06 O babelismo internacional e o Latim

ESTUDOS DE LATIM MODERNO

[1] O Latim como língua auxiliar internacional

[2] Aprender Latim pelas Línguas Românicas e pelo Inglês

[3] A Língua Latina estudada com a Internet

[4] Métodos rápidos para aprender Latim Clássico

[5] O problema do vocabulário latino moderno

[6] O babelismo internacional e o Latim

[7] Observações sobre as diferentes latinidades

[8] Conservação da gramática latina clássica

[9] Declinação dos substantivos latinos

[10] Declinação dos adjetivos latinos

[11] O verbo latino e sua conjugação

[12] Advérbios, preposiçoes e interjeições

[13] A sintaxe latina: a ordem das palavras

[14] Método para traduzir em latim moderno

[15] Textos em latim moderno utilitário

capitulo ix. o babelismo internacional e o latim moderno ( utilitário).

latim viii: parte 1. como traduzir para latim moderno qualquer texto escrito de uma língua moderna.

latim viii: parte 2. pela criação de um latim utilitário moderno. newman, bayet, clédat, vido angelino, gaius licoppe. t. pekannen e r. pitkaranta


BIBLIOGRAFIA. A GENERAL BRAZILIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDY OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE

Esta bibliografia disponibiliza para downloads dicionários e as principais obras didáticas utilizadas no Brasil, para o ensino do Latim, em português e noutros idiomas europeus. Dictionaries and textbooks used in Brazil for teaching Latin.

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads


[6] O babelismo internacional e o Latim

O BABELISMO INTERNACIONAL E O LATIM MODERNO UTILITÁRIO

O BABELISMO INTERNACIONAL E O LATIM MODERNO. PARTE 1. COMO TRADUZIR PARA LATIM MODERNO QUALQUER TEXTO ORIGINADO DE UMA LÍNGUA MODERNA CONTEMPORÂNEA. ENGLISH VERSION. HOW TO TRANSLATE ANY MODERN LANGUAGE INTO UNDERSTANDABLE MODERN LATIN . PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SAO PAULO, 15/12/2013

INTRODUÇÃO. A multiplicidade das línguas nacionais exige que em congressos, ou em entidades internacionais de âmbito mundial, documentos de interesse coletivo sejam traduzidos para somente um ou dois idiomas de conhecimento geral. Suporemos que um desses idiomas internacionais seja o Inglês e o outro um Latim moderno, viável por sua simplicidade, cuja construção temos defendido, e a que nos temos referido como Latim Utilitário. Essa denominação foi criada, en passant, por Jean Bayet, em Les Langues Internationales, Collection Que Sais-Je?, para indicar uma forma de Latim escrito em ordem analítica, fácil de escrever e entender, pela aceitação de neologismos modernos.

Na primeira parte deste capítulo, demonstraremos como traduzir documentos do Inglês para o Latim utilitário ou moderno; na segunda, discutiremos os autores que propuseram meios para facilitar o ensino do Latim, para assegurar-lhe uma vigorosa existência e ampla difusão como idioma auxiliar internacional e acadêmico.

Cabe lembrar que, há mais de 100 anos, os construtores de línguas internacionais teem se esforçado para criar idiomas internacionais auxiliares artificiais, tendo o Latim e o Grego e as línguas Neolatinas como elementos fundamentais nas suas criações. Seus esforços podem contribuir para orientar a construção do Latim Utilitário, principalmente na parte referente ao vocabulário moderno.

Apresentaremos este tópico primeiramente em inglês e em seguida em português, a versão portuguesa será mais concisa e tratará também das línguas internacionais e de suas relações com o Latim Utilitário

O BABELISMO INTERNACIONAL E O LATIM MODERNO. PARTE 1. COMO TRADUZIR PARA LATIM MODERNO QUALQUER TEXTO ORIGINADO DE UMA LÍNGUA MODERNA CONTEMPORÂNEA. ENGLISH VERSION. HOW TO TRANSLATE ANY MODERN LANGUAGE INTO UNDERSTANDABLE MODERN LATIN . PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SAO PAULO, 15/12/2013

INTRODUCTION .There are some simple procedures that we must follow when, thinking in English, or in another of the modern European languages, we want to produce a kind of Latin litteray text for our thoughts, that can be more or less easily comprehensible for any adult litterate person, who be proficient in any of the existing Neolatin Languages. Our set of simple procedures will be explained step by step below.

We have already explicited the historical, linguistical and philological facts that fundament our approach: they involve the origin and the nature of the Latin language, as a member of the Indo-European family, the role of the Alexandrian and South Italian Greek in its transformation into an advanced litterary language, its spreading to the whole Europe, its further transformation during the Middle Ages, its rebirth in the Renascence and modern centuries, and its planned and systematic elimination, after the XVII century, until our own days. Latin for us is the whole Latin language, from the creation of Rome to the recent papal encyclicas.

The proposed method of translation does not alter the Latin morphology , it purposedly adopt just one of the many possible word orders of the Latin language, and it is fundamentally dependent on the choice of a suitable vocabulary. As we just want to give in Latin all the information contained in the vernacular text, through a translation that has not the aiming of being a word for word version, and it is free to ignore the syntactical practices of the celebrated Latin classical authors of the first century of the Christian era.

In order to exemplify our procedures, let us consider a paragraph of a text about a televisive series broadcasted in England, in the year 2000, < A History of Britain> , taken from Wikipedia.

< A HISTORY OF BRITAIN> ENGLISH TEXT TO BE TRANSLATED IN MODERN LATIN

QUOTE. A History of Britain is a BBC documentary series written and presented by Simon Schama, first transmitted in the United Kingdom from 30 September 2000. A study of the history of the British Isles, each of the 15 episodes allows Schama to examine a particular period and tell of its events in his own style. All the programmes are of 59 minutes' duration and were broadcast over three series, ending 18 June 2002. The series was produced in conjunction with The History Channel and the executive producer was Martin Davidson. The music was composed by John Harle, whose work was augmented by vocal soloists such as Emma Kirkby and Lucie Skeaping. Schama's illustrative presentation was aided by readings from actors, including Lindsay Duncan, Michael Kitchen, Christian Rodska, Samuel West and David Threlfall. END OF QUOTE. Source Wikipedia

GIVEN A TEXT IN ANY LANGUAGE TO BE TRANSLATED INTO MODERN LATIN , THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURES APPLY:

FIRST, READ THE WHOLE TEXT FOR PERFECT UNDERSTANDING OF THE FACTS AND THEIR CONTEXT.

This short English text contains concrete information about contemporary facts, that we want to communicate in Latin, for contemporary readers, who are familiar with the Western European Civilization of today. Thus, even if our resulting Latin text may result grammatically perfect, and easily understandable by contemporary readers, in any part of the Western World, a Roman person, living in the time of Cicero or in Augustinus´ or Erasmus´ epochs , certainly would not understand it, for lack of factual, scientific, social and political information.

HAVING READ THE TEXT, WE MUST DETERMINE THE NATURE AND PROCEDENCE OF THE VERNACULAR WORDS CONTAINED IN IT. THIS PROCEDURE WILL SUPPLY THE LATIN WORDS WE NEED TO USE TO CONVERT THE VERNACULE IN LATIN WITHOUT THE NEED OF CONSULTING ENGLISH- LATIN DICTIONARIES.

NATURE OF THE WORDS. According to their grammatical nature, the vernacular vocabules can be divided in variables and invariable words. The variables words include nouns and pronouns. The nouns may be substantives or adjectives. The substantives may be proper or common. The proper nouns may be names of persons or geographical denominations.

PROCEDURE OF TRANSLATION FOR PROPER NOUNS CONTAINED IN THE MODERN TEXT WE WANT TO TRANSLATE IN LATIN:

The text contains geographical proper names and names of non-Roman people living in Britain today. The only geographical names in the text are Britain, British Isles and United Kingdom. The personnal proper nouns are Simon Schama, Martin Davidson, John Harle, Emma Kirkby, Lucie Skeaping, Lindsay Duncan, Michael Kitchen, Christian Rodska, Samuel West and David Threlfall are names of persons.

In modern Latin proper foreign names of persons towns and countries will not be translated or Latinized, and keep the present ortography of their original languages, grammaticaly they will be considered as invariable words and declined with prepositions, de, ad, cum, a or ab. Foreign words can be used with any Latin preposition without changing their form.

Geographical proper names poses a particular problem, because the old Latin names have no meaning for contemporary people. Therefore, geographical names must retain in our Latin translation their present modern form. The capital city of China, for instance, used to be called Pekin, nowadays it is named Beijing. In modern Latin it must have this same denomination and the word behaves as an invariable word. The Britannia of Caesar´s time certainly does not necessarily corresponds to the same entity now called Britain, or Great Britain, comprising England, Scotland and Wales and sorrounding archipelagos. Only in very particular circumstances we would be allowed to translate Britain as Britannia.

In other words, and reiterating, modern Latin must in principle respect the present realities of our geographical world context. There is no point in adopting forgotten Roman names for present day geographical entities, and certainly we will nor romanize modern names. Charles will be Charles, not Carolus.

CONSTRUCTION OF A MODERN LATIN VOCABULARY BY DETERMINING THE PROCEDENCE OF THE WORDS CONTAINED IN THE ENGLISH TEXT WE WANT TO TRANSLATE IN LATIN: THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT STEP, FOR IT IS THE KEY FOR WRITING MODERN LATIN WITH FACILITY.

We must identify the Latin, the Greek, the foreign and the native Anglo-Saxon vocabulary contained in the English text to be translated in Latin. In any text belonging to a modern language , we immediately perceive, side by side, with native words, vocabula that were taken directly from Classical Greek or from Latin, be it Classical, Vulgar or Mediaeval, together with neologisms, commercial as well as scientific, newly composed with Greek or Latin elements, such as roots, prefixes and suffixes, following precise accepted grammatical usage in word construction.

Some words of non-clearly identified origin can nonetheless be immediately translated to any other modern language. From these translations it is possible to deduce a suitable modern Latin term. By suitable term we mean a term in Latin that is also Pan-Romanic, or internationally used.

Thus, our first task will be to identify the Latin or Greek vocabulary contained in the text, including modern neologisms of a Greek or Latin composition. These words will immediately reassume their true Latin or Greek form and will be considered as known Latin vocabulary, ready to be used in our Latin text. Of course, our text may contain some untranslatable foreign words, barbara vocabula , that is, barbaric or peregrine vocabules, as the Roman lexicographers used to call them.

Following Cicero´s and Horace´s advices , anyone we can, eventually , create new Latin words. Remember that the word gas was invented by the Dutch chemist Van Helmont ( 1577- 1644), from the Nederlandish pronunciation of the Greek word chaos. Gas is therefore a barbaric international word that, being international, must be adopted by modern Latin chemical vocabulary as gas, gasis, in the third declension, ablative singular gase.

DETERMINATION OF THE LATIN AND GREEK WORDS CONTAINED IN THE ENGLISH TEXT

Applying our criteria to the very short English text quoted above, we immediately identify the following Latin and Greek words, that we will register with an ablative termination for immediate declension identification. We must always carefully determine the correct gender and the declension of each identified Latin word, and the correct pronuntiation of verbs in –ere.

THE IDENTIFIED LATIN WORDS OF THE ENGLISH TEXT IN THEIR ABLATIVE SINGULAR FORMS. THE RECYCLED, REUSABLE LATIN VOCABULARY THAT THE ENGLISH TEXT ITSELF FURNISHES WITHOUT ANY TOIL OF OUR PART.

The identified Latin words are : Historia, Britannia, vel Magna Britannia, documentario, serie, presentato, transmisso, regno, unito, Regno Unito, septembri, studio, insula, episodio, programmate, minuto, duratione, junio, producta, in conjunctione cum, cannale, executivo, productore, musica, componita, augmentato, vocali , soloista, presentatione, illustrativa, actore, includere, particulari, periodo, stilo, executivo.

THE TREATMENT OF THE GREEK WORDS . ANY GREEK WORD FOUND IN THE ENGLISH TEXT WILL BE TREATED ACCORDING TO THE LATIN GRAMMAR PRECEPTS AND NOT AS A BARBARIC WORD.

IN THE ENGLISH TEXT WE IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING GREEK WORDS: episodio, programmate, musica, periodo and stilo.

LATIN OR GREEK NEOLOGISMS IN THE ENGLISH TEXT WILL BE ACCEPTED AS SUITABLE FOR IMMEDIATE INCORPORATION IN THE MODERN LATIN VOCABULARY. THIS CRITERIA INVOLVES THE NECESSARY ACCEPTANCE INTO OUR MODERN UTILITARIAN LATIN OF THE WHOLE MODERN SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY.

The only neologism in this English text is SOLOISTA.

THE SEMANTIC EVOLUTION OF THE DETECTED LATIN OR GREEK WORDS OF THE ENGLISH TEXT MUST BE ACCEPTED. IN MODERN LATIN WE ACCEPT THE SEMANTIC EVOLUTION OF THE LATIN VOCABULA

As all Latin and Greek words in modern use have at least 2500 years of wear and tear, one certainly may argument that their meanings have changed during these milennia. We can dismiss possible impugnations to our procedure of accepting or atributing new meanings to old Latin words, with the plain argument that we write modern Latin for present day readers and not for Plautus or Cato or Varron and even less for Cicero, Valla, Fronton , Aulus Gellius, and much less for supercilious cultors of Classical Latin.

Having identified in the English Text its Latin and Greek vocabulary, we take it as an invariable postulate that they mean in modern Latin exactly what they mean in the vernacular modern text. In modern Latin we accept, therefore, the semantic evolution of the Latin vocabula. The practical implication of this is that school dictionaries, limited to classical writers, are insufficient for our use.

In Universities, almost all over the world, the academic activity of studying Latin does not involve writing it. When a Latin text is to be produced, it must be written in perfect classical language.

IDENTIFYING THE NON- LATIN NON-HELLENIC WORDS IN THE ENGLISH TEXT. THIS MEANS TRANSLATING INTO LATIN THE REMAINING ANGLO-SAXON NATIVE WORDS USING A PAN-ROMANIC VOCABULARY.

We must next list the non-Latin and non-Greek words contained in the English text, that is, to identify the Anglo-Saxon vocabules and obtain their Latin translation into pan- romanic or international vocabulary. That means to translate them to a modern Neolatin language, French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian or Portuguese or consult Vernacular- Latin dictionaries, in our example an English-Latin dictionary.

It is a well known statistical fact that, with the exclusion of the Romanian language, all Neo-Latin languages have vocabularies composed of at least 90 per cent of pure Classical Latin words together with words of a clear Latin origin, as a heritage of vulgar Latin, of mediaeval Latin, or recently formed by composition or derivation. These are legitimate Latin modern vocabulary, provided we carefully restitute to them their pristine Latin forms, and their correct declensions genders and conjugations. We must also adopt a common conventional ortography for these words of such a wide and disparate origins. As for meaning, we shall apply semantical tolerance, so that we shall attribute to them the modern meanings they now exhibit in all the vernaculars.

It is at this injunction that etymological and multilanguage lexica become indispensable to modern Latinists. We will be using the Eurodicionario ( 1992), the Portuguese version of the Europaïsches Wörterbuch. A much larger similar dictionary is the Britannica World Language Edition of the Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary, with English to other languages list and other Languages to English lists. The languages included in this large work are English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish and Yiddish. Etymological dictionaries register the vernacular terms and the Latin words that gave origin to them. Thus in practice, for modern Latinists, etymological lexica function as immediate, alternative Vernacular-Latin Dictionaries to create useful, modern Latin vocabularies.

In all vernacular texts to be translated in Latin, we may find many prepositions and conjunctions. A vernacular preposition will supply a hint to the case to be used in Latin. Conjunctions permit combine several orations to form periods. In transLating to Latin they will be kept or not, for we are free to reconstruct the periods and freely use parataxis. Perfect knowledge of these particles and of their syntactical implications can be quickly obtained in any Latin grammar. Numerals, and pronouns, and adverbs, too, shall cause no problem, and need not be listed bellow. In short , the only problem with modern Latin is that of vocabulary, as its morphology is the classical one and its syntax is analytical, as far as possible, therefore, similar to that of English, French, Spanish Portuguese, Russian, or the Neohellenic language ( Modern Greek).

THE ANGLO-SAXONIC WORDS IDENTIFIED IN OUR QUOTED TEXT . KINGDOM, ISLES, CHANNEL, TO BROADCAST, BROADCAST(ING), TO WRITE, TO ALLOW, TO TELL

MODERN LATIN AS AN AUXILIARY INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE

Modern Latin as an Auxiliary International Language must be immediately understandable to those who are already proficient in English, or have one of the Neolatin languages as their vernacule idioms. People of Portuguese, Brazilian , Spaniard, French, Catalan, Galician, Italian, and Romanian extraction , provided that they be adults and have had a certain level of formal secondary education, will read and at least partially understand our translations without any additional study. Modern Latin as a Neolatin language must be easily understandable to this set of people. In order to achieve this, the translation of the Anglo-Saxonic words must be restricted to Pan-Romanic or international vocabules.

Excluding the article, numerals, pronouns, and the other mentioned particles, the remaining words to be considered in our English text are some substantives, verbs and adjectives as : kingdom, isles, broadcast(ing), channel, to broadcast, to write, to allow, to tell, and no other adjective. For kingdom, isle and broadcasting, the following translations in vernacular are obtained from the Eurodicionario:

KINGDOM= royaume, Königreich, reino, regno, reino. Two Neolatin languages translate kingdom as reino whose etymological Latin origin is regnum. Therefore, for modern Latin, kingdom shall be regnum, a neuter name of the second conjugation, in ablative, regno. Of course we can also transmit the idea of regnum using periphrases. But the norm is to keep a word for word correspondence.

ISLE OR ISLAND= île, Insel, isla, isola, ilha, all etymologicaly derived from the Latin insula.

BROADCAST(ING)= radiodiffusion, Radioübertragung, radiodifusión, radiodiffusione, radiodifusão.

Em all five languages, the translation of broadcasting is a neologism. French and Italian forms permit to find a Latin version radiodiffusione (in ablative), third declension, feminine word, a modern Latin neologism, worldwide understandable. Now we come to the verbs. Latin verbs are extremely important and occupy the largest part of any Latin grammar . Modern Latin introduces no alteration to the normal use of the Latin verbs.

TO BROADCAST= diffuser, senden, difundir or transmitir, transmettere, transmitir ou difundir. Here enters a synonim: difffuser, difundir, English to diffuse, which is transmitir or transmettere. From these verbs the Neolatin languages derive the substantives diffusion, difusión, diffusione, difusão, as well as, transmission, transmisión, transmissione, transmissão. This permit to suggest another Latin form for broadcast(ing), transmissione radiophonica, vel radiotransmissione ( in ablativo).

THE CRUCIAL PROBLEM OF THE SYNTACTICAL FORM OF OUR MODERN LATIN TEXT.

Having determined the Latin vocabulary that will be used, we must tackle the crucial problem of the syntactical form of the Latin text. In Classical Latin, there is no obligatory order for the words in a phrase. This is usually informed to beginner students to demonstrate the superiority and flexibility of Latin. Therefore, for practical reasons we shall write modern Latin in strict natural order subject- verb- objects. This demands some justification, and we can justify it by the examples of both syntectic languages, the Russian and the Slavic languages, and of analytical languages, for example, English and the Neolatin languages.

The Russian language, as the ten other main Slavic languages, has noun declensions with nine cases and a much more complex verb system than Latin. Notwithstanding, in general, the Russian syntax can be very simple. This is how George Condoyannis, Professor of Modern Languages of Saint Peter´s College, describe the Russian syntax, that is, the Russian word order, in his Scientific Russian, New York, 1978, a concise description of the structural elements of scientific and technical Russian. QUOTE: Theoretically, the Russian word order is completely free and subject to practiclly no rules at all. Fortunately for the reader of scientific and technical material, the word order used is not very different from that used in English, except for a few standard patterns that can be easily mastered. END OF QUOTE.

In Latin, too, theoretically, just as in the numerous modern Slavic languages , the word order is completely free and suject to practically no rules at all. The patterns and rules expressed and prescribed in the many massive Latin Syntax treateses are just descriptions of the practices followed by a few selected authors. The syntaxes of Cicero and Caesar, for paedagogical convenience, have been systematically imposed on students of Latin for centuries. Therefore, for practical reasons we may write modern Latin in strict natural order, subject- verb- objects, a simple, deliberately adopted syntatical device that is equally followed by English, by Russian, by all the modern Neolatin Languages, and by modern and classical Chinese.

In Modern Latin, contrarily to the practices of the recently created International Auxiliary Languages, Latin morphology must be faithfully followed, that is, we must retain unaltered the paradigms of the five declensions and all their desinences. We retain the four verb conjugations, the nominal verbs forms, the three voices, etc. , but we adopt an analytical order, the same of the modern Neolatin languages of English or of Russian. This said, we can produce a preliminary litteral translation of the text , as close to the English original as possible, thanks to the analytical order adopted.

SYNTACTICAL ONLY RULE OF MODERN LATIN. There is no obligatory order for the words in a Latin phrase, therefore, for practical reasons, we shall write modern Latin in the order of analytical languages, that is, in strict natural order subject- verb- objects.

HISTORY OF BRITAIN. TRANSLATIO PRELIMINARIS: HISTORIA BRITANNIAE, HISTORIA BRITANNICA, HISTORIA DE BRITAIN

HISTORIA BRITANNIAE est programma radiophonicum de BBC, British Broadcasting Corporation, latine, Corporationis Radiophonicae Britannicae, in serie documentaria, scripta et presentata a Simon Schama, prima vicie transmissa in Regno Unito die 30 septembris 2000. Hoc studium historiae Insularum Britannicarum est, in 15 episodiis, quae permittunt Schamae examinare particulare historicum periodum et ejus eventa narrare suo proprio personali stilo. Duratio omnium programmatum est 59 minuta et fuerunt transmissa in tres seriebus, conclusis die 18 junii anno 2000. Haec series producta est in conjunctione cum Cannale Historiae [ the History Channel], et habuit Martin Davidson ut productor executivus. Musica composita a John Harle, cujus labor supplementatus est vocibus soloistarum ut Emma Kirkby et Lucie Skeaping. Schamae illustrativa presentatio auxiliata quoque lectubus actorum, inter quos Lindsay Duncan, Michael Kitchen, Christian Rodska, Samuel West and David Threlfall nominamus.

ENGLISH ORIGINAL OF THE ABOVE TEXT. <A HISTORY OF BRITAIN>

A History of Britain is a BBC documentary series written and presented by Simon Schama, first transmitted in the United Kingdom from 30 September 2000. A study of the history of the British Isles, each of the 15 episodes allows Schama to examine a particular period and tell of its events in his own style. All the programmes are of 59 minutes' duration and were broadcast over three series, ending 18 June 2002. The series was produced in conjunction with The History Channel and the executive producer was Martin Davidson. The music was composed by john Harle, whose work was augmented by vocal soloists such as Emma Kirkby and Lucie Skeaping. Schama's illustrative presentation was aided by readings from actors, including Lindsay Duncan, Michael Kitchen, Christian Rodska, Samuel West and David Threlfall. Source. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_History_of_Britain_(TV_series)

VERSÃO PORTUGUESA. PARTE 1. O BABELISMO INTERNACIONAL E O LATIM MODERNO. COMO TRADUZIR PARA LATIM MODERNO QUALQUER TEXTO ORIGINADO DE UMA LÍNGUA MODERNA.

VERSÃO PORTUGUESA. PARTE 2. O BABELISMO INTERNACIONAL. PELA CRIAÇÃO DE UM LATIM UTILITÁRIO MODERNO. Newman, Bayet, Clédat, Vido Angelino, Gaius Licoppe. T. Pekannen e R. Pitkaranta

DARCY CARVALHO 13/12/2013 [ a continuar]


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