04 Método rápido para aprender Latim. Quick method for learning Latin

PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. SP. BRASIL. LEARNING LATIN THE EASY WAY. QUICK METHODS FOR LEARNING HOW TO READ AND WRITE LATIN. MÉTODOS RÁPIDOS PARA APRENDER A LER LATIM E ESCREVER EM LATIM MODERNO UTILITÁRIO

To write immediately  modern Latin we must adhere to four rules: Rule 1. To Adopt the syntax of modern languages; Rule 2. To stick faithfully to the classical morphology, that has been  normalized by grammarians throughout the centuries; Rule 3. Freedom of vocabulary: The set of Modern Latin vocabulary will admit three subsets: 1). Classical and  medieval vocabulary, both reduced to the modern Ramist orthography, that distinguishes u from v, and  i from j and has an alphabet identical to the English one . 2). Modern vocabulary of Greek and Latin origin,  borrowed from modern languages and restituted to their proper Latin forms and orthography. 3). Neologisms of non-Latin or non-Greek origin internationally undestood, keeping their original orthography and declining them with prepositions, as neuter nouns. 4).  Modern latinists are allowed to continue  creating words, as the Greek and Romans did,  by composition, derivation or juxtaposition, according to the rules of the  Latin grammar and the advices of the Roman poet Horatius Flaccus inhis Ars Poetica.

Rule 1. Write Latin as a modern analytical language [keeping its proper morphology]. This deserves a short digression about the history of the Latin language:

Latin is a single idiom used as a living language for at least 2500 years. Untill the year 700 AD it continued as an official written language in the Roman Eastern Empire or Romania Orientalis. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, 476 AD, and the steady spread of Christianism,  Latin continued as a necessary  written and spoken language, in the whole of the Romania Occidentalis, but in Western Europe, spoken or colloquial Latin suffered independent and continuous local transformations,  untill it became the well-known Neolatin languages: Italian, French, Catalan, Provenzal, Sardinian, Spanish, Gallician, Rumantsch and Portuguese.

Notwithstanding the corruption process suffered by Latin, as a spoken language, in its written form this language  continued to be used by local administrations, and by the Catholic Church, and latter by the Anglican Church, until today, without any interruption, keeping its morphology and a major part of its classical vocabulary,  a fact whose paramount importance is often ignored or deliberately minimized by the academias. Latin was never a dead language as Classical Greek, Classical  Hebrew, or Carthaginian Aramaic are. Classical or Ciceronian Latin was just an academic and forensical writing fashion, for less than a century, and that  was already dead by the time of Tacitus (50-120). Several contemporary writers, such as the Emperor Augustus (  ) and Seneca ( ), the Philosopher, or the African writers of this period did not adhere to the syntactical strictures of  Classical Latin, and even mocked it. As we can easily verify by reading Augustus' Testament, Seneca's Epistulae ad Lucilium, the pastoral teachings of the Popes, since Peter,  and one thousand years of medieval Latin litterature, in both Romanias, the  Latin language syntax  changed continuously in the direction of simplicity, that is, towards the logical "subject- verb- object" order,  that  we finally observe, as a natural norm, in the modern Neolatin languages, in English, in Modern Greek, in Chinese, in the Slavic languages of today and in the auxiliary international languages Esperanto, Interlingua, and Slovio, recently created,  etc 

The easiest way to learn Latin quickly is to read aloud and to write the language as much as possible.The student must read an elementary Latin grammar to  acquire the capacity of declining nouns , pronouns and adjectives. He must learn, at the same time, the invariable words: prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs.  The best way for learning variable and invariable words is by copying down and reciting them  in loud voice. In studying vocabulary, he must depart from his  vernacule language and move to the Latin. He must learn, for instance,  that king in English  is rex in Latin, that to work is laborare, to forgive is perdonare, etc   and continuously  ask  how to say in Latin the names of objects, geographical accidents, colours,  actions etc. As soon .as  he  has learned the two groups of prepositions and the two cases they demand the student can already  read lists of Latin phrases with their translations, trying to memorize many of them, to use in his writing. As he or she continues with the memorization of the declensions, using the mneumonics tricks, the student should start copying and reading aloud  Latin authors as those listed in pdf below, presented  in direct order and translated in interlinear or juxtalinear way. Consider a period of Phedrus, the poet, in his first fable: "Siti compulsi, ad rivum eumdem lupus et agnus venerant; superior ( superiori parte) stabat lupus,  longe-que  ( inferiori locu) agnus (stabat)". Using interlinear or juxtalinear translations the only objective is to understand the Latin text. The student should produce his own Latin text, as I did . Keeping the syntax of a modern language we could write it in a different way: Compulsi a siti, lupus et agnus venerunt ad eumdem rivum: parte superiori lupus, et longe in locu inferiori stabat agnus. 



BIBLIOGRAFIA. A GENERAL BRAZILIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE

Esta bibliografia disponibiliza para downloads dicionários e as principais obras didáticas utilizadas no Brasil, para o ensino do Latim, em português e noutros idiomas europeus. Dictionaries and textbooks used in Brazil for teaching Latin.

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

https://archive.org/details/EnsaioSobreOUsoDoLatimNaBotanica
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27 de abr de 2014 04:00
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