12 Preposições Conjunções Advérbios e Interjeições

PREPOSIÇÕES, CONJUNÇÕES, ADVÉRBIOS E INTERJEIÇÕES LATINAS. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO,SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL                                        
                                                                      

CONTENTS: 01,  02,  03

00  BIBLIOGRAFIA. A GENERAL BRAZILIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE

Esta bibliografia disponibiliza para downloads dicionários e as principais obras didáticas utilizadas no Brasil, para o ensino do Latim, em português e noutros idiomas europeus. Dictionaries and textbooks used in Brazil for teaching Latin.

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

AS PREPOSIÇOES E SUA IMPORTÂNCIA PARA APRENDIZAGEM DO IDIOMA LATINO

As preposições latinas podem ser utilizadas como um poderoso instrumento para memorizar ou recuperar as desinências das declinações. Podem reger dois casos: o ablativo e o acusativo. O caso ablativo no singular termina sempre em -a -e -i -o -u; e -is ou -bus no plural, -abus, -ebus, -ibus, -obus  ou -ubus. No plural o dativo é sempre igual ao ablativo, terminando, portanto, em -is ou -bus. Podemos distinguir o dativo do ablativo, quando forem iguais, lembrando que os casos dativo , genitivo , nominativo e vocativo não admitem preposições.Do ablativo podemos formar o acusativo, bastando acrescentar a letra -m ao ablativo singular. Portanto, o acusativo termina em: -am , -em, -im, -om, ou -um, no singular; e termina em: -as -es -is -os  ou -us, no plural. Cada declinação se distingue de outra pelo genitivo singular, indicado nos dicionários, ao lado do nominativo: -ae, -i, -is, -ei, -us. O genitivo singular determina o nominativo plural na primeira e na segunda: -ae ou -i.  Na terceira, quarta e quinta declinações, o nominativo plural é igual ao acusativo plural. Forma-se o genitivo plural acrescentando a desinência -um às vogais do ablativo singular (-a -e -i -o -u), inserindo um r eufônico, na primeira, segunda e quinta declinações: -arum, -orum, na primeira e segunda, respectivamente; -um ou -ium, na terceira; -uum na quarta, e -erum na quinta. O dativo é sempre igual ao ablativo no plural, terminando em -is ou -bus. O dativo singular pode ser formado a partir do ablativo, singular, acrescentando-se um -i às vogais (-a -e -i -o -u): ai (-ae), oi ( -o), ii ( -i), -ei, -ui. O vocativo, é sempre igual ao nominativo, em todas as declinações, salvo nas palavras em -us da segunda, que o fazem em -e. Restam os substantivos e adjetivos do gênero neutro. Os neutros tem o nominativo igual ao acusativo no singular e no plural. No plural, os neutros sempre terminam em –a, no nominativo e no acusativo. Os ablativos absolutos, conhecidas as terminações do ablativo, no singular e no plural, podem ser identificados imediatamente em quaisquer textos. Todas as frases iniciadas por preposições de ablativo ou de acusativo também pode ser identificadas e traduzidas imediatamente. Lembremos que as preposições também podem substituir o genitivo e o ablativo. A preposição de+ablativo substitui o genitivo. A preposição ad+ acusativo substitui o dativo. 

00  THE PREPOSITIONS

The Latin prepositions can be used as a powerful instrument to memorize or recover the endings of the declensions. They admit two cases: the ablative and the accusative case. The ablative case in the singular always ends in a vowel -a -e -i -o -u, in the singular; and -is or -bus in the plural, i.e -abus, -ebus, -ibus, -obus or -ubus. In the plural the dative is always equal to the ablative, ending therefore in -is or -bus. From the ablative we can form the accusative, simply by adding the letter - m to the singular ablative. Therefore, the accusative ends in: -am, -em, -im, -om, or -um, in the singular; and ends in: -as -is -is -os or -us, in the plural. Each declination is distinguished from another by the singular genitive, indicated in the dictionaries, next to the nominative: -ae, -i, -is, -ei, -us. The singular genitive determines the plural nominative in the first and second declinations: -ae or -i. In the third, fourth and fifth declensions, the plural nominative is equal to the accusative plural. The plural genitive is formed by adding the ending -um to the singular ablative vowels (-a -e -i -o -u), inserting an euphonic r, in the first, second and fifth declensions: -arum, -orum, in the first and second, respectively; -um or -ium in the third; -uum in the fourth, and -erum in the fifth. The dative is always the same as the ablative in the plural, ending in -is or -bus, that is, -abus, -ebus, -ibus, -obus or -ubus.The singular dative can be formed from the ablative, singular, by adding the letter -i to the vowels (-a -e -i -o -u): ai (-ae), oi (-o), ii (-i ), -ei, -ui. The vocative is always equal to the nominative, in all declensions, except in the words ending in -us of the second, which do it in -e. The nouns and adjectives of the neutral gender remain to be described . Neutrals have the nominative equal to the accusative in the singular and plural. In the plural, neutrals always end in -a, both in the nominative andin the accusative. Absolute ablatives, once known the ablative terminations, in the singular and plural, can be identified immediately in any texts. All sentences beginning with ablative or accusative prepositions can also be identified and translated immediately. Remember that prepositions can also replace the genitive and the ablative. The Latin preposition de + ablative replaces the genitive. The prepositions ad + accusative replaces the dative. We can distinguish the dative from the ablative, as they may be equal, by remembering that the dative, genitive, nominative and vocative cases do not admit prepositions.

The Prepositions show relations of words. The following Prepositions govern the Accusative:—

ad, to.
adversus, against.
adversum, towardagainst.
ante, before.
apud, withnear.
circā, around.
circiter, about.
circum, around.
cis, this side of.
citrā, this side of.

contrā, against.
ergā, toward.
extrā, outside.
īnfrā, below.
inter, between.
intrā, within.
jūxtā, near.
ob, on account of.
penes, in the hands of.
per, through.
pōne, behind.

post, after.
praeter, past.
prope, near.
propter, on account of.
secundum, after.
subter, beneath.
super, over.
suprā, above.
trāns, across.
ultrā, beyond.
versus, toward.

The following Prepositions govern the Ablative:—

a, ab, abs, from, by; absque, without; coram, in the presence of; cum, with; de, from, concerning; e, ex, from out of; prae, before; pro, in front of, for; sine, without; tenus, up to;

Source: Bennett A New Latin Grammar

The uses of the ablative case can be learned from the following examples taken from Bennett’s Latin Grammar, available on -line:

Curis liberatus, freed from cares; Caesar hostes armis exuit, Caesar stripped the enemy of their arms; caret sensu communi, he lacks common sense; auxilio eget, he needs help; bonorum vita vacua est metu, the life of the good is free from fear; urbem a tyranno liberarunt, they freed the city from the tyrant; abstinere cibo, to abstain from food; hostes finibus prohibuerunt, they kept the enemy from their borders; dissentio a te, I dissent from you; secernantur a nobis, let them be separated from us; Jove natus, son of Jupiter; summo loco natus, high-born (born from a very high place); nobili genere ortus, born of a noble family; ex me natus, sprung from me; ab Ulixe oriundus, descended from Ulysses; a Caesare accusatus est, he was arraigned by Caesar; hostes a fortuna deserebantur, the enemy were deserted by Fortune; a multitudine hostium montes tenebantur, the mountains were held by a multitude of the enemy; a canibus laniatus est, he was torn to pieces by dogs; melle dulcior, sweeter than honey; patria mihi vita carior est, my country is dearer to me than life; tui studiosior sum quam illius, I am fonder of you than of him; Studiosior illo, I am fonder of you than he is; amplius viginti urbes incenduntur, more than twenty cities are fired; minus quinque milia processit, he advanced less than five miles; opinione celerius venit, he comes more quickly than expected (than opinion); Alexander sagitta vulneratus est, Alexander was wounded by an arrow; utor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor, and their compounds take the ablative; divitiis utitur, he uses his wealth (lit; he benefits himself by his wealth); vita fruitur, he enjoys life (he enjoys himself by life); munere fungor, I perform my duty (I busy myself with duty); carne vescuntur, they eat flesh (feed themselves by means of); castris potitus est, he got possession of the camp (lit; made himself powerful by the camp); duce nobis opus est, we need a leader; hoc mihi opus est, this is necessary for me; dux nobis opus est is a rare form of expression; opus est properato, there is need of haste; with nitor, innixus, and fretus nititur hasta, he rests on a spear (supports himself by a spear); fretus virtute, relying on virtue (lit; supported by virtue); with contineri, consistere, constare, consist of; nervis et ossibus continentur, they consist of sinews and bones (they are held together by sinews and bones); mortali consistit corpore mundus, the world consists of mortal substance (holds together by means of); In expressions of the following type:— quid hoc homine facias, what can you do with this man?; quid mea Tulliola fiet, what will become of my dear Tullia? (what will be done with my dear Tullia?); In the following special phrases:— proelio contendere, vincere, to contend, conquer in battle; proelio lacessere, to provoke to battle; curru vehi, to ride in a chariot; pedibus ire, to go on foot; castris se tenere, to keep in camp; with verbs of filling and adjectives of plenty as,— fossas virgultis complerunt, they filled the trenches with brush; a; but plenus more commonly takes the genitive; plenus confidentiae, full of trust; ablative of the way by which; as,— vinum Tiberi devectum, wine brought down (by) the Tiber; the means may be a person as well as a thing:— militibus a lacu Lemanno ad montem Juram murum perducit, with (i;e; by means of) his troops he runs a wall from Lake Geneva to Mt; Jura; the Ablative used to denote causeas,— multa gloriae cupiditate fecit, he did many things on account of his love of glory; with verbs denoting mental states as: -- delector, gaudeo, laetor, glorior, fido, confido; also with contentus as —  fortuna amici gaudeo, I rejoice at the fortune of my friend (i;e; on account of it); victoria sua gloriantur, they exult over their victory; natura loci confidebant, they trusted in the character of their country (were confident on account of the character); fido and confido always take the dative of the person; sometimes the dative of the thing; jussu, by order of, injussu, without the order, rogatu; cum gravitate loquitur, he speaks with dignity; magna gravitate loquitur, he speaks with great dignity; preposition is absent in the expressions jure, injuria, joco, vi, fraude, voluntate, furto, silentio; mea sententia, according to my opinion; suis moribus, in accordance with their custom; sua sponte, voluntarily, of his (their) own accord; ea condicione, on these terms; bonis auspiciis, under good auspices; nulla est altercatio clamoribus umquam habita majoribus, no debate was ever held under circumstances of greater applause; exstinguitur ingenti luctu provinciae, he dies under circumstances of great grief on the part of the province; longo intervallo sequitur, he follows at a great distance; cum comitibus profectus est, he set out with his attendants; cum febri domum rediit, he returned home with a fever; Without cum when modified by any adjective except a numeral; omnibus copiis, ingenti exercitu, magna manu; cum exercitu, cum duabus legionibus; improbitas scelere juncta, badness joined with crime; aer calore admixtus, air mixed with heat; assuetus labore, accustomed to (lit; familiarized with) toil; pacem bello permutant, they change peace for (lit; with) war; dimidio minor, smaller by a half; tribus pedibus altior, three feet higher;  paulo post, a little afterwards; quo plura habemus, eo cupimus ampliora, the more we have, the more we want; puella eximia forma, a girl of exceptional beauty; vir singulari industria, a man of singular industry; est magna prudentia, he is (a man) of great wisdom; bono anima sunt, they are of good courage; sunt specie et colore tauri, they are of the appearance and color of a bull, scopulis pendentibus antrum, a cave of arching rocks; servum quinque minis emit, he bought the slave for five minae; the ablatives magno, plurimo, parvo, minimo (by omission of pretio) are used to denote indefinite price: aedes magno pretio vendidit, he sold the house for a high price; Helvetii omnibus Gallis virtute praestabant, the Helvetians surpassed all the Gauls in valor; pede claudus, lame in his foot; major natu, older (lit; greater as to age); minor natu, younger; Ablative with dignus, worthy, indignus, unworthy, and dignor, deem worthy of; as,— digni honore, worthy of honor (i;e; in point of honor); fide indigni, unworthy of confidence; me dignor honore, I deem myself worthy of honor; Ablative Absolute; The Ablative Absolute is grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence; In its commonest form it consists of a noun or pronoun limited by a participle; as,— urbe capta, Aeneas fugit, when the city had been captured, Aeneas fled (lit; the city having been captured);  vivo Caesare res publica salva erat, while Caesar was alive the state was safe (lit; Caesar being alive Tarquinio rege, Pythagoras in Italiam venit, in the reign of Tarquin Pythagoras came into Italy (lit; Tarquin being king); Cn; Pompejo, M; Crasso consulibus, in the consulship of Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Crassus (lit; P; and C; being consuls); omnes virtutes jacent, voluptate dominante, all virtues lie prostrate, if pleasure is master; perditis omnibus rebus, virtus se sustentare potest, though everything else is lost, yet Virtue can maintain herself;  nullo adversante regnum obtinuit, since no one opposed him, he secured the throne;  passis palmis pacem petiverunt, with hands outstretched, they sued for peace; audito eum fugisse, when it was heard that he had fled; in urbe habitat, he dwells in the city; Carthagini, at Carthage; Athenis, at Athens; Vejis, at Veii; hoc loco, at this place; totis castris, in the whole camp; foris, out of doors; ruri, in the country, terra marique, on land and sea; stant litore puppes, the sterns rest on the beach; ab Italia profectus est, he set out from Italy; ex urbe rediit, he returned from the city; Roma profectus est, he set out from Rome; Rhodo revertit, he returned from Rhodes; domo, from home; rure, from the country; Italia decessit, he withdrew from Italy; a Gergovia discessit, he withdrew from the vicinity of Gergovia; a Roma X milia aberat, he was ten miles distant from Rome; Urbe and oppido, when standing in apposition with a town name; Curibus ex oppido Sabinorum, from Cures, a town of the Sabines; quarta hora mortuus est, he died at the fourth hour; anno septuagesimo consul creatus, elected consul in his seventieth year; words denoting a period of time as annus, ver, aestas, hiems, dies, nox, hora, comitia (election day), ludi (the games) may stand in this construction; in pace, in peace; in bello, in war; secundo bello Punico, in the second Punic War; stella Saturni triginta annis cursum conficit, the planet Saturn completes its orbit within thirty years; ter in anno, thrice in the course of the year; biennio prosperas res habuit, for two years he had a prosperous administration; Romae, at Rome; Corinthi, at Corinth; Rhodi, at Rhodes; domi, at home; humi, on the ground; belli, in war; militiae, in war; vesperi, at evening; heri, yesterday; pendere animi, to be in suspense in one's mind.

http://www;thelatinlibrary;com/bennett;html#sect213


SYNTAX OF THE ABLATIVE AND OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

Syntax of the Ablative. The Ablative Case in Latin

Types of Ablative: Separation| |Agent| |Comparison| |Accordance| |Material| |Origin| |Manner| |Means| |Degree of Difference| |Deponent| |Circumstantial| |Cause| |Locative: Time/Place

The ablative is one of the two cases of Latin that admit prepositions. The prepositions used with ablative are:

In the following we find all the possible uses of the ablative that can be used with and without prepositions. The uses of the ablative without a preposition is particularly important.

The Ablative Case in Latin

The Ablative Case is historically a conflation of three other cases: the true ablative or case of separation ("from"); the associative-instrumental case ("with" and "by"); and the locative case ("in"). The process of conflation has meant that originally distinct meanings have become merged and we do not always know whether a particular usage belongs to one or the other of these categories. The ablative of cause is a good example of how the different origins of the ablative case can reinforce each other. Many instances of the ablative of cause may be analyzed in two ways: e.g., vulnere mortuus est. This could be understood as "he died from a wound" (the original case of separation) or "he died by means of a wound" (the original associative-instrumental case). In fact, one sometimes finds ex vulnere mortuus est which is a clear indication that the Romans felt that "origin" and "cause" were related. Caesare duce: Similarly, this kind of ablative absolute may be analyzed as a temporal ablative (that is, a metaphorical extension of the locative case) or as an associative-instrumental ablative (for instance, in the sense of "with Caesar being the leader").

On the other hand, some uses of the ablative are precise and involve category distinctions that should not be overlooked. EXAMPLES: Caesar militibus urbam oppugnavit = "Caesar attacked the city by means of his soldiers", that is, the soldiers were his tools, the means by which he carried on his assault. Caesar cum militibus urbem oppugnavit = "Caesar attacked the city with his soldiers"; that is, he was accompanied by his soldiers in the attack. A militibus urbs oppugnata est = "The city was attacked by the soldiers"; that is, by the soldiers as volitional agents.

Major Categories of the Ablative

The True Ablative (Ablative of Separation)

All Ablatives after the prepositions ab, de, and ex are originally Ablatives of Separation. Similarly, the Ablative after a verb or separation, freeing, difference, and movement away from is also an Ablative of Separation: e.g.: metu relavatus = "relieved of [separated from] fear." Some idiomatic usages are usefully distinguished:

1. Agent: ab + Ablative of person. The person as a volitional agent is viewed as the source or origin of the action. Translate: "by"

2. Comparison: Ablative alone. The person or thing to which another person or thing is compared is viewed as the standard starting from which one compares: Marco Julius altior est= "[Starting from Marcus] Julius is taller than Marcus."

3. Accordance: usually Ablative with ex. The category is especially useful because it gives you the most useful translation: e senatus consulto hoc feci. = "I did this in accordance with the senate's decree." e re publica Caesar egit. = "Caesar acted in accordance with [the interests of] the republic."

4. Material: the material out of which something is made is put in the ablative case with or without a preposition. It is not always easy to distinguish an ablative of material (murus ex saxis factus = "a wall made from stones") from an ablative of means (murus saxis factus = "a wall made with stones").

5. Origin:  verbs of arising, or being born imply a notion of origin; when that origin is stated it is put in the ablative case and the verb's meaning develops into "arising from" or "being born from":  invidia virtute parta gloria, non invidia est = "hatred born from virtue is glory, not hatred"

The Associative-Instrumental Ablative ("with")

The Ablative with or without the preposition cum can indicate a person, thing, or quality associated with the activity of a verb. With the preposition, the meaning is usually apparent from a simple translation of the preposition. The most usefully distinguished types of associative-instrumental ablative are:

1. Manner. Any noun referring to qualities of action (swiftness, cleverness, praiseworthiness) can be made into an adverb with cum: cum celeritate = "quickly"; cum sapientia = "wisely".

This usage has a peculiarity in that, when the noun is modified by an adjective, you do not need to use the preposition: magna [cum] laude = "with great praise"; magna celeritate = "very quickly".

When the quality of the noun attends the completion of the action not its process of being completed, the best idiomatic translation is usually "to...": cum periculo Romam venit = "He came to Rome to his danger."

2. Means. When a thing (or even a person) is used as an instrument or tool by another, it is placed in the ablative case without a preposition and it is translated, "by" or "by means of".

Degree of Difference: The Ablative of Degree of difference is a development of the ablative of means: the amount of the difference being considered the means by which something is different. Consider: a wall higher by ten feet.

With Deponents.  A special version of the ablative of means is found with the deponents:  utor, vescor, fungor, fruor, and .... These verbs were originally in the "middle voice" -- that is, the actor accomplished the action on behalf of himself. (Cf. English: "I bathe." That means, "I bathe myself" or "I get myself bathed". As an active verb, it takes an accusative object and means "I bathe someone/thing." The ablative was originally the means by which the activity of the verb was accomplished for the actor: vescor = "I get fed" graminibus = "by means of grasses" or fruor amicitia tua = "I get enjoyment by means of your friendship."

3. Circumstantial. The ablative with or without cum may indicate the circumstances that accompany an action. This ablative may have been either originally an associative ablative or a locatival ablative. It is thought that this is the origin of the Ablative Absolute.

The Locative Ablative and Ablative of Time

The ablative after prepositions of place or time denotes location in place and time. This is to be distinguished from the accusative after the same preposition which indicates motion into, down under, toward, etc. Place: the preposition is omitted with the names of cities, towns and small islands, with a few idiomatic expressions (like terra marique, loco, regione, parte, etc.), and frequently when a noun is qualified by adjectives denoting some part of the whole: summus, imus, medius, totus, omnis, cunctus, universus.

Time: the ablative of time is used to indicate 1) a point in time at which something happens, 2) a period of time during which something happens: this is similar to the accusative case and is found more frequently with negative verbs (it did not happen within this time span) than with positive verbs (it happened during this time span). Although the accusative's sense that something happens during is different from the ablative's meaning that something happens within, still one finds examples in Classical Latin of some confusion between the two: tota nocte continenter ierunt = "they travelled continually through the whole night (Caes. B.G. I. 26). ita se Africo Bello per quinque annos, ita deinde novem annis in Hispania se gessit ... = "For five years in the African way, and then for nine years in Spain he acted that way..."

The Ablative of Respect seems to have had a composite origin or was influenced at least by two different case-functions: the locative function and the instrumental function. An example that is easily assimilated to the locative function is the following: non tota re sed temporibus errasti (Cic. Phil. 2. 23) = "you were wrong not in every regard (in every thing) but in respect of you dates." On the other hand, the instrumental function seems more clearly at work in expressions like: uno oculo captus = "blind in one eye" or Cicero nomine = "Cicero by name."

3 The Supine in the Ablative is often identified as an Ablative of Respect: mirabile dictu = "marvelous in respect of saying"; facile factu = "easy in respect of doing". This usage is thought to arise from the Ablative of origin and that view is supported by the Supine of Source found in early authors: e.g., cubitu surgere (Cato RR 5.5) = "to arise from sleeping." However, it is clear that by the Classical period these supines had a clear affinity for the locative function of the ablative.

https://classics.osu.edu/Undergraduate-Studies/Latin-Program/Grammar/Cases/ablative-case-latin


00   DAS PREPOSIÇÕES LATINAS E DOS  CASOS QUE REGEM

http://www.ime.usp.br/~ueda/br.ispell/latim.html

166. As preposições latinas, consideradas quanto à significação, podem exprimir umas estado, outras movimento e outras, ainda movimento ou estado.

167. Quanto à feição vocabular, elas se podem dividir em:
Separadas, se não permanecem ligadas a outras palavras, constituindo um só vocábulo; como:  absque, adversus, apud, erga, penes, propter, secundum, sine, tenus, versus, circa, citra, contra, infra, juxta, pone, prope, supra, ultra, clam, palam, procul, simul. -
Inseparáveis, se figuram sempre ligadas a outras palavras; como: amb, di, dis, re, se, ve. - Comuns, se podem ou não permanecer ligadas a outras palavras. Todas as que não foram acima citadas são desta classe.

168. Quanto à sintaxe, umas se constroem com acusativo, outras com ablativo, algumas com acusativo ou ablativo, e, por helenismo, raríssimas com genitivo.

169; Constroem-se sempre com acusativo:   ad, a, para, junto, até, contra, conforme, quanto a, além de;

adversus, (advorsus, arc;)  defronte, para com, contra;

adversum, (advorsum, arc;)  defronte, para com, contra;

ante, antes, adiante, mais que;

apud, em, junto, em casa de;

circa, junto a, em roda de, cerca ou acerca de, junto de, para com, a respeito de;

circiter, perto de, quase, pouco mais ou menos;

circum, em roda de, em redor de;

cis, da parte de cá, aquém de;

citra, aquém de, antes de, sem;

contra, contra, defronte de, para com, por;

erga, para com, contra, defronte;

extra, de fora, afora, exceto;

infra, abaixo de, por baixo de;

intra, dentro de, da parte de dentro de, menos que;

inter, entre, no tempo de, dentro de;

juxta, ao pé de, conforme;

ob, por causa de, ante, em roda de;

penes, em, em poder de;

per, por, por meio de, per, em, entre, pelo tempo de, sob  pretexto de, por causa de;

pone, atrás, detrás de;

post, depois de, atrás de;

praeter, além de, diante de, contra, exceto;

propter, por causa de, perto de;

prope, ao pé de, junto de;

secundum, conforme, perto de, ao longo de, atrás de, depois de;

segundo, a favor de;

secus, junto de, ao pé de;

supra, sobre, da parte de cima de, além de, acima de;

trans, além de, da parte dalém de;

ultra,  além de, de lá de, mais de;

versus, para a banda de, na direção de;

versum, para a banda de;

170; Constroem-se com ablativo:

a,ab,abs, de, por, desde, da banda de, depois de;

absque, sem, afora;

clam, às escondidas de;

cum, com, em companhia de, contra;

coram, em presença de, à vista de, ante;

de, e, ex, de, da parte de, acerca de, depois de, por causa de,

dentre ou no número de;

palam, em presença de, à vista de, às claras;

02.1 Предлоги  Preposições

Приложение:Латинский язык. Материал из Викисловаря

Содержание

Общие сведения

Предлог (praepositio) — по своему происхождению наречие. Его функция — лексически уточнять основное значение падежной формы. Так, например, основное значение аблатива (удаление, отделение) лексически может уточняться предлогами ex, ab:

  • ex hortō — из сада
  • ab hortō — от сада

Как наречия предлоги первоначально не имели определённого места в предложении. В латинском языке сохранились некоторые реликты этого, например, употребление предлога между определением и определяемым словом:

  • magna cum virtūtĕ — с большой доблестью
  • quā de causā — по какой причине?, почему?

Те же самые наречия, лексически определяя глагол, превратились в значении глагольных приставок. Этим объясняется соотнесенность предлогов и префиксов.

  • volāre — летать, abvolāre — улетать
  • trahĕre — тащить, extrahĕre — вытаскивать

Некоторые слова в классической латыни употребляются и как наречия, и как предлоги, например ante, post, contra и другие:

  • ante volat — летит впереди
  • ante lucem — перед рассветом

Некоторые латинские предлоги образовались от существительных, застывших в каком-либо падеже, например:

  • causă (abl. sing.: causā) f — причина, causā — по причине, из-за
  • gratiă (abl. sing.: gratiā) f — благодарность, расположение (к кому-либо), gratiā — благодаря, ради

Подобные случаи есть и в русском языке, например, предлоги по причине, вследствии и др.

Предлоги, употребляемые с аккузативом

Предлоги, употребляемые с аблативом[править]

Предлоги, употребляемые с аккузативом и аблативом

Эти предлоги при ответе на вопрос куда? употребляются аккузативом, а на на вопрос где? — c аблативом

Предлоги, употребляемые с генитивом

causāпо причине, ради, из-за

00        DOS ADVÉRBIOS

 

176. Quanto à significação, os advérbios se dividem em:

 

1. Locativos, ou de lugar, se respondem às perguntas seguintes:

 

Ubi? Onde?         Unde? Donde?       Quo? Para onde?     Qua? Por onde?

----------------------------------------------------------------------

hic, aqui                         hinc, daqui                      huc, para aqui               hac, por aqui

istic, aí                            istinc, daí                         istuc, para aí                 istac, por aí

illic, ali                            illinc, dali                         illuc, para ali                illac, por ali

ibi, ali, lá                        inde, de lá                         eo, para lá                     ea, por lá

ibidem, aí                       indidem, daí                    eodem, para aí             eadem, por aí

mesmo                            mesmo                              mesmo                           mesmo

alibi, noutro                   aliunde, doutro               alio, para outro            alia, por outro

lugar                                lugar                                  lugar                               lugar

ubicumque, onde          undecumque, donde      quocumque, para         quacumque, por

quer que                          quer que                           onde quer que               onde quer que

alicubi, em                      alicunde, dalguma          aliquo, para                   aliqua, por

alguma parte                  parte                                  alguma parte                 alguma parte

usquam, algures    undique, de toda   quoquam, para       quaquam, por

nusquam, nenhures    parte              algures             algures

ubivis, em         utrinque, duma     quovis, para        qualibet, por

  qualquer parte     e outra parte      qualquer parte      qualquer parte

ubique, em toda    funditus, desde    utroque, para uma   recta, à direita

  parte              o fundo            e outra parte     sinistra, pela

atrobique, em      cominus, de perto  foras, para fora      esquerda

  ambas as partes  eminus, de longe   intro, para dentro  usquequaque, por

foris, fora                           porro, para diante    toda a parte

intus, dentro                         retro, para trás

procul, longe                         obviam, ao

prope, perto                            encontro

peregre, fora                         usque, até

  da região

 

2. Temporais, ou de tempo, se respondem às perguntas:

 

  Quando?                  Quandiu?                Quandudum?

  Quando?             Por quanto tempo?        Desde quando tempo?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

hodie, hoje           diu, por muito tempo     dudum, jamdudum, há

heri, ontem           aliquandiu, por algum      muito tempo

nudius tertius,         tempo                  pridem, jampridem,

  anteontem           tamdiu, tantisper, por     desde algum tempo

cras, amanhã            tanto tempo            antehac, antes disso

perendie, depois de   paulisper, parumber,     posthac, depois

  amanhã                por pouco tempo        adhuc, até agora

pridie, no dia                                deinde, dein, depois

  anterior                                    ex eo, desde então

postridie, no dia

  seguinte

quotidie, todos os

  dias

mane, de manhã

vespere, de tarde

interdiu, de dia

noctu, de noite

nunc, agora

modo, há pouco

tum, tunc, então

jam, já

mox, dentro em pouco

nuper, há pouco tempo

nondum, ainda não

olim, quondam, outrora

repente, extemplo,

illico, protinus,

confestim, statim,

subito, continuo,

logo, imediatamente,

de repente

subinde, logo depois

tandem, denique,

demum, finalmente

alias, noutro tempo

interea, entretanto

simul, ao mesmo

tempo, juntamente

 

3. Modais ou qualitativos, (OOPS) ou sejam, de modo ou de

qualidade, se respondem às perguntas:

 

Quomodo? Como?           Cur? Por que?        Quantopere? Até que ponto?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

ita, sic, assim          eo, ideo, idcirco,   tantopere, tanto

nequiquam, frustra, em     propterea, quare,  valde, magnopere, muito

  vão, debalde             quia, quamobrem,   saltem, ao menos

ultro, sponte,             quapropter, por    certe, certamente

  espontaneamente          isso, pelo que     imprimis, praecipue,

consulto, de propósito                          sobretudo

temere, temerariamente                        fere, ferme, paene,

facile, facilmente                              propemodum, quase,

rite, segundo o costume                         pouco mais ou menos

cursim, de corrida                            partim, em parte

paulatim, pouco a pouco                       vix, apenas

pedetentim, devagar                           hactenus, até aqui

sensim, insensivelmente                       eatenus, até aí

aliter, secus, doutro                         satis, sat, assaz

  modo

item, do mesmo modo

pariter, igualmente

perinde, como se

clam, às ocultas

furtim, a furto

palam, às claras

forte, por acaso

fortuito, fortuitamente

gratis, gratuitamente

nimirum, scilicet,

  videlicet, isto é, sem

  dúvida

perperam, mal

 

4. Quantitativos ou numerais se respondem às perguntas:

 

Quantum? Quanto?                     Quoties, Quantas vezes?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

aliquantum, algum tanto              toties, tantas vezes

tantum, tanto                        aliquoties, algumas vezes

parum, pouco                         semel, uma vez

plus, magis, mais                    bis, duas vezes

minus, menos                         ter, três vezes

parum, paululum, pouco               quater, quatro vezes

nimis, nimium, demais,               quinquies, cinco vezes

  demasiadamente                     (vide o quadro dos advérbios

prorsus, omnino,                     numerais)

  inteiramente, de todo

admodum, opprime, valde

  multum, muito

 

5. Afirmativos, cujos principais são:

 

ita, etiam,          sim, certamente

certe, utique

sane                 com certeza

profecto             seguramente

quidem, equidem      realmente

nimirum, scilicet    sem dúvida

imo                  de fato

 

6. Negativos, a saber:

 

Non, ne, haud               não

nequaquam, minime,          de nenhum modo

haudquaquam, neutiquam

 

7. Dubitativos, a saber:

 

Fortasse, forsitan,         talvez

forsan

forte                       por acaso

 

8. Limitativos, ou de exclusão, a saber:

 

Solum, tantum, modo,        somente

tantummodo, dumtaxat

quasi                       como se

ceterum                     além disso

poene, prope                pouco mais ou menos

alioquin                    doutra sorte

 

Podem-se juntar vários dos correspondentes à pergunta Quantopere?

 

9. Correlativos,  a saber:

 

ubi                ibi

unde               inde

quo                eo

qua                ea

cum                tum

quam               tam

quantum            tantum

toties             quoties

ita                ut

 

177. Quanto à derivação, os advérbios latinos provém de

substantivos, de adjetivos ou de outros advérbios

 

a. advérbios derivados de substantivos

 

1. Com o sufixo -im ou -tim indicando modo, ex.:

 

Turmatim, por turmas (turma)

Catervatim, por catervas (caterva)

Tributim, por tribos (tribus)

 

2. Com o sufixo -u, ou seja a forma ablativa da 4a declinação,

indicando tempo. Ex.:

 

Noctu (nox), de noite

Diu (dius), de dia

 

3. Com o sufixo -itus, indicando modo, ex.:

 

Funditus (fundus), desde os alicerces

 

b. Advérbios derivados de adjetivos

 

A maior parte dos advérbios de modo, provém de adjetivos ou de

particípios; terminam em -e, -o ou -ter.

 

Os advérbios em -e e em -o formam-se dos adjetivos e particípios

em -us, apondo-se ao genitivo singular, deduzido o -i final, para

uns -e, para outros -o, tendo estas vogais a quantidade longa;

ex.:

 

Improbus,a,um, ímprobo     - improbe, improbamente

Liber,era,erum, livre      - libere, livremente

Conjunctus,a,um, conjunto  - conjuncte, conjuntamente

 

O mesmo adjetivo pode algumas vezes dar dois advérbios, um em -e,

outro em -o, mas com sentido diverso; ex.:

 

Certus,a,um  - certe, ao menos

             - certo, certamente

 

A regra anterior admite algumas exceções; como:

 

Bonus, bom           - bene, bem (com -e breve)

Malus, mau           - male, mal (com -e breve)

Alius, outro         - aliter, de outra feição

Violentus, violento  - violenter, violentamente

Durus, duro          - duriter, duramente

 

178. Dos adjetivos ditos de 2a classe, formam-se os advérbios,

apondo-se ao dativo singular a partícula -ter; ex.:

 

Gravis, grave; - graviter, gravemente

Brevis, breve; - breviter, brevemente

 

Os adjetivos imparissílabos, cujo radical termina em -nt, -rt,

perdem o -ti- antes de -ter; ex.:

 

Constans, constante  - constanter, constantemente

Solers, hábil        - solerter, habilmente

 

Advérbios há, oriundos de adjetivos de 2a classe, que são formas

acusativas neutras dos mesmos, ex.:

 

Facilis, fácil   - facile, facilmente

Recens, recente  - recens, recentemente

 

Outros advérbios têm dupla forma, em -e e em -iter:

 

Humanae e humaniter, humanamente.

 

179. Os advérbios de modo em -e, -o, -ter, são passíveis de

gradação na mesma reta dos adjetivos de que se derivam.

 

O comparativo dos advérbios é em -ius, idêntico ao comparativo

neutro dos adjetivos; e o superlativo é em -issime; ex.:

 

Docte, sabiamente - doctius, mais sabiamente

                  - doctissime, mui sabiamente ou sapientissimamente

 

As particularidades que certos adjetivos apresentam na sua

gradação têm-nas os advérbios deles derivados; ex.:

 

Pulcher, superl. pulcherrimus  - advérbio pulcherrime

Facilis, superl. facillimus    - advérbio facillime

Bonus, superl. optimus         - advérbio optime

 

180. Outros advérbios que não os de modo, são também passíveis de

gradação; ex.:

 

Multum, muito        - plus, plurime

Prope, junto         - propius, proxime

Saepe, bastas vezes  - saepius, saepissime

 

181. c. Advérbios derivados de outros advérbios.

 

Esta última série compreende os advérbios que se derivam de

advérbios numerais com a aposição do sufixo -fariam, indicando o

número das vezes ou dos modos, ex.:

 

Bifariam (bis), duas vezes, de dois modos

Trifariam (ter), três vezes, de três modos

 

182. Lembramos a tempo que o sistema apresentado de formação dos

advérbios modais de adjetivos de 1a e de 2a classe, é puramente

mecânico.

 

Lembramos também que, nos advérbios derivados de substantivos,

alguns há que são ablativos singulares genuínos dos ditos

substantivos de que se derivam; como:

 

Jure, com toda a razão

Vulgo, vulgarmente

 

As partículas en e ecce, eis, eis aqui, eis ali, mais

interjeições que advérbios, se constroem com os casos nominativo

e acusativo; ex.:

 

Ecce homo ou hominem, eis aqui o homem.

 

 00  Congiunzioni latine

Da wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

Nella grammatica latina, la congiunzione (dal latino conjungo, «congiungere», «unire») è una parte invariabile del discorso che serve a congiungere una proposizione con un'altra o ad unire tra loro parti di una stessa proposizione. Così come in italiano, in latino le congiunzioni sono coordinanti quando uniscono due proposizioni della stessa natura, mentre sono subordinanti quando uniscono una proposizione subordinata ad un'altra che ne è la reggente.

Indice

Tipi di congiunzioni

Congiunzioni coordinanti

Le congiunzioni coordinanti si distinguono, in base alla funzione che svolgono, in:

Copulative:

·         Et, atque, ac (davanti a consonante), -que (enclitica, aggiunta alla fine della parola che segue) «e»;

·         Etiam, quoque (posposta alla parola a cui si riferisce) «anche»;

·         Neque, nec «né», «e non»;

·         Ne...quidem «nemmeno», «neppure».

Disgiuntive:

·         Aut (contrapposizione tra due termini) «o»;

·         Vel (scelta fra due termini) «o»;

·         Sive, seu «ovvero», «o piuttosto».

Avversative:

·         Sed, verum «ma», «al contrario»;

·         At, atqui «ma», «eppure»;

·         Vero, autem (posposte ad una o più parole) «ma», «invece», «però», «tuttavia».

Causali-dichiarative:

·         Nam, namque, etenim (in principio di proposizione) «infatti»;

·         Enim (posposto ad una o più parole) «infatti».

Conclusive:

·         Itaque, ergo, igitur (posposta) «dunque», «pertanto», «perciò»;

·         Ideo, idcirco, propterea «perciò», «pertanto»;

·         Quāre (o qua re), quamobrem, quocirca «per la qual cosa».

Limitative:

·         Quidem (posposta) «almeno», «invero», «certamente»;

·         Equidem (di solito con il verbo alla 1ª persona singolare) «senza dubbio», «certamente», «per parte mia».

Correttive:

·         Quin, quin etiam «che anzi», «anzi»;

·         Immo, immo vero «anzi», «all'opposto»;

·         Quamquam «sebbene», «per quanto», «del resto», «d'altra parte».

Correlative:

·         Et...et «e...e», «sia...sia»;

·         Nec...nec, neque...neque «né...né»;

·         Cum...tum «sia...sia», «non solo...ma anche»;

·         Nunc...nunc, tum...tum, modo...modo «ora...ora»;

·         Non solum...sed (etiam) «non solo...ma (anche)»;

·         Non modo...sed (etiam) «non solo...ma (anche)»;

·         Non tantum...sed (etiam) «non solo...ma (anche)».

Congiunzioni subordinanti

Le congiunzioni subordinanti si distinguono, secondo il tipo di subordinazione che instaurano con la reggente, in:

Finali:

·         Ut «affinché»;

·         Quo (in proposizione con un comparativo) «affinché» (da «affinché con ciò»);

·         Ne «affinché non»;

·         Neve, neu «e affinché non».

Consecutive:

·         Ut «che» (esplicito), «da» (implicito);

·         Ut non «che non» (esplicito), «da non» (implicito);

·         Sic, ita, tam «così»;

·         Tantus «così...tanto»;

·         Adeo «a tal punto».

Causali:

·         Quod, quia, quoniam «poiché», «perché»;

·         Quando, quandoquidem «dal momento che»;

·         Cum «poiché» (cum narrativo).

Temporali:

·         Dum, donec, quoad «finché», «fin tanto che»;

·         Ubi, ubi primum, ut, ut primum «appena che», «non appena»;

·         Simul, simul ac, simul atque «appena che», «non appena»;

·         Antequam, priusquam «prima che», «prima di»;

·         Postquam «dopo che»;

·         Cum «quando», «allorché» (cum narrativo).

Condizionali:

·         Si «se»;

·         Nisi, , si non «se non»;

·         Sin, sin autem, si minus «se però», «se no»;

·         Nisi forte, nisi vero «tranne che», «a meno che»;

·         Dummodo, dum modo «purché»;

·         Dummodo ne, dum ne «purché non».

Concessive:

·         Quamquam, quamvis, licet «sebbene», «quantunque», «benché»;

·         Etsi, etiamsi, tametsi «anche se», «se anche»;

·         Cum, ut «benché», «sebbene».

Comparative:

·         Ut, sicut, velut, tamquam «come», «siccome»;

·         Tamquam si, quasi, proinde «come se»;

·         Ut si, velut si, proinde (perinde) ac si «come se».

Osservazioni. Alcuni termini solitamente usati come congiunzioni possono assumere funzione avverbiale: è il caso di et ed etiam con valore di «persino», quamvis con aggettivi di grado positivo, vel come rafforzativo dei superlativi. Un esempio:«fas est et ab hoste docēri.»«si può imparare persino da un nemico.»

FINIS CITATIONIS

 00SPÓJNIK – CONIUNCTIO

LINGUA LATINA OMNIBUS

Http://lacina.info.pl/index.php?dzial=czesci_mowy&opcja=spojnik

Spójnik (coniunctio)

Spójnik jest nieodmienną i niesamodzielną częścią mowy. Zwykle spójnik jest skostniałą formą rzeczownika, zaimka, przymiotnika, albo całego wyrażenia: quod, dum (niegdyś bierniki), nihilominus - nie mniej, proinde - dosł. Stamtąd naprzód. Spójnik spaja słowa, wyrażenia lub zdania. Odpowiednio do charakteru związku między częściami składowymi, spojniki można podzielić na:

Współrzędne - łączące konstrukcje współrzędne lub podobne:

Łączne:

Et, -que, atque (= ac) - i

Etiam, quoque, neque non (= necnon), quin etiam, itidem (= item) - również

Cum ... Tum ..., tum ... Tum ... - zarówno ... Jak i ..., nie tylko ... Ale również ...

Rozłączne:

Aut - lub

Neque - ani

Aut ... Aut ..., vel ..., vel (-ve) ... - albo ..., albo ...

Qua- ... Qua- ... - z jednej strony ..., z drugiej strony ...

Modo ... Modo ... - raz ..., raz ...

Sive (= seu) ... Sive ... - czy ... Czy ...

Neque (nec) ... Neque (nec) - ani ... Ani ...

Et ... Neque - zarówno ... I nie ...

Nec ... Et ..., nec (neque) ... -que - ani ... I ...

Przeciwstawne:

Sed, autem, verum, vero, at, atqui - ale

Tamen, attamen, sed tamen, verum tamen - niemniej, jednak

Nihilominus - niemniej

At vero - jednak zaiste

Enimvero - zaiste

Ceterum - z drugiej strony, ale

Przyczynowe:

Nam, namque, enim, etenim - ponieważ

Quapropter, quare, quamobrem, quocirca, unde - zatem

Wynikowe:

Ergo, igitur, itaque, ideo, idcirco, inde, proinde - zatem, więc

Podrzędne - łączące zdania podrzędne i nadrzędne:

Warunkowe:

Si - jeśli

Sin - ale jeśli

Nisi (ni) - jeśli nie

Quod si - ale jeśli

Modo, dum, dummodo, si modo - jeśli tylko

Dummodo ne, dum ne, modo, ne - jeśli tylko nie

Porównania:

Ut, uti, sicut - tak jak

Velut - jak, tak jak

Prout, praeut, ceu - podobnie jak

Tamquam, tanquam, quasi, ut si, ac si, velut, veluti, velut si - jak gdyby

Quam, atque (= ac) - (tak) jak

Przyzwolenia:

Etsi, etiamsi, tametsi - nawet jeśli

Quamquam, quanquan - chociaż

Quamvis, quantumvis, quamlibet, quantumlibet - jakkolwiek wiele

Licet, ut, cum (quom) - pomimo, jednakże

Czasowe: cum (quom), quando - (podczas) kiedy

Ubi, ut - kiedy

Cum primum, ut primum, ubi primum, simul, simul ac, simul atque - jak tylko, skoro

Postquam (posteaquam) - po

Prius ... Quam, ante ... Quam - przed

Non ante ... Quam - aż (nie)

Dum, usque dum, donec, quoad - dopóki, podczas gdy

Skutkowe i celowe:

Ut, uti, quo - aby

Ne, ut ne - aby nie

Neve (= neu) - aby nie, ani

Quin, quominus - aby nie (po przeczeniu)

Przyczynowe:

Quia, quod, quoniam, quando - ponieważ

Cum (quom) - ponieważ

Quandoquidem, si quidem, quippe, ut pote - jako że, ponieważ zaiste

Propterea ... Quod - z tego powodu ... Że

Słowa oznaczające i, zarówno, albo, nawet, także

W łacinie są cztery słowa oznaczające "i", które mogą łączyć zarówno słowa, wyrażenia, jak i wypowiedzenia: ac, atque (wariant ac), et, -que. Mogą one także występować równocześnie.

Ac (atque) wyraża nacisk; można tłumaczyć jako "i rzeczywiście", "i także", zwłaszcza jeśli wprowadza wyrażenie:

Caesar atque brutus - cezar i (także) brutus

Et oznacza po prostu "i", także gdy jest powtórzone w znaczeniu "zarówno" (w łacinie nie ma osobnego słowa o znaczeniu "zarówno"):

Caesar et Brutus - Cezar i Brutus

Et Caesar et Brutus - i Cezar, i Brutus (zarówno Cezar, jak i Brutus)

-que wyraża mniejszy nacisk niż et; dołącza się je do drugiego z dwóch słów, które łączy (lub pierwszego słowa drugiego wyrażenia). Jeśli wyrażenie rozpoczyna się od jednosylabowego przyimka, wówczas -que dołącza się do następnego słowa:

Caesar Brutusque - cezar i brutus

In foroque - i na forum

Znaczenie "także", "nawet" można wyrazić na kilka sposobów:

Et - "i także":

Et tu, brute - i ty, brutusie (także)

Etiam - "nawet", "także" w zdaniach twierdzących:

Etiam mensas consumimus? - czy jemy nawet stoły?

Quoque - "także" zawsze bezpośrednio po rzeczowniku, który określa:

Amabat vos quoque Caesar. - cezar kochał także was.

Popularnym idiomem jest  non solum ...  sed etiam ... - nie tylko ... , ale także ... .

Słowa aut, vel i -ve oznaczają "albo" (także: "albo ... , albo ..."), ale są stosowane w nieco odmiennych sytuacjach:

Aut stosuje się wtedy, gdy podkreśla się wzajemne wykluczanie się możliwości:

Aut caesar aut nihil - albo cezar, albo nic

Vel stosuje sie wtedy, kiedy możliwości się nie wykluczają lub nie jest to istotne:

Servi in prato vel in horto sunt - niewolnicy są na łące albo w ogrodzie

-ve oznacza to samo, co vel, ale wyraża mniejszy nacisk, a funkcjonuje podobnie, jak -que:

Puer puellave - chłopiec albo dziewczyna

Znaczenie "ani" mają następujące konstrukcje:

Ne ... Quidem - "ani (nawet)" w zdaniach przeczących:

Brutus ne verbum quidem dicit. - brutus nie mówi ani (nawet) słowa.

Nec ... Nec ... (neque ... Neque ...) - mają to samo znaczenie "ani ... Ani ...":

Neque galli neque germani romanos superant. - ani gallowie, ani germanie nie zwyciężają rzymian.

Kiedy nec/neque nie jest powtórzone, oznacza zwykle "i nie":

Contra gallos locum muniunt neque iumenta solvunt. - przeciw gallom szykują miejsce i nie odwiązują zwierząt.

FINIS CITATIONIS 


Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
20 de abr de 2014 12:31
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
20 de abr de 2014 12:55
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
19 de abr de 2014 17:17
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
19 de abr de 2014 19:08
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
25 de mar de 2014 05:42
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
9 de set de 2014 17:59
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
27 de abr de 2014 04:14
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