05 O Vocabulário Latino Moderno. Modern Latin Vocabulary. Panlatin

O PROBLEMA DO VOCABULÁRIO LATINO MODERNO, THE PROBLEM OF THE MODERN LATIN VOCABULARY. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. SP. BRASIL.

Anno 2011, Nicolaus Gross in Ephemerides Leonina scripsit habere in animo componere magnum lexicon theodiscolatinum modernum universale. Considerabat lexica usque nunc scripta notiones rerum modernarum reddere mediante circumitionibus verborum molestis parumque utilibus. Auctores lexicorum vernaculo-neolatinorum  jam in luce praeberunt quaedam initia haudquaquam inutilia, nihilominus  lexica eorum neque per copias vocabulorum neque per qualitatem verborum ab iisdem novatorum sufficiunt ad necessitates hodiernas scribendi Latine de rebus economicis, scientificis technicisque modernis. Hi lexicographi de verbis antiquis colligendis optime quidem meriti sunt, sed de puritate sermonis nimium sollicitantes notiones recentiores plerumque non Latine reddunt nisi per circumloquia verborum molestis parumque utilibus uso expedito.  Gross primo intra spatium trium annorum planeabat  publicare lexicon minus, titolo  MODERNUM LEXICON MANUALE THEODISCO-LATINUM continens circiter 17.000 vocabula. Postea per fasciculos intentabat publicare  lexicum  maiore, quod intra spatium quindecim (15) annorum perfectum iri bene sperat.

Haec  quae sequuntur sunt, secundum auctorem  Nicolaum Gross,  rationes reddendi notionem modernam verbis Latinis vel octo practissima et facile methodus compilandi vocabularium Latinum modernum copiosum et utile: 1. paraphrasis,  2. attributio, 3. compositio, 4. derivatio,  5. relatinizatio, 6. usus linguae Graecae, 7. usus alius linguae peregrinae,  8. imitatio structuralis verbi peregrini. 

Source:               http://www.alcuinus.net/ephemeris/leonina/EL%2048.pdf

Haec octo rationes judiciose applicatae permittunt automatice recreare vocabularium Latinum modernum utilizando magnis lexicis linguarum vernacularum Neolatinarum, et Germanicarum, maxime per relatinizationem vocabulari Pan-latini; uso linguae Graecae et classicae et modernae; uso aliis linguis peregrinis, cujus vocabula technica possunt adoptari et declinari per praepositiones; attribuendo significatum novum ad vocabula Latina antiqua quae habeant transformationem semanticam in linguis neolatinis; utilizando mechanismis traditionalibus de compositione et derivatione per praefixationem, suffixationem et juxtapositionem; imitatione structuralibus verbi peregrini; utendo paraphrasibus ; semper vitando in limine periphrases etiamsi componitas exclusive vocabulorum classicorum. 

Cogitando in vernaculo suo, Scriptores linguae Latinae hodiernae possunt immediate scribere Latine, mentaliter utendo his mechanismis creationis vocabulari sine ulla consultatione lexico speciale Vernaculo-Latinum, quod ut vidimus nondum exstat.

LATINISTS OF THE HOLY SEE AND CLASSICISTS DIFFICULT THE SOLUTION OF THE MODERN LATIN VOCABULARY

We are in complete disagreement  with the Vatican's  Academics in relation to their sollutions and findings for translating modern languages terms into their present day Church Latin. Their position is described in the following  paragraphs  reproduced  from The Vatican Insider of the  23th  August 2014, on-line publication at  =http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/inquiries-and-interviews/detail/articolo/latino-latin-latin-papa-pope-el-papa-17766//pag/1/=. Incipit citationem:

“Academics are hard at work in the Holy See, coming up with neologisms to translate papal encyclicals and official documents. Translating Benedict XVI’s latest encyclical “Caritas in veritate” (July 2009) on social emergencies and the economic and financial crisis, into Latin, was no easy task. Some of the choices made by the Holy See’s Latin experts were criticised by influential Jesuit magazine La Civiltà Cattolica, which questioned the use of the terms “delocalizatio”, “anticonceptio” and “sterilizatio”, but approved “plenior libertas” for liberalisation and “fanaticus furor” for fanaticism. Some of the stranger translations included the term “fontes alterius generis” for alternative energy sources and “fontes energiae qui non renovantur” for non renewable energy sources”.

 “One of the men in charge of updating the Latin glossary which will make it possible to communicate even today in the language spoke by Cicero, is 47 year old Fr. Roberto Spataro, Professor of Ancient Christian Literature and Secretary of the Pontificium Institutum Altioris latinitatis (known today as the Faculty of Christian and Classical Letters) founded by Paul VI in what is currently the Salesian Pontifical University of Rome. “How would I translate “poison pen letter writer”? I knew that question was coming… Well, I would translate it as: “Domesticus delator” or “Intestinus proditor”, the priest said. He also explained how Latin neologisms are born: “There are two schools of thought. The first is what we may call the Anglo-Saxon school of thought, which holds that before a neologism is created, we need to sieve through all the texts that have been written in Latin – and not just classical Latin - throughout the centuries. The other school of thought, which for the sake of ease I will call Latin, holds that we can be freer in creating a circumlocution that properly conveys the idea and meaning of a modern word, whilst maintaining the flavour of classical Ciceronian Latin.”

“Spataro belongs to the  second school of thought and invites us “to leaf through the latest edition of the “Lexicon of recent is Latinitatis”, edited by Fr. Cleto Pavanetto, a distinguished Salesian Latin expert, and published in 2003, with 15.000 Latin translations of modern terms.” For example, photocopy is translated as “exemplar luce expressum”, a banknote is “charta nummária”, basket-ball is “follis canistrīque ludus”, best seller is “liber máxime divénditus”, blue-jeans are “bracae línteae caerúleae” and a goal is a “retis violátio”. Hot pants become “brevíssimae bracae femíneae”, VAT is translated as “fiscāle prétii additamentum”, a mountain bike is a “bírota montāna” and a parachute is an “umbrella descensória”. But the Lexicon lacks translations of internet terms. “Indeed it doesn’t, – Fr. Spataro explained – but over the last nine years, new expressions have been coined by those who write and speak Latin. So the internet is called “inter rete” and an e-mail address is referred to as “inscriptio cursus electronici”.

We will analyse and criticize the above statements on vocabulary in the light of our  proposed method for writing modern Latin with ease AS stated on page 04 of MODERN LATIN STUDIES:

To write immediately  modern Latin we must adhere to four rules: Rule 1. To Adopt the syntax of modern languages; Rule 2. To stick faithfully to the classical morphology, that has been  normalized by grammarians throughout the centuries; Rule 3. Freedom of vocabulary: Our  set of Modern Latin vocabulary will admit three subsets: 1). Classical and  medieval vocabulary, both reduced to the modern Ramist orthography, that distinguishes u from v, and  i from j and has an alphabet identical to the English one . 2). Modern vocabulary of Greek and Latin origin,  borrowed from modern languages and restituted to their proper Latin forms and orthography. 3). Neologisms of non-Latin or non-Greek origin internationally undestood, keeping their original orthography and declining them with prepositions, as neuter nouns. 4).  Modern latinists are allowed to continue  creating words, as the Greek and Romans did,  by composition, derivation or juxtaposition, according to the rules of the  Latin grammar and the advices of the Roman poet Horatius Flaccus in his Ars Poetica.

BIBLIOGRAFIA. A GENERAL BRAZILIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE

Esta bibliografia disponibiliza para downloads dicionários e as principais obras didáticas utilizadas no Brasil, para o ensino do Latim, em português e noutros idiomas europeus. Dictionaries and textbooks used in Brazil for teaching Latin.

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

ESTUDOS DE LATIM MODERNO

[1] O Latim como língua auxiliar internacional

[2] Aprender Latim pelas Línguas Românicas e pelo Inglês

[3] A Língua Latina estudada com a Internet

[4] Métodos rápidos para aprender Latim Clássico

[5] O problema do vocabulário latino moderno

[6] O babelismo internacional e o Latim

[7] Observações sobre as diferentes latinidades

[8] Conservação da gramática latina clássica

[9] Declinação dos substantivos latinos

[10] Declinação dos adjetivos latinos

[11] O verbo latino e sua conjugação

[12] Advérbios, preposiçoes e interjeições

[13] A sintaxe latina: a ordem das palavras

[14] Método para traduzir em latim moderno

[15] Textos em latim moderno utilitário

DARCY CARVALHO, 31/12/2013

O problema do vocabulário latino moderno

O problema crucial do LATIM UTILITARIO OU NATURAL refere-se ao vocabulário, aos neologismos, principalmente cientificos e tecnicos, e aos emprestimos inevitaveis que terão de ser feitos aos idiomas modernos. Sobre situação identica vivida pelas linguas modernas, no seu periodo de formação, ver, preliminarmente, J. PLANCHE, VOCABULAIRE DES LATINISMES DE LA LANGUE FRANÇAISE OU DES LOCUTIONS FRANÇAISES EMPRUNTÉES LITTERALEMENT DE LA LANGUE LATINE. Este documento justifica nosso metodo, no que se refere a ampliação do vocabulario. Evidencia a forma como os idiomas modernos cresceram lexicamente colhendo de modo sistematico no latim literario o vocabulario culto e as suas melhores expressões.

http://books.google.fr/books/about/Vocabulaire_des_latinismes_de_la_langue.html?hl=fr&id=1RUJAAAAQAAJ

Na mesma linha ver também as tres obras seguintes, de Henricus Stephanus, Vortius e Ripeanu:

DE LATINITATE FALSO SUSPECTA, EXPOSTULATIO HENRICI STEPHANI: Lingua solve latinus eris. http://books.google.es/books/download/De_latinitate_falso_suspecta_expostulati.pdf?id=jA9NAAAAcAAJ&hl=es&capid=AFLRE72KOXWkAeda4AZ9xIcA-luC05z_fg7r-VhGKFWZyM5xoZZRxOOwF4UJrr_13kub6pzg6-AGmBF20pSBC3jnHeP3Q5NtkQ&continue=http://books.google.es/books/download/De_latinitate_falso_suspecta_expostulati.pdf%3Fid%3DjA9NAAAAcAAJ%26hl%3Des%26output%3Dpdf

DE LATINITATE FALSO SUSPECTA, DEQUE LATINAE LINGUAE CUM GERMANICA CONVENIENTIA, LIBER CUI ALTER. DE LATINITATE MERITO SUSPECTA ADJECTUS EST, AUCTORE JOHANNE VORSTIO

 http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/dms/werkansicht/?PPN=598775293&PHYSID=PHYS_0006

http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/dms/werkansicht/?PPN=598775293&PHYSID=PHYS_0006

REINHEIMER-RIPEANU, SANDA (2004): LES EMPRUNTS LATINS DANS LES LANGUES ROMANES. BUCURESTI: EDITURA UNIVERSITAUII DIN BUCURESTI, 226 P. Cito: Bien conçu, l’ouvrage se rapporte à des questions ayant trait à L’emprunt lexical (p. 12-42), à la Morphologie des emprunts (p. 43-60), à la Phonétique et graphie (p. 61-126), à la sémantique (Un peu de sémantique) (p. 127-131), aux Latinismes dans les lexiques romans actuels (p. 132-136), au Latinisme et mot hérité (p. 137-162), au Latinisme et emprunt inter-roman (p. 163-165), au Latinismeet mot dérivé (p. 166-181), aux Latinismes dans les langues non-romanes (p. 182-184). A cela, s’ajoutent un index, la bibliographie et la liste des dictionnaires consultés. Fin. Cit.

Actes du Colloque international. LES EMPRUNTS AU FRANÇAIS DANS LES LANGUES EUROPÉENNES . Comité de rédaction: Maria Iliescu, Université d’Innsbruck (Autriche), Adriana Costăchescu, Université de Craiova (Roumanie),Mihaela Popescu, Université de Craiova (Roumanie).Daniela Dincă, Université de Craiova (Roumanie),Gabriela Scurtu, Université de Craiova (Roumanie).

http://www.fromisem.ro/publicatii/actesducolloqueinternational.pdf

Cito: Les langues ont toujours fait preuve de leur capacité de s’adapter aux changements sociaux, économiques, politiques, technologiques ou scientifiques. Pour pouvoir servir efficacement à la communication dans des contextes donnés et dénommer avec précision les nouvelles réalités, elles ont dû créer, dériver, emprunter ou adapter de nouvelles unités lexicales. Les emprunts lexicaux se constituent ainsi en un espace fertile de recherche qui suppose le contact entre plusieurs systèmes linguistiques, entre plusieurs cultures, entre plusieurs identités spirituelles. Ces derniers temps, le phénomène de l’emprunt lexical a suscité un vif intérêt de la part des chercheurs, qui se sont penchés sur les divers aspects de la circulation des mots pris et repris dans diverses langues. Les recherches ont examiné les multiples facettes de ce phénomène, à partir des aspects purement linguistiques phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, sémantiques ou pragmatiques) jusqu’aux aspects sociolinguistiques et culturels (qui voient dans les emprunts une manifestation du processus actuel de globalisation). Finis Cit.

O LATIM UTILITARIO OU NATURAL, entendido não só como um procedimento pedagogico, que permite o acesso ao latim classico em poucas semanas, mas também como uma lingua natural, sem preocupações estilisticas, auxiliar e international, fortemente associada ás linguas neolatinas contemporaneas, ao inglês e ás demais linguas modernas cultas, enfrentará na atualização do seu vocabulario os mesmos problemas que teem preocupado os linguistas romenos acima citados cujo idioma, o mais jovem entre os neolatinos, também se encontra em continuo processo de formação.

SOME PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED IN PRODUCING MODERN USABLE AND INTELLIGIBLE MODERN LATIN VOCABULARY, BY USING EXISTING BILINGUAL OR MULTILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, LATIN- VERNACULAR, VERNACULAR-LATIN OR VERNACULAR-VERNACULAR-VERNACULAR DICTIONARIES. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO

As an example of a Latin-Vernacular Lexicon let us consider 1) the Cassel Latin-English-Latin Dictionary, or another in any other language, especially the French ones; and 2) for a Vernacular-Vernacular-Vernacular Dictionary the six languages Eurodictionary, that register side by side terms with the same meaning in Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, French, English and German.

[1] If we start with the Latin-English side of the Cassel Dictionary, our problem would consist in deleting unnecessary obsolete words, mostly of a mythological and geographical nature, as well as, proper names of persons or gods. If we prefer to work from English to Latin , the problem of producing a modern usable Latin vocabulary would consist mostly in suppressing Latin paraphrasis and substituting them by a single, simple Latin term, conveniently taken from the acknowledged Latin vocabulary of the modern languages, or by simply adopting a modern term, in whatever modern language it may occur.

[2] A multiple language dictionary usually exhibits words that have the same form in several different languages. These words should be considered as international words suitable for immediate inclusion in our modern Latin dictionary. This is the intelligent sollution adopted by the constructors of International Auxiliary Languages. Among these international words the vast majority will be pan-romanic words, that occur in all the Neolatin modern languages, English included.

[3] The processes of derivation and composition of words, very well established by the classical grammar, will be freely used in the creation of the modern Latin vocabulary.

[4] Given the nature of Latin, as a synthetical language, with a complex system of declensions, we have to tackle the problem of finding a suitable declension for any new term. It is a well known fact that, even in classical times, some words could belong to two different declensions. This precedent allows us a certain flexibility in choosing declensions for the new terms.

[5] Classical Latin, too, had words lacking cases or behaving as invariable words. This fact permit us to consider as invariable words certain terms taken from the Germanic languages. Invariable terms would be declined by means the prepositions.

[6] Contrary to what occurred in classical Latin, all the five declensions will be considered as equally important and living. It means that the convenient fourth declension can be used to host new masculine substantives, formed immediately from the past participle of the verbs.

[7] The three forms adjective will, therefore, permit creating substantives for the first, second and fourth declensions.

[8] New verbs will be created in the first conjugation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CASSELL`S LATIN DICTIONARY, LATIN-ENGLISH, ENGLISH-LATIN, BY D.P. SIMPSON, MACMILLAN , USA

EURO DICIONÁRIO [ EUROPAÏSCHES WÖRTERBUCH], HENRI E MONIQUE GOURSAU, CIRCULO DE LEITORES, 1992 [This text will be continued]

NOTA BIBLIOGRÁFICA

Nossos mestres de latim serão  os dicionários que contenham os  vocábulos em seus contextos de aplicação. Um número enorme de vocábulos latinos, tais  como as denominações geográficas, de  há 2000 anos atrás, e milhares de  nomes próprios gregos e latinos, incluidos nos dicionários acadêmicos, não tem importância para escrever latim moderno, ou seja,  sobre o mundo atual. São indispensáveis para vocabulário moderno, os glossários técnicos, e grandes dicionários monolíngues vernáculos como os seguintes, SHORTER OXFORD, WEBSTER, ROBERT, HOUAISS, AURELIO, ANTENOR NASCENTES, JOAN CAROMINES, FARIA, que trazem  informações etimológicas, ou seja as palavras vernáculas acompanhadas da palavra latina ou grega que lhe deu origem, frequentemente um vocábulo do latim medieval. Dos séculos XVI ao XIX, foram publicados dicionários plurilíngues ou trilingues, contendo uma  versão latina  para os vocábulos vernáculos. São indispensáveis para pesquisar vocabulário latino aplicável ao mundo moderno.

Nossos dicionários são os seguintes: CREATOR DARCY CARVALHO.[VIA GOOGLE ]          

https://archive.org/details/F.rDosSantosSaraivaNoviss.Dic.LatinoPortuguez

http://archive.org/details/FelixGaffiotDictionnaireIllustr.LatinFrancais

http://archive.org/details/RaphaelBluteauVocabulPortuguezLatinoLetraA

https://archive.org/details/AntenorNascentesDicionaroEtimologicoDaLinguaPortuguesaTomoI

https://archive.org/details/DiccionarioDeRaizesECognatosDaLinguaPortugueza

http://archive.org/details/Vocabul.LatinoPortuguesPorFamiliaDePalavras

http://archive.org/details/DificuldadesLexicasDaLinguaLatinaIndiceRemissivo

http://archive.org/details/VerbosLatinos.ElenchusVerborumLatinorum

http://archive.org/details/ChaveDaVersaoLatinaPorC.TorresPastorino

Para comparar as duas línguas e aprender as duas, ler SOUZA DA SILVEIRA,  JERONIMO SOARES BARBOSA E  EDUARDO CARLOS PEREIRA, principalmente nas partes referentes á formação de palavras.

http://archive.org/details/LicoesDePortuguesPorSouzaDaSilveira

http://archive.org/details/GramaticaComparadaDoPortuguesComOLatimParaAmbosSeAprenderemAoMesmo

http://archive.org/details/CursoSuperiorDeGramaticaExpositivaPortuguesa

Para comparar as declinações latinas com as alemãs, russas e gregas ver os TEACH YOURSELF seguintes, por excelentes autores publicados, pela English University Press:

http://archive.org/details/TeachYourselfGermanBySirJohnAdamsRevised

http://archive.org/details/TeachYourselfRussianAprendaRussoSozinho

http://archive.org/details/ModernGreek

FIM  DA  NOTA  BIBLIOGRÁFICA.

Cf. pdf JOÃO PAULO SILVESTRE, 2001: O VOCABULARIO PORTUGUEZ E LATINO (1712-1728)

PRINCIPAIS CARACTERÍSTICAS DA OBRA LEXICOGRÁFICA DE RAFAEL BLUTEAU

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