O4 Estudos de Filosofia da História. Studies in the Philosophy of History

Estudos de Filosofia da História. Prof. Dr. Darcy Carvalho. São Paulo. SP. Brasil . 08/07/2014

Objetivos: Estudar a questão do que seja História.

Contents: 01, 02, 03

01= Philosophy of History. Introduction to the Field. The Concept of History. Que é História?

Source: Stanford Encyclopaedia Of Philosophy


The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It raises the possibility of “learning from history.” And it suggests the possibility of better understanding ourselves in the present, by understanding the forces, choices, and circumstances that brought us to our current situation. It is therefore unsurprising that philosophers have sometimes turned their attention to efforts to examine history itself and the nature of historical knowledge. These reflections can be grouped together into a body of work called “philosophy of history.” This work is heterogeneous, comprising analyses and arguments of idealists, positivists, logicians, theologians, and others, and moving back and forth over the divides between European and Anglo-American philosophy, and between hermeneutics and positivism.

Given the plurality of voices within the “philosophy of history,” it is impossible to give one definition of the field that suits all these approaches. In fact, it is misleading to imagine that we refer to a single philosophical tradition when we invoke the phrase, “philosophy of history,” because the strands of research characterized here rarely engage in dialogue with each other. Still, we can usefully think of philosophers' writings about history as clustering around several large questions, involving metaphysics, hermeneutics, epistemology, and historicism: (1) What does history consist of—individual actions, social structures, periods and regions, civilizations, large causal processes, divine intervention? (2) Does history as a whole have meaning, structure, or direction, beyond the individual events and actions that make it up? (3) What is involved in our knowing, representing, and explaining history? (4) To what extent is human history constitutive of the human present? [...].

Universal or historical human nature?

Human beings make history; but what is the fundamental nature of the human being? Is there one fundamental “human nature,” or are the most basic features of humanity historically conditioned (Mandelbaum 1971)? Can the study of history shed light on this question? When we study different historical epochs, do we learn something about unchanging human beings—or do we learn about fundamental differences of motivation, reasoning, desire, and collectivity? Is humanity a historical product? Giambattista Vico's New Science (1725) offered an interpretation of history that turned on the idea of a universal human nature and a universal history (1725); (see (Berlin 2000) for commentary). Vico's interpretation of the history of civilization offers the view that there is an underlying uniformity in human nature across historical settings that permits explanation of historical actions and processes. The common features of human nature give rise to a fixed series of stages of development of civil society, law, commerce, and government: universal human beings, faced with recurring civilizational challenges, produce the same set of responses over time. Two things are worth noting about this perspective on history: first, that it simplifies the task of interpreting and explaining history (because we can take it as given that we can understand the actors of the past based on our own experiences and nature); and second, it has an intellectual heir in twentieth-century social science theory in the form of rational choice theory as a basis for comprehensive social explanation.

Johann Gottfried Herder offers a strikingly different view about human nature and human ideas and motivations. Herder argues for the historical contextuality of human nature in his work, Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity (1791). He offers a historicized understanding of human nature, advocating the idea that human nature is itself a historical product and that human beings act differently in different periods of historical development (1800–1877, 1791). Herder's views set the stage for the historicist philosophy of human nature later found in such nineteenth century figures as Hegel and Nietzsche. His perspective too prefigures an important current of thought about the social world in the late twentieth century, the idea of the “social construction” of human nature and social identities (Anderson 1983; Hacking 1999; Foucault 1971). [...]

Contents 1 History and its representation, 1.1 Scale in history; 2 Continental philosophy of history, 2.1 Universal or historical human nature ; 2.2 Does history possess directionality ? , 2.3 Hegel's philosophy of history, 2.4 Hermeneutic approaches to history; 3 Anglo-American philosophy of history, 3.1 General laws in history ? , 3.2 Historical objectivity, 3.3 Causation in history, 3.4 Recent topics in the philosophy of history; 4. Historiography and the philosophy of history; 5. Topics from the historians; 6 Rethinking the philosophy of history; Bibliography [...]. End of Quote. Source: http  ://plato.stanford.edu/entries/history/

Little, Daniel, "Philosophy of History", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),

 http  ://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/history/

Second Reading. Presentation of a course in history

What is world history ?

History of the world since 1300 .

Jeremy Adelman. Princeton University

This course will examine the ways in which the world has grown more integrated yet more divided over the past 700 years. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: This course explores the history of the modern world since Chinggis Khan. It focuses on the connections between societies from the time of the Mongol conquests and the gradual, but accelerating ways in which connections became ties of inter-dependence.

The relations between societies are what will concern us. The forces pulling the world together vary from religious to economic, political to intellectual. These forces bring the world together, but they also create new divisions. Nowadays, we call this "globalization." That term has tended to emphasize the drive to worldwide integration; the view of globalization taken in this course emphasizes disintegration as well as integration.

We will tackle some very basic questions: How do we explain the staggering wealth of China in the centuries up to 1750, as well as China's recent ascent? Where did the United States come from, and where is it headed? What are the significance and legacies of empire in the world? How have world wars and revolutions shaped the international system over time? What exactly is globalization, and how does today's globalization compare with the past? How has the relationship between humans and nature changed over the centuries?

Contents: Lecture 1: What is World History? . Lecture 2: Peoples, Plagues and Plunder. Lecture 3: Warfare and Motion, Lecture 4: Conquests . Lecture 5: The Beginnings of Globalization in the Atlantic Worlds. Lecture 6: The Beginnings of Globalization in the Indian Ocean Worlds. Lecture 7: The Worlds that Merchants Made. Lecture 8: The Seventeenth-Century Crisis. Lecture 9: Empire and Enlightenment. Lecture 10: The Wealth of Nations. Lecture 11: The World in Revolution. Lecture 12: States and Nations. Lecture 13: Global Frontiers. Lecture 14: Empires and Nations. Lecture 15: Worlds in Motion. Lecture 16: The Peak of Eurocentrism. Lecture 17: Retreat of the Elephants. Lecture 18: The World in 1914. Lecture 19: Civilization and its Discontents. Lecture 20: Worlds at War. Lecture 21: Apex to Aftermath. Lecture 22: Three World Orders. Lecture 23: Our Globalization. Lecture 24: Back to the Future.

Although the lectures are designed to be self-contained, we recommend (but do not require) that students refer to the A History of the World: From 1000 CE to the Present (Third Edition) (Vol. 2) by Jeremy Adelman . End of Quote .  [28/05/2014] PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO