUS. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Critical geopolitics investigates the geographical assumptions and designations that enter into the making of world politics (Agnew 2003:2). It seeks to illuminate and explain the practices by which political actors spatialize international politics and represent it as a “world” characterized by particular types of places (Ó Tuathail and Agnew 1992:190). This strand of analysis approaches geopolitics not as a neutral consideration of pre-given “geographical” facts, but as a deeply ideological and politicized form of analysis. Eschewing the traditional question of how geography does or can influence politics, it investigates how geographical claims and assumptions function in political debates and political practice. In so doing, it seeks to disrupt mainstream geopolitical discourses: not to study the geography of politics within pre-given, commonsense places, but to foreground “the politics of the geographical specification of politics” (Dalby 1991:274). Critical geopolitics is not a neatly delimited field, but the diverse works characterized as such all focus on the processes through which political practice is bound up with territorial definition. 

Merje Kuus is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of British Columbia. Her work focuses on geopolitics and contemporary Europe. Dr. Kuus is the author of Geopolitics Reframed: Security and Identity in Europe’s Eastern Enlargement (2007) as well as numerous articles on security, identity, and intellectuals of statecraft. She is currently working on a long-term project on the transformations of political space at the external borders of the EU.

Geopolitics, as an intellectual field, enjoys a mixed reputation. Lionized by some as an insightful guide into the geographical study of strategic relations between states, it has been castigated by others for being an accomplice of authoritarianism and fascism. For the American geographer, Richard Hartshorne, it was an intellectual poison and thus best avoided for the scholarly health of the unwary (Hartshorne 1954; Dodds and Atkinson 2000). While it possible to chart a prehistory to geopolitics, most agree that its genesis lies with a particular conflagration of social Darwinism and late nineteenth-century fin-de-siècle Europe (Parker 1985; Heffernan 2000). Coined by the Swedish legal jurist, Rudolf Kjellén, geopolitics was infused with a social Darwinist preoccupation for the survival prospects of societies and states. When combined with ongoing imperial rivalries, alongside the institutional development of geography as a university subject, geopolitical studies attracted a corpus of influential writers including Halford Mackinder, Alfred Mahan and Friedrich Ratzel. Their insights into the modern world-system, the role of geographical factors such as resources and location, and the prospects for great powers such as Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States and challengers have proven remarkably durable, even if they have also attracted critics and critique alike (for recent reviews, see Kearns 2009; Dodds 2010).

 

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