04 Método rápido para aprender Latim. Quick method for learning Latin. Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre le latin

PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. SP. BRASIL. LEARNING LATIN THE EASY WAY. QUICK METHODS FOR LEARNING HOW TO READ AND WRITE LATIN. MÉTODOS RÁPIDOS PARA APRENDER A LER LATIM E ESCREVER EM LATIM MODERNO UTILITÁRIO. NOUVELLES MÉTHODES POUR APPRENDRE LE LATIN

NouvelleS méthodeS pour apprendre le latin. Since the sixteenth century new forms for successfully learning Latin have been suggested all over Europe and in America. Before presenting our own method, we submit some early French proposals for simplifying the toil and accelerating the learning the Roman Language, one of the earliest is that by De Launay, adopted by many in France and in England.

"M. De Launay. NOUVELLE MÉTHODE POUR APPRENDRE LA LANGUE LATINE  par un système si facile, qu’il est à la portée d’un enfant de 5 à 6 ans qui sait lire: et si prompt, qu’on y fait plus de progrès em 2 ou 3 années, qu’en 8 ou 10, en suivant la route ordinnaire. Ouvrage, par lequel tout sujet capable d’application, depuis 5 ans, jusqu’à 60, après avoir été enseigné un mois ou deux, peut ensuite, non seulement aprendre seul et sans maître, à expliquer les auteurs latins les plus difficiles, et à rendre raison de toutes régles de la grammaire: mais encore enseigner cette langue comme um habile homme, et de la manière la plus commode et la plus facile, sans aucun éffort d’imagination ni de mémoire. Tout homme sensé , qui a um commencement d’étude, peut jugér de la bonté de cét ouvrage. Après une heure d’éxamen. Ce système est général, et peut s’appliquér à toutes les langues. En quatre volumes in -octavo. À Paris MDCCLXVIII. Tomes prémier et sécond".

Le secret de cette méthode c'est l'utilisation des textes du latin classique présentés en ordre directe, c'est-à-dire, in ordine analytica vel constructa. L'auteur choisi par Delaunay est Phèdre.  Un étudiant apprénant le latin sans le sécours d'un maître doit se procurer des texts classiques avec le text original et deux traductions en vernacule, une mot à mot l'autre normale. En France, la colléction des auteurs latins serve três bien a ce propos. Voyez les auteurs latins expliqués d'après une methode nouvelle par deux traductions françaises l'une littérale et juxtalinéaire, présentant le mot a mot français, en regard des mots latins correspondants, l'autre correcte et fidèle precedée du texte latin, avec des sommaires et des notes.  

https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5821613g.texteImage

https://archive.org/details/FabulasDeFedro.FablesDePhedre.trad.justalinear

En Angleterre et aux États Unis on trouve aussi des traduction litérales des tous les auteurs classiques. La méthode de Delaunay est connue chez les anglo-saxons comme Hamilton method. Les traduction normales des auteurs latins sont utiles pour détérminer les contenus, mais elles ne suivent pas de près les textes originaux, étant três prolixes en comparaison avec le latin. 

https://books.google.com.br/books/download/Nouvelle_m%C3%A9thode_pour_aprendre_la_langu.pdf?id=vGkTAAAAQAAJ&hl=pt-BR&capid=AFLRE70etks1lkwrDgoNTL0n6O_rQVTBW4bXTPTJkDqnWsCYjkjH2LWyuA8cvOlDWblZFpynfzzrVNPGk1CIzeIJQAjNYenY9A&continue=https://books.google.com.br/books/download/Nouvelle_m%25C3%25A9thode_pour_aprendre_la_langu.pdf%3Fid%3DvGkTAAAAQAAJ%26hl%3Dpt-BR%26output%3Dpdf

"A NEW METHOD TO LEARN THE LATIN LANGUAGE by a system so easy, that it is within the reach of a child from 5 to 6 years old who knows how to read: and so prompt, that it makes more progress in 2 or 3 years, than in 8 or 10, following the ordinary road. Work, by which anyone capable of application, from 5 years, up to 60, after having been taught a month or two, can then, not only learn alone and without master, but also to explain the most difficult Latin authors, and to give reason to all rules of grammar, but still to teach this language as a skilful man, and in the most convenient and easy manner, without any effort of imagination or memory. Every sensible man, who has a beginning of study, can judge of the goodness of this work after an hour of examination. This system is general, and can be applied to all languages. In four volumes in -octavo. In Paris anno MDCCLXVIII. First and second volumes". As this work has more than 800 pages, we offer the crucial parts of it below as separate archives. 

https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k498067/f1.image

https://ia800301.us.archive.org/35/items/nouvellemethode00lanc/nouvellemethode00lanc.pdf

MÉTODO RÁPIDO PARA APRENDER A LER OS AUTORES CLÁSSICOS E ESCREVER OU FALAR EM LATIM MODERNO UTILITÁRIO.

We do not claim that even a five or six year old child would easily learn Latin by our method, but we are sure that any literate adult can learn Latin quickly and without a teacher by strategically using the grammar and vocabulary  knowledge he already has of his own vernacular. We are not interested in eventually being able to talk a few sentences in Latin somewhere in the world. We are interested in learning to write in normal simple Latin, immediately, about anything within our areas of action.

RULES FOR WRITING  LATIN IMMEDIATELY.  To write modern Latin we must adhere to four rules: Rule 1. To Adopt the syntax of modern languages; Rule 2. To stick faithfully to the classical morphology, that has been  normalized by grammarians throughout the centuries; Rule 3. Freedom of vocabulary: The set of modern Latin vocabulary will admit three subsets: 1). Classical and  medieval vocabulary, both reduced to the modern Ramist orthography, that distinguishes u from v, and  i from j and has an alphabet identical to the English one . 2). Modern vocabulary of Greek and Latin origin,  borrowed from modern languages and restituted to their proper Latin forms and orthography. 3). Neologisms of non-Latin or non-Greek origin internationally understood, keeping their original orthography and declining them with prepositions, as neuter nouns. 4).  Modern Latinists are allowed to continue  creating words, as the Greek and Romans did,  by composition, derivation or juxtaposition, according to the rules of the  Latin grammar and the advices of the Roman poet Horatius Flaccus in his Ars Poetica.

Rule 1. Write Latin as a modern analytical language [keeping its proper morphology]. This deserves a short digression about the history of the Latin language:

Latin is a single idiom used as a living language for at least 2500 years. Untill the year 700 AD it continued as an official written language in the Roman Eastern Empire or Romania Orientalis. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, 476 AD, and the steady spread of Christianism,  Latin continued as a necessary  written and spoken language, in the whole of the Romania Occidentalis, but in Western Europe, spoken or colloquial Latin suffered independent and continuous local transformations,  untill it became the well-known Neolatin languages: Italian, French, Catalan, Provenzal, Sardinian, Spanish, Gallician, Rumantsch and Portuguese.

Notwithstanding the corruption process suffered by Latin, as a spoken language, in its written form this language  continued to be used by local administrations, and by the Catholic Church, and latter by the Anglican Church, until today, without any interruption, keeping its morphology and a major part of its classical vocabulary,  a fact whose paramount importance is often ignored or deliberately minimized by the academias. Latin was never a dead language as Classical Greek, Classical  Hebrew, or Carthaginian Aramaic are. Classical or Ciceronian Latin was just an academic and forensical writing fashion, for less than a century, and that  was already dead by the time of Tacitus (50-120). Several contemporary writers, such as the Emperor Augustus (  ) and Seneca ( ), the Philosopher, or the African writers of this period did not adhere to the syntactical strictures of  Classical Latin, and even mocked it. As we can easily verify by reading Augustus' Testament, Seneca's Epistulae ad Lucilium, the pastoral teachings of the Popes, since Peter,  and one thousand years of medieval Latin litterature, in both Romanias, the  Latin language syntax  changed continuously in the direction of simplicity, that is, towards the logical "subject- verb- object" order,  that  we finally observe, as a natural norm, in the modern Neolatin languages, in English, in Modern Greek, in Chinese, in the Slavic languages of today and in the auxiliary international languages Esperanto, Interlingua, and Slovio, recently created,  etc 

The easiest way to learn Latin quickly is to read aloud and to write the language as much as possible.The student must read an elementary Latin grammar to  acquire the capacity of declining nouns , pronouns and adjectives. He must learn, at the same time, the invariable words: prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs.  The best way for learning variable and invariable words is by copying down and reciting them  in loud voice. In studying vocabulary, he must depart from his  vernacule language and move to the Latin. He must learn, for instance,  that king in English  is rex in Latin, that to work is laborare, to forgive is perdonare, etc   and continuously  ask  how to say in Latin the names of objects, geographical accidents, colours,  actions etc. As soon .as  he  has learned the two groups of prepositions and the two cases they demand the student can already  read lists of Latin phrases with their translations, trying to memorize many of them, to use in his writing. As he or she continues with the memorization of the declensions, using the mneumonics tricks, the student should start copying and reading aloud  Latin authors as those listed in pdf below, presented  in direct order and translated in interlinear or juxtalinear way. Consider a period of Phedrus, the poet, in his first fable: "Siti compulsi, ad rivum eumdem lupus et agnus venerant; superior ( superiori parte) stabat lupus,  longe-que  ( inferiori locu) agnus (stabat)". Using interlinear or juxtalinear translations the only objective is to understand the Latin text. The student should produce his own Latin text, as I did . Keeping the syntax of a modern language we could write it in a different way: Compulsi a siti, lupus et agnus venerunt ad eumdem rivum: parte superiori lupus, et longe in locu inferiori stabat agnus. 



BIBLIOGRAFIA. A GENERAL BRAZILIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE

Esta bibliografia disponibiliza para downloads dicionários e as principais obras didáticas utilizadas no Brasil, para o ensino do Latim, em português e noutros idiomas europeus. Dictionaries and textbooks used in Brazil for teaching Latin.

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

https://archive.org/details/EnsaioSobreOUsoDoLatimNaBotanica
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