10 Declinação dos adjetivos latinos

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Contents: 01, 02, 03, 04,

01

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND  FORMATION OF ADVERBS


63. In these the Masculine is declined like hortus, puer, or ager, the Feminine like porta, and the Neuter like bellum. Thus, Masculine like hortus:—

Bonus, good.

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

Nom.

bonus

bona

bonum

Gen.

bonī

bonae

bonī

Dat.

bonō

bonae

bonō

Acc.

bonum

bonam

bonum

Voc.

bone

bona

bonum

Abl.

bonō

bonā

bonō


PLURAL.

Nom.

bonī

bonae

bona

Gen.

bonōrum

bonārum

bonōrum

Dat.

bonīs

bonīs

bonīs

Acc.

bonōs

bonās

bona

Voc.

bonī

bonae

bona

Abl.

bonīs

bonīs

bonīs

1. The Gen. Sing. Masc. and Neut. of Adjectives in -ius ends in -iī (not in as in case of Nouns; see § 25, 1; 2). So also the Voc. Sing. of such Adjectives ends in -ie, not in ī. Thus eximius forms Gen. eximiī; Voc. eximie.

2. Distributives (see § 78, 1, c) regularly form the Gen. Plu. Masc. and Neut. in -um instead of -ōrum (compare § 25, 6); as, dēnum centēnum; but always singulōrum.

64. Masculine like puer:—

Tener, tender.

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE

NEUTER.

Nom.

tener

tenera

tenerum

Gen.

tenerī

tenerae

tenerī

Dat.

tenerō

tenerae

tenerō

Acc.

tenerum

teneram

tenerum

Voc.

tener

tenera

tenerum

Abl.

tenerō

tenerā

tenerō


PLURAL.

Nom.

tenerī

tenerae

tenera

Gen.

tenerōrum

tenerārum

tenerōrum

Dat.

tenerīs

tenerīs

tenerīs

Acc.

tenerōs

tenerās

tenera

Voc.

tenerī

tenerae

tenera

Abl.

tenerīs

tenerīs

tenerīs

65. Masculine like ager:—

Sacer, sacred.

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

Nom.

sacer

sacra

sacrum

Gen.

sacrī

sacrae

sacrī

Dat.

sacrō

sacrae

sacrō

Acc.

sacrum

sacram

sacrum

Voc.

sacer

sacra

sacrum

Abl.

sacrō

sacrā

sacrō


PLURAL.

Nom.

sacrī

sacrae

sacra

Gen.

sacrōrum

sacrārum

sacrōrum

Dat.

sacrīs

sacrīs

sacrīs

Acc.

sacrōs

sacrās

sacra

Voc.

sacrī

sacrae

sacra

Abl.

sacrīs

sacrīs

sacrīs

1. Most adjectives in -er are declined like sacer. The following however, are declined like tener: asper, rough; lacer, torn; līber, free; miser, wretched; prōsper, prosperous; compounds in -fer and -ger; sometimes dexter, right.

2. Satur, full, is declined: satur, satura, saturum.

Nine Irregular Adjectives.

66. Here belong—

alius, another;

alter, the other;

ūllus, any;

nūllus, none;

uter, which? (of two);

neuter, neither;

sōlus, alone;

tōtus, whole;

ūnus, one, alone.

They are declined as follows:—

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

Nom.

alius

alia

aliud

alter

altera

alterum

Gen.

alterĭus

alterĭus

alterĭus

alterĭus

alterĭus

alterĭus

Dat.

aliī

aliī

aliī

alterī

alterī

alterī

Acc.

alium

aliam

aliud

alterum

alteram

alterum

Voc.

——

——

——

——

——

——

Abl.

aliō

aliā

aliō

alterō

alterā

alterō

Nom.

uter

utra

utrum

tōtus

tōta

tōtum

Gen.

utrīus

utrīus

utrīus

tōtīus

tōtīus

tōtīus

Dat.

utrī

utrī

utrī

tōtī

tōtī

tōtī

Acc.

utrum

utram

utrum

tōtum

tōtam

tōtum

Voc.

——

——

——

——

——

——

Abl.

utrō

utrā

utrō

tōtō

tōtā

tōtō

1. All these words lack the Vocative. The Plural is regular.

2. Neuter is declined like uter.



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

67. These fall into three classes,—

1. Adjectives of three terminations in the Nominative Singular,—one for each gender.

2. Adjectives of two terminations.

3. Adjectives of one termination.

a. With the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words mentioned below in  § 70, 1, all Adjectives of the Third Declension follow the inflection of ĭ-stems; i.e. they have the Ablative Singular in , the Genitive Plural in -ium, the Accusative Plural in -īs (as well as -ēs) in the Masculine and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative Plural in -ia in Neuters.

Adjectives of Three Terminations.

68. These are declined as follows:—

Ācer, sharp.

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

NEUTER.

Nom.

ācer

ācris

ācre

Gen.

ācris

ācris

ācris

Dat.

ācrī

ācrī

ācrī

Acc.

ācrem

ācrem

ācre

Voc.

ācer

ācris

ācre

Abl.

ācrī

ācrī

ācrī


PLURAL.

Nom.

ācrēs

ācrēs

ācria

Gen.

ācrium

ācrium

ācrium

Dat,

ācribus

ācribus

ācribus

Acc.

ācrēs, -īs

ācrēs, -īs

ācria

Voc.

ācrēs

ācrēs

ācria

Abl.

ācribus

ācribus

ācribus

1. Like ācer are declined alacer, lively; campester, level; celeber, famous; equester, equestrian; palūster, marshy; pedester, pedestrian; puter, rotten; salūber, wholesome; silvester, woody; terrester, terrestrial; volucer, winged; also names of months in -ber, as September.

2. Celer, celeris, celere, swift, retains the e before r, but lacks the Genitive Plural.

3. In the Nominative Singular of Adjectives of this class the Feminine form is sometimes used for the Masculine. This is regularly true of salūbris, silvestris, and terrestris. In case of the other words in the list, the use of the Feminine for the Masculine is confined chiefly to early and late Latin, and to poetry.

Adjectives of Two Terminations.

69. These are declined as follows:—

Fortis, strong.

Fortior, stronger.

SINGULAR.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

Nom.

fortis

forte

fortior

fortius

Gen.

fortis

fortis

fortiōris

fortiōris

Dat.

fortī

fortī

fortiōrī

fortiōrī

Acc.

fortem

forte

fortiōrem

fortius

Voc.

fortis

forte

fortior

fortius

Abl.

fortī

fortī

fortiōre

fortiōre


PLURAL.

Nom.

fortēs

fortia

fortiōrēs

fortiōra

Gen.

fortium

fortium

fortiōrum

fortiōrum

Dat.

fortibus

fortibus

fortiōribus

fortiōribus

Acc.

fortēs, -īs

fortia

fortiōrēs, -īs

fortiōra

Voc.

fortēs

fortia

fortiōrēs

fortiōra

Abl.

fortibus

fortibus

fortiōribus

fortiōribus

1. Fortior is the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives are regularly declined in the same way. The Acc. Plu. in -īs is rare.

Adjectives of One Termination.

70.

Fēlīx, happy..

Prūdēns, prudent.


SINGULAR.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

Nom.

fēlīx

fēlīx

prūdēns

prūdēns

Gen.

fēlīcīs

fēlīcis

prūdentis

prūdentis

Dat.

fēlīcī

fēlīcī

prūdentī

prūdentī

Acc.

fēlīcem

fēlīx

prūdentem

prūdēns

Voc.

fēlīx

fēlīx

prūdēns

prūdēns

Abl.

fēlīcī

fēlīcī

prūdentī

prūdentī


PLURAL.

Nom.

fēlīcēs

fēlīcia

prūdentēs

prūdentia

Gen.

fēlīcium

fēlīcium

prūdentium

prūdentium

Dat.

fēlīcibus

fēlīcibus

prūdentibus

prūdentibus

Acc.

fēlīcēs, -īs

fēlīcia

prūdentēs, -īs

prūdentia

Voc.

fēlīcēs

fēlīcia

prūdentēs

prūdentia

Abl.

fēlīcibus

fēlīcibus

prūdentibus

prūdentibus


Vetus, old.


Plūs, more.


SINGULAR.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

M. AND F.

NEUT.

Nom.

vetus

vetus

——

plūs

Gen.

veteris

veteris

——

plūris

Dat.

veterī

veterī

——

——

Acc.

veterem

vetus

——

plūs

Voc.

vetus

vetus

——

——

Abl.

vetere

vetere

——

plūre


PLURAL.

Nom.

veterēs

vetera

plūrēs

plūra

Gen.

veterum

veterum

plūrium

plūrium

Dat.

veteribus

veteribus

plūribus

plūribus

Acc.

veterēs

vetera

plūrēs, -īs

plūra

Voc.

veterēs

vetera

——

——

Abl.

veteribus

veteribus

plūribus

plūribus

1. It will be observed that vetus is declined as a pure Consonant-Stem; i.e. Ablative Singular in -e, Genitive Plural in -um, Nominative Plural Neuter in -a, and Accusative Plural Masculine and Feminine in -ēs only. In the same way are declined compos, controlling; dīves, rich; particeps, sharing; pauper, poor; prīnceps, chief; sōspes, safe; superstes, surviving. Yet dīves always has Neut. Plu. dītia.

2. Inops, needy, and memor, mindful, have Ablative Singular inopī, memorī, but Genitive Plural inopum, memorum.

3. Participles in -āns and -ēns follow the declension of ī-stems. But they do not have the Ablative, except when employed as adjectives; when used as participles or as substantives, they have -e; as,—

ā sapientī virō, by a wise man; but

ā sapiente, by a philosopher.

Tarquiniō rēgnante, under the reign of Tarquin.

4. Plūs, in the Singular, is always a noun.

5. In the Ablative Singular, adjectives, when used as substantives,—

a) usually retain the adjective declension; as,—

aequālis, contemporary, Abl. aequālī.

cōnsulāris, ex-consul, Abl. cōnsulārī

So names of Months; as, Aprīlī, April; Decembrī, December.

b) But adjectives used as proper names have -e in the Ablative Singular; as, Celere, Celer; Juvenāle, Juvenal.

c) Patrials in -ās, -ātis and -īs, -ītis, when designating places regularly have ; as, in Arpīnātī, on the estate at Arpinum, yet -e, when used of persons; as, ab Arpīnāte, by an Arpinatian.

6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which are frūgī, frugal; nēquam, worthless.

7. In poetry, adjectives and participles in -ns sometimes form the Gen. Plu. in -um instead of -ium; as, venientum, of those coming.



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

71. 1. There are three degrees of Comparison,—the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (Neut. -ius), and the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um), to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel; as,—

altus, high,

altior, higher,

altissimus, highest, very high.

fortis, brave,

fortior,

fortissimus.

fēlīx, fortunate,

fēlīcior,

fēlīcissimus.

So also Participles, when used as Adjectives; as,—

doctus, learned,

doctior,

doctissimus.

egēns, needy,

egentior,

egentissimus.

3. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by appending -rimus to the Nominative of the Positive. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—

asper, rough,

asperior,

asperrimus.

pulcher, beautiful,

pulchrior,

pulcherrimus.

ācer, sharp,

ācrior,

ācerrimus.

celer, swift,

celerior,

celerrimus.

a. Notice mātūrus, mātūrior, mātūrissimus or mātūrrimus.

4. Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative is regular. Thus:—

facilis, easy,

facilior,

facillimus.

difficilis, diffcult,

difficilior,

difficillimus.

similis, like,

similior,

simillimus.

dissimilis, unlike,

dissimilior,

dissimillimus.

humilis, low,

humilior,

humillimus.

5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and Superlative as though from forms in -dīcēns, -ficēns, -volēns. Thus:—

maledicus, slanderous,

maledīcentior,

maledīcentissimus.

magnificus, magnificent,

magnificentior,

magnificentissimus.

benevolus, kindly,

benevolentior,

benevolentissimus.

a. Positives in -dīcēns and -volēns occur in early Latin; as maledīcēns, benevolēns.

6. Dīves has the Comparative dīvitior or dītior; Superlative dīvitissimus or dītissimus.

Irregular Comparison.

72. Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison; viz.—

bonus, good,

melior,

optimus.

malus, bad,

pejor,

pessimus.

parvus, small,

minor,

minimus.

magnus, large,

major,

maximus.

multus, much,

plūs,

plūrimus,

frūgī, thrifty,

frūgālior,

frūgālissimus,

nēquam, worthless,

nēquior,

nēquissimus.

Defective Comparison.

73. 1. Positive lacking entirely,—

(Cf. prae, in front of.)

prior, former,

prīmus, first

(Cf. citrā, this side of.)

citerior, on this side,

citimus, near.

(Cf. ultrā, beyond.)

ulterior, farther,

ultimus, farthest.

(Cf. intrā, within.)

interior, inner,

intimus, inmost

(Cf. prope, near.)

propior, nearer,

proximus, nearest.

(Cf. , down.)

dēterior, inferior,

dēterrimus, worst.

(Cf. archaic potis, possible.)

potior, preferable,

potissimus, chiefest

2. Positive occurring only in special cases,—

posterō diē, annō, etc. the following day, etc.,
posterī, descendants,

posterior, later,

postrēmus, latest, last.
postumus, late-born, posthumous.

exteri, foreigners,
nātiōnēs exterae, foreign nations,

exterior, outer

extrēmus, extimus, outermost.

inferī, gods of the lower world,
Mare Inferum, Mediterranean Sea,

īnferior, lower,

īnfimus, īmus, lowest.

superī, gods above,
Mare Superum, Adriatic Sea,

superior, higher,

suprēmus, last.
summus, highest.

3. Comparative lacking.

vetus, old,

——

veterrimus.

fīdus, faithful,

——

fīdissimus.

novus, new,

——

novissimus, last.

sacer, sacred,

——

sacerrimus.

falsus, false,

——

falsissimus.

Also in some other words less frequently used.

4. Superlative lacking.

alacer, lively,

alacrior,

——

ingēns, great,

ingentior,

——

salūtāris, wholesome,

salūtārior,

——

juvenis, young,

jūnior,

——

senex, old,

senior.

——

a. The Superlative is lacking also in many adjectives in -ālis, -īlis, -ĭlis, -bilis, and in a few others.

Comparison by Magis and Maximē.

74. Many adjectives do not admit terminational comparison, but form the Comparative and Superlative degrees by prefixing magis (more) and maximē (most). Here belong—

1. Many adjectives ending in -ālis, -āris, -idus, -īlis, -icus, imus, īnus, -ōrus.

2. Adjectives in -us, preceded by a vowel; as, idōneus, adapted; arduus, steep; necessārius, necessary.

a. Adjectives in -quus, of course, do not come under this rule. The first u in such cases is not a vowel, but a consonant.

Adjectives not admitting Comparison.

75. Here belong—

1. Many adjectives, which, from the nature of their signification, do not admit of comparison; as, hodiernus, of to-day; annuus, annual; mortālis, mortal.

2. Some special words; as, mīrus, gnārus, merus; and a few others.



FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

76. Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjectives, and depend upon them for their comparison.

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive by changing of the Genitive Singular to ; those derived from adjectives of the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive Singular to -iter; as,—

cārus,

cārē, dearly;

pulcher,

pulchrē, beautifully;

ācer,

ācriter, fiercely;

levis,

leviter, lightly.

a. But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead of -iter), to form the Adverb; as,—

sapiēns,

sapienter, wisely;

sollers,

sollerter, skillfully.

Note audāx, audācter, boldly.

2. The Comparative of all Adverbs regularly consists of the Accusative Singular Neuter of the Comparative of the Adjective; while the Superlative of the Adverb is formed by changing the of the Genitive Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to . Thus—

(cārus)

cārē, dearly,

cārius,

cārissimē.

(pulcher)

pulchrē, beautifully,

pulchrius,

pulcherrimē.

(ācer)

ācriter, fiercely,

ācrius,

ācerrimē.

(levis)

leviter, lightly,

levius,

levissimē.

(sapiēns)

sapienter, wisely,

sapientius,

sapientissimē.

(audāx)

audācter, boldly,

audācius,

audācissimē.

Adverbs Peculiar in Comparison and Formation.

77. 1.

benĕ, well,

melius,

optimē.

malĕ, ill,

pejus,

pessimē.

magnopere, greatly,

magis,

maximē.

multum, much,

plūs,

plūrimum.

nōn multum, little,
parum,

minus,

minimē.

diū, long,

diūtius,

diūtissimē.

nēquiter, worthlessly,

nēquius,

nēquissimē.

saepe, often,

saepius,

saepissimē.

mātūrē, betimes,

mātūrius,

mātūrrimē.
mātūrissimē.

prope, near,

propius,

proximē.

nūper, recently,

——

nūperrimē.

——

potius, rather,

potissimum, especially.

——

prius, previously, before,

prīmum, first.

secus, otherwise,

sētius, less.

2. A number of adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form an Adverb in , instead of ; as,—

crēbrō, frequently;

falsō, falsely;

continuō, immediately;

subitō, suddenly;

rārō, rarely, and a few others.

a. cito, quickly, has .

3. A few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as the Positive of the Adverb; as,—

multum, much;

paulum, little;

facile, easily.

4. A few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form the Positive in -iter; as,—

fīrmus, fīrmiter, firmly;

hūmānus, hūmāniter, humanly;

largus, largiter, copiously;

alius, aliter, otherwise.

a. violentus has violenter.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are -tus and -tim; as, antīquitus, anciently; paulātim, gradually.



NUMERALS.

78. Numerals may be divided into—

I. Numeral Adjectives, comprising—

a. Cardinals; as, ūnus, one; duo, two; etc.

b. Ordinals; as, prīmus, first; secundus, second; etc.

c. Distributives; as, singulī, one by one; bīnī, two by two; etc.

II. Numeral Adverbs; as, semel, once; bis, twice; etc.

79. TABLE OF NUMERAL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

CARDINALS.

ORDINALS.

DISTRIBUTIVES.

ADVERBS.

1.

ūnus, ūna, ūnum

prīmus, first

singulī, one by one

semel, once

2.

duo, duae, duo

secundus, second

bīnī, two by two

bis

3.

trēs, tria

tertius, third

ternī (trīnī)

ter

4.

quattuor

quārtus, fourth

quaternī

quater

5.

quīnque

quīntus, fifth

quīnī

quīnquiēs

6.

sex

sextus

sēnī

sexiēs

7.

septem

septimus

septēnī

septiēs

8.

octō

octāvus

octōnī

octiēs

9.

novem

nōnus

novēnī

noviēs

10.

decem

decimus

dēnī

deciēs

11.

ūndecim

ūndecimus

ūndēnī

ūndeciēs

12.

duodecim

duodecimus

duodēnī

duodeciēs

13.

tredecim

tertius decimus

ternī denī

terdeciēs

14.

quattuordecim

quārtus decimus

quaternī denī

quaterdeciēs

15.

quīndecim

quīntus decimus

quīnī dēnī

quīnquiēs deciēs

16.

sēdecim,
sexdecim

sextus decimus

sēnī dēnī

sexiēs deciēs

17.

septendecim

septimus decimus

septēnī dēnī

septiēs deciēs

18.

duodēvīgintī

duodēvīcēsimus

duodēvīcēnī

octiēs deciēs

19.

ūndēvīgintī

ūndēvīcēsimus

ūndēvīcēnī

noviēs deciēs

20.

vīgintī

vīcēsimus

vīcēnī

vīciēs

21.

vīgintī ūnus,
ūnus et vīgintī

vīcēsimus prīmus,
ūnus et vīcēsimus

vīcēnī singulī,
singulī et vīcēni

vīciēs semel

22.

vīgintī duo,
duo et vīgintī

vīcēsimus secundus,
alter et vīcēsimus

vīcēnī bīnī,
bīnī et vīcēnī

vīciēs bis

30.

trīgintā

trīcēsimus

trīcēnī

triciēs

40.

quadrāgintā

quadrāgēsimus

quadrāgēnī

quadrāgiēs

50.

quīnquāgintā

quīnquāgēsimus

quinquāgēnī

quīnquāgiēs

60.

sexāgintā

sexāgēsimus

sexāgēnī

sexāgiēs

70.

septuāgintā

septuāgēsimus

septuāgēnī

septuāgiēs

80.

octōgintā

octōgēsimus

octōgēnī

octōgiēs

90.

nōnāgintā

nōnāgēsimus

nōnāgēnī

nōnāgiēs

100.

centum

centēsimus

centēnī

centiēs

101.

centum ūnus,
centum et ūnus

centēsimus prīmus,
centēsimus et prīmus

centēnī singulī,
centēnī et singulī

centiēs semel

200.

ducentī, -ae, -a

ducentēsimus

ducēnī

ducentiēs

300.

trecentī

trecentēsimus

trecēnī

trecentiēs

400.

quadringentī

quadringentēsimus

quadringēnī

quadringentiēs

500.

quīngentī

quīngentēsimus

quīngēnī

quīngentiēs

600.

sescentī

sescentēsimus

sescēnī

sescentiēs

700.

septingentī

septingentēsimus

septingēnī

septingentiēs

800.

octingentī

octingentēsimus

octingēnī

octingentiēs

900.

nōngentī

nōngentēsimus

nōngēnī

nōngentiēs

1,000.

mīlle

mīllēsimus

singula mīlia

mīliēs

2,000.

duo mīlia

bis mīllēsimus

bīna mīlia

bis mīliēs

100,000.

centum mīlia

centiēs mīllēsimus

centēna mīlia

centiēs mīliēs

1,000,000.

deciēs centēna mīlia

deciēs centiēs mīllēsimus

deciēs centēna mīlia

deciēs centiēs mīliēs

NOTE.— -ēnsimus and -iēns are often written in the numerals instead of -ēsimus and -iēs.

Declension of the Cardinals.

80. 1. The declension of ūnus has already been given under § 66.

2. Duo is declined as follows:—

Nom.

duo

duae

duo

Gen.

duōrum

duārum

duōrum

Dat.

duōbus

duābus

duōbus

Acc.

duōs, duo

duās

duo

Abl.

duōbus

duābus

duōbus

a. So ambō, both, except that its final o is long.

3. Trēs is declined,—

Nom.

trēs

tria

Gen.

trium

trium

Dat.

tribus

tribus

Acc.

trēs (trīs)

tria

Abl.

tribus

tribus

4. The hundreds (except centum) are declined like the Plural of bonus.

5. Mīlle is regularly an adjective in the Singular, and indeclinable. In the Plural it is a substantive (followed by the Genitive of the objects enumerated; § 201, 1), and is declined,—

Nom.

mīlia

Acc.

mīlia

Gen.

mīlium

Voc.

mīlia

Dat.

mīlibus

Abl.

mīlibus

Thus mīlle hominēs, a thousand men; but duo mīlia hominum, two thousand men, literally two thousands of men.

a. Occasionally the Singular admits the Genitive construction; as, mīlle hominum.

6. Other Cardinals are indeclinable. Ordinals and Distributives are declined like Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

Peculiarities in the Use of Numerals.

81. 1. The compounds from 21 to 99 may be expressed either with the larger or the smaller numeral first. In the latter case, et is used. Thus:—

trīgintā sex or sex et trīgintā, thirty-six.

2. The numerals under 90, ending in 8 and 9, are often expressed by subtraction; as,—

duodēvīgintī, eighteen (but also octōdecim);

ūndēquadrāgintā, thirty-nine (but also trīgintā novem or novem et trīgintā).

3. Compounds over 100 regularly have the largest number first; the others follow without et; as,—

centum vīgintī septem, one hundred and twenty-seven.

annō octingentēsimō octōgēsimō secundō, in the year 882.

Yet et may be inserted where the smaller number is either a digit or one of the tens; as,—

centum et septem, one hundred and seven;

centum et quadrāgintā, one hundred and forty.

4. The Distributives are used—

a) To denote so much each, so many apiece; as,—

bīna talenta eīs dedit, he gave them two talents each.

b) When those nouns that are ordinarily Plural in form, but Singular in meaning, are employed in a Plural sense; as,—

bīnae litterae, two epistles.

But in such cases, ūnī (not singulī) is regularly employed for one, and trīnī (not ternī) for three; as,—

ūnae litterae, one epistle; trīnae litterae, three epistles.

c) In multiplication; as,—

bis bīna sunt quattuor, twice two are four.

d) Often in poetry, instead of the cardinals; as,—

bīna hastīlia, two spears.

 


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