01 Japanese Lesson One

Japanese. Lesson one.  How to read the Japanese language

DARCY CARVALHO.  SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL , 04/01/2014. STUDIES ON THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE.


BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LINE AT ARCHIVE.ORG FOR LEARNING JAPANESE BY PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. FEAUSP. SÃO PAULO

https://archive.org/details/JapaneseATeachYourselfByC.J.DunnAndS.YanadaOfSoas

https://archive.org/details/ANINTRODUCTIONTOWRITTENJAPANESE

https://archive.org/details/EnglishJapaneseDictionaryInRomanLettersByTokinoboMiharaSanFrancisco

https://archive.org/details/TheCompleteCourseOfJapaneseConversationGrammarSupplement280PagesBy

https://archive.org/details/HandbookOfJapaneseGrammarHaroldG.HendersonUniversityPress

https://archive.org/details/LangeRudolfEChristopherNossManualCompletoDeJaponesColoquial1919


The internet can be used to facilitate the study of all oriental languages. It is particularly useful for learning  the  Japanese national language, Nihongo, as well as Chinese and Korean, two very important oriental languages, that completely differ from Nihongo. This means that learning one of them is no help for  learning  the others. We shall try to develop, already in this lesson, some  procedures  that  will permit students to use  internet  Japanese language resources  , at  the very beginning of their studies.  

Normal published  texts present  the Japanese   language written in Chinese hieroglyphs, called Kanji, mixed with two other alphabets, the hiragana and the katakana. Since the arrival of the Portuguese  jesuits in Japan, in the sixteenth century,  Nihongo started to be written in Roman letters. This practice was abandoned though,  after the closure of the country to foreigners,  in the seventeenth century in the beginning of the Tokugawa Era.   After the re-opening of the ports of Japan, at the request of the United States, in the nineteenth century, romaji came back , to facilitate the learning of the spoken language by foreign  diplomats and businessmen.

There  are  two forms of  writing Japanese with Roman letters, one devised by  British and Americans , the HEPBURN SYSTEM,  the other created by  Japanese scholars, THE NIHONSHIKI, officially adopted by the ministry of education nowadays to publish  bilingual dictionaries in the diverse areas of science. Many of the best books to learn Japanese were written in the ninteenth and in the beginning of the tweentieth century, well  before the  second world war, and they used the Hepburn system.

The Hepburn was to be preferred  before the internet existed, but now as we have to write  romaji in  the computer,  to obtain and edit normal Japanese texts, the Nihonshiki system  is to be used  as the simplest.  At present, some books adopt Hepburn , other the Japanese system of writing with the Latin alphabet. We will be working with  Teach Yourself  Japanese, by C.J, Dunn and S. Yanada, who use the Nihonshiki system.

First of all, therefore,  we need to learn how to  correctly write, in roman letters or romaji, a Japanese word, dictated to us. Actually,  just this simple rapid acquisition will permit us to find immediately the normal  form of any Japanese word,  in kanji and hiragana or katakana, and use it to obtain its meaning,  in a online dictionary. With the online dictionary, all the words of a printed text, of  a whole paper, for instance,  in any area of science or literature, can be  be obtained in seconds, without the painful need to handle any  paper dictionary. Their  meanings will be in English and their  pronuntiation represented  in hiragana or katakana. To learn hiragana and katakana must be , therefore,  our first task at the beginning of our studies on the Japanese language.

ROMAN LETTERS. ROMAJI. I suppose you have already activated your Japanese keyboard in windows or, otherwise, you have downloaded Glenn Rosenthal´s JPWPCE , a convenient Japanese word processor, with a  huge dictionary that can be used off-line. To print in Japanese characters learn the following.

The order of the five vowels in Japanese is A.  I. U. E. O. The vowels can be short or double, that is,  long. To indicate long vowels write then twice, aa, ii, uu, ee, oo, or input an U. after then.

The Japanese language is poor in sounds as compared with Western languages. We give below the English or Portuguese 26 letters alphabet showing in brackets the  letters not used by the japanese to write their language: A. B. [C] D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. [L] M. N. O. P. [Q] R. S. T. U. [V]. W.[X]. Y. Z. In printing all consonants must be followed by a vowel. The only consonant that can be used without a vowel in n that can be added to a syllable.

 

In the process of writing Japanese with Roman letters do not separate the words. To confirm a text as it is shown, press ENTER, to introduce the chinese characters kanji press space, to substitute an undesrable kanji , press SPACE again and choose.

Suppose, you got a silly Japanese text in your mind : Nihon wa Ajia-tairuku-higashi ni aru shima-guni desu kara Nippon de yama ga to sakura no hana ga to omoshiroi nihonjin ga takusan arimasu. In windows or JWPce, we just write : NI HON WA A JI A TAI RI KU HI GA SHI NI A RU SHI MA GU NI DE SU KA RA NI PPON DE YA MA GA TO SA KU RA NO HA NA GA TO O MO SHI RO I NI HON JIN GA TA KU SAN A RI MA SU YOO. Caution: To obtain WA press HA. This  short note on the nature of the japanese alphabet already permits us to print Japanese with a word processor like JWPce, or in windows; we just press latin letters forming syllables to obtain a Japanese text. Please read  complete information about Hiragana in wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiragana

Before though we start studying the JAPANESE WAY OF WRITING, let us have a first example of how to translate written Japanese using online dictionaries. To do this one must already be familiar with the two syllabaries of the japanese language and with the hieroglyphs of Chinese origin.

We shall borrow a sentence of an article published in the internet: Japanese for Beginners: Understanding Written Sentences. Written by: Makoto • edited by: Tricia Goss •  http://www.brighthubeducation.com/learning-japanese/58437-reading-japanese-sentences-beginner-information/   Updated: 4/5/2012.

The author provides five steps for translating  a written Japanese sentence:

日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです.

Source: Japanese for Beginners: Understanding Written Sentences.

These steps will be discussed, after we get  the   translation of this text , mechanically, with the use of on line resources, now in existence .  WE SHALL USE:

[1] THE MULTILANGUAGE SUPPORT OF WINDOWS SYSTEM

[2]  JIM BREEN´S  WWWJDIC: TEXT/WORD TRANSLATION www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/wwwjdic.html  and

[3]  GOOGLE  TRANSLATE      http://translate.google.com/  .  and

[4]  GLENN ROSENTHAL. JWPCE.  HOW TO EDICT AND WORK ON JAPANESE TEXTS WITHOUT WINDOWS  

Let us examine how these devices can be used for studying Japanese without a teacher.

[1] THE WINDOWS MULTILANGUAGE SUPPORT.

Windows multilanguage support is imbedded in recent versions  of the Windows, as Windows 07. The multilanguage support  for Windows exists online for  free download and updating of existing old Windows versions , since Windows 95.

The Windows multilanguage support  permits:  

[α] inputing Japanese text, in katakana, hiragana, romaji and kanji, with Western keyboards.  

[β] adding FURIGANA to kanji, i.e,  indicating with hiragana the pronuntiations of any kanji in a whole text, by  just sellecting the text and  pressing one buttom: Add Phonetics.

[γ] edicting Japanese texts as  they  were  in an  Occidental language.

The process of activating foreign languages capacity in Windows is the same for all languages. Therefore just read articles on < How to russify my computer>. This is one by Denver University:

http://www.du.edu/ahss/schools/langlit/programs/russian/russify.html

[2]  GOOGLE  TRANSLATE      http://translate.google.com/  .  

THIS IS AN AMAZING MULTILANGUAGE TRANSLATOR IN PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT.  For the Japanese Language the Google Translate  can do  the  following  tasks:

[α]  obtaining immediate translations of normal Japanese texts  into one of  several languages; English, French, German, Portuguese, etc. Machine translation are not yet perfect in every language, so with the same Japanese text get several alternative translations.

[β] translating a foreign language text into Japanese. 

[γ] converting whole Japanese texts, written  in hiragana-katakana-kanji,  into romaji.

[δ] Google Translate  can  read  aloud a  resulting Japanese text. 

 

[4] GLENN ROSENTHAL. JWPCE.  HOW TO EDICT AND WORK ON JAPANESE TEXTS WITHOUT WINDOWS  

[ Quote] JWPce is an excellent Japanese text editor and dictionary program created by Glenn Rosenthal. As well as having large Japanese-English dictionaries (powered by edict), you can search for Kanji in a large number of ways such as SKIP, by radicals or by stroke count. It can also keep track of kanji you have learnt and colour them differently. It is released for free under the GNU Public Licence. http://www.tanos.co.uk/jlpt/extras/jwpce/ ]

JWPCE SUPPORT INFORMATION BY GLENN ROSENTHAL. This page was created specifically to support JWPce. JWPce is a free Japanese Word Processor that I wrote. JWPce is distributed under the GNU General Public License, which means that within certain restrictions you are free to obtain, use and pass on the program. Since I wrote the program and this is my web page, this is as close to an official support site that you are going to find. http://www.physics.ucla.edu/~grosenth/jwpce.html

JWPCE. FROM  WIKIPÉDIA, A ENCICLOPÉDIA LIVRE. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/JWPce . [ CITO] JWPce é um processador de textos de língua japonesa simples que roda em plataformas Windows (9X, ME, 2000, XP e CE), tendo ainda uma versão especial para Macs. O JWPce roda bem em sistemas Linux que tenha o Wine (Windows emulator) instalado. É voltado a estudantes ocidentais da língua japonesa que querem produzir documentos em língua japonesa. Sendo distribuído sob os termos da GNU General Public License, JWPce é um software livre. A instalação default exibe menus em inglês. Um pacote de línguas para outras linguagens está disponibilizado e o JWPce pode receber estas adições prontamente. A versão para português está incluída neste pacote. O JWPce facilita o estudo da língua japonesa, primeiro, por fornecer informações detalhadas sobre os kanjis (usando KANJIDIC), em segundo, por ter um dicionário interno (usando um EDICT), e oferece, ainda, vários métodos de pesquisa de kanji. JWPce dá suporte a múltiplos formatos de arquivos. Não facilita a produção de texto na vertical e não permite usar fontes de tamanhos diferentes num único documento. Mas pode-se visualizar o documento em vários tamanhos customizando as fontes para visualização. A característica chave do JWPce é que ele roda suavemente em plataforma Windows CE e na Pocket PC. Isto permite aos aprendizes de japonês e aos turistas o uso da PDAs como um dicionário eletrônico de japonês de bolso. JWPce está escrito em C++. O código fonte está disponível para download, juntamente com o programa. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/JWPce

READ ALSO . http://www.linguajaponesa.com.br/jwpce-editor-de-textos-japones-para-escrever-em-japones.html

[3]  JIM BREEN´S  WWWJDIC: TEXT/WORD TRANSLATION www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/wwwjdic.html  

JIM BREEN´S  WWWJDIC: TEXT/WORD TRANSLATION.   It permits  the construction of a complete  vocabular,  for any  large Japanese text, while  the GOOGLE TRANSLATE  gives a running translation for  whole sentences  in  the chosen  Japanese  text. 

A NOTE ON  JIM BREEN'S JAPANESE PAGE. [ CITO] PROJECTS, JMDICT/EDICT , KANJIDIC, KANJIDIC2, WWWJDIC, ENAMDICT, KRADFILE, XJDIC, NIHONGO FTP, UKIYO-E, GALLERY, MINI-FAQS, TANAKA CORPUS, Links, GENERAL, JAPANESE COMPUTING, SOFTWARE, LITERATURE, DICTIONARIES, EDUCATIONAL, RESOURCES, TRANSLATION, CULTURE, RESOURCES, BOOKS, ORGANIZATIONS, HUMOUR, PEOPLE . INTRODUCTION: Welcome to my Japanese Page. As many readers of this page will know, I have an on-going interest in Japan, its people and language. This has led to a number of activities bringing together Japanese and my professional activities in computing and telecommunications. I have assembled this set of pages: (a) to provide information about a number of my projects in the area of Japanese computing and dictionaries, (b) to provide links to some of the resources available on the WWW on Japanese matters.

[ FINIS CITATIONIS] DARCY CARVALHO, SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL [03/06/2013]

By using the   WWWJDIC: TEXT/WORD TRANSLATION we  get , immediately: [1]  the meanings and  the pronuntiation of the all words in the sentence , which are  presented in kanji and hiragana, [2] a translation of the singular words so that we can assert how  a  complex sentence as NIHON NO  GAKUNEN WA  SHIGATSU KARA  HAJIMARI  NATSUYASUMI  FURANSU YORI  MIJIKAI DESU, can be read in Japanese . [3] In order to construct a vocabulary we just input the original  sentence into WWWJDIC: 【日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです。】

VOCABULARY. By copying and pasting  Japanese sentences  into  WWWJDIC: TEXT/WORD TRANSLATION we can get in seconds complete Japanese vocabularies.

 www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/wwwjdic.html  

http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwjdic.cgi?9T

Thus given日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです。】 for  glossing the text, we   just  need to  key or to paste the  Japanese text  into the box  of WWWJDIC,  and press begin translation:

 

日本学年四月から始まり、夏休みフランスより短いです.

 

BEGIN TRANSLATION    [  JIM BREEN´S WWWJDIC,  Monash University]

 

USING JIM BREEN´S DICTIONARIES TO STUDY JAPANESE. THE EMPLOYING OF WWWJDIC TO GENERATE VOCABULARY.

GET A JAPANESE TEXT AS THE ONE IN THE BOX ABOVE, COPY AND PASTE IT ON WWWJDIC:

BY PRESSING [BEGIN TRANSLATION] WE  OBTAIN  THIS  COMPLETE VOCABULARY FOR OUR TEXT: 日本学年四月から始まり、夏休みフランスより短いです.

日本 にほん(P); にっぽん (n) Japan; (P); ED . 学年 がくねん (n) year in school; grade in school; (P); ED 四月 : 四月(P); (P) しがつ (n-adv) April; (P); よつき ; (n) four months; ED 始まり はじまり (n) origin; beginning; (P); verb stem 始まるはじまる ; (v5r,vi) (1) to begin; to start; to commence; (2) to happen (again); to begin (anew); (3) to date (from); to originate (in); (P); ED 夏休み なつやすみ (n) summer vacation; summer holiday; (P); ED フランス :フランス (n) (uk) France; ED 短い : 短い(P); 短かい(io) 【みじかい】 (adj-i) short; (P); ED.  

NOW WE CAN WRITE THE ROMAJI FOR THE WORDS OF THE  TEXT:    日本 にほん NIHON(P);にっぽんNIPPON (n) JAPAN; 学年 がくねん GAKUNEN (n)  SCHOOL YEAR ; 四月 : 四月(P); (P) しがつ SHIGATSU (n-adv) APRIL; (P); よつき YOTSUKI ; (n) FOUR MONTHS; 始まり はじまり HAJIMARI (n) origin; beginning; 始まるはじまる HAJIMARU ;  (1) to begin; to start; to commence; (2) to happen (again); to begin (anew); (3) to date (from); to originate (in);  夏休み なつやすみ (n) summer vacation; summer holiday; フランス :フランス (n)  France;  短い : 短い(P); 短かいみじかい MIJIKAI (adj-i) short;

日本学年四月から始まり、夏休みフランスより短いです.

NIHON  NO GAKUNEN  WA  SHIGATSU  KARA  HAJIMARI, NATSUYASUMI WA FURANSU YORI MIJIKAI DESU .  GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES OR DESINENCES NO, WA,YORI. VERB DESU

 

TEXT:  日本学年四月から始ま、夏休みフランスより短いです NIHON- NO GAKUNEN- WA SHIGATSU-KARA HAJIMARI, NATSUYASUMI  FURANSU-YORI  MIJIKAI-DESU.

BEFORE  ANALISING  THE GRAMMAR OF OUR TEXT, WE CAN IMMEDIATELY OBTAIN ITS TRANSLATION FROM  GOOGLE TRANSLATE      http://translate.google.com/  . TRANSLATION:

AS  SCHOOL YEAR IN JAPAN BEGINS IN APRIL, SUMMER VACATION IS SHORTER THAN IN FRANCE. [ JAPAN´S SCHOOL YEAR, BEGINNING  FROM APRIL, THE SUMMER VACATIONS ARE SHORTER THEN IN FRANCE.] THE PROBLEM OF TRANSLATING WRITTEN JAPANESE IS THEN  SOLVED. Darcy Carvalho [29/05/2013]

THE FIVE STEPS FOR TRANSLATING JAPANESE BY MAKOTO

[QUOTE.] Makoto writes: There are some ways to decipher the general meaning of a Japanese text, as long as one is willing to spend some time and use a dictionary. This article will provide some hints and tips to be better equipped to understand written Japanese sentences. Let’s look at the following short sentence:

日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです。】

STEP 1: ですDESU , AND IDENTIFYING THE KANJI. The first thing you will pay attention to is the です at the end of the sentence, which more or less means IT IS..  The next step would be to identify the meaning of the Kanji in this sentence. The Kanjis are important words in a sentence and figuring them out can sometimes be enough for you to get the gist of a whole sentence. Let’s look at the sentence again:

日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです.

There are 10 different Kanjis in this sentence and a foreign word written in          KATAKANAフランス. The KANJI are  , , , , , , , , , . KANJI written conjointly often mean that they are related to each other and form a word. In other words, the two Kanjis are in fact two related parts of a single word.  For instance, let´s look at 日本. The first Kanji is NI and the second Kanji is HON. They are written conjointly; they are both part of a single word. In this case, 日本 means Japan. This means that we can safely assume that, although there are 10 different Kanjis, there are six different “ideas” in this sentence: 日本: Japan; 学年: GAKUNEN school year; 四月: SHIGATSU, April;  始始まり: HAJImari, begin夏休: NATSUYASUMI, summer vacations; フランス , FURANSU, France; 短い:  MIJIKAi, short . 

 STEP 2: KATAKANA. The next step will be to determine the meaning of the words written in KATAKANA.   日本学年四月からまり、夏休みフランスよりいです. Say the KATAKANA out loud: フランス[ FU-RAN-SU]. Sounds familiar? KATAKANA are used for foreign words and transcribed phonetically. In this case, フランス means FRANCE.  Now you know that the sentence is about Japan, France, the summer holiday and something being short.

STEP 3: THE PARTICLES.  The next step will be to identify THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLEs in your sentence, written in hiragana.   日本 学年 四月 から 始まり、夏休み フランス より です.  The noun-following particle [ of], NO here establishes a connection of possession  between 日本 (NIHON) and 学年(GAKUNEN). We are thus referring to JAPAN´S SCHOOL YEAR . The following indicates that the information that follows is about the school of year. The second , in the second part of the sentence, indicates that the following information will be about the summer holiday.

STEP 4: WHAT REMAINS. Let’s look at what still hasn’t been identified in our sentence.

日本の学年は四月から始まり、夏休みはフランスより短いです. から KARA, FROM: is a noun-following particle. It indicates the starting point of something and could be roughly translated as FROM.  四月から SHIGASU-KARA, FROM APRIL.

まりThe two hiraganas that follows are linked to the actual KANJI that precedes them (). By looking in a dictionary you will find out that it means the beginning, the start of something. よりthis word is used in comparisons and can follow either a noun or a verb. In this case, it indicates a comparison between the Japanese and the French summer holiday. the following is the a usual suffix when words are adjectives, which, in this case, is the adjective short.

 STEP 5: THE FINAL RESULT. Now that everything has been properly identified, you should be able to have a general idea of the sentence. Go ahead and write down what you think is the meaning of that sentence and then look below to find out the answer:

IN JAPAN, THE SCHOOL YEAR BEGINS IN APRIL, THE SUMMER HOLIDAY ARE SHORTER THAN IN FRANCE  Source: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/learning-japanese/58437-reading-japanese-sentences-beginner-information/. [ END OF QUOTE].

 

COMMENT  ON THE  FIVES STEPS  PROPOSED BY MAKOTO FOR TRANSLATION OF WRITTEN JAPANESE. Makoto proposes five steps for translating Japanese, We will  comment on  the implications of them. [ To be continued] DARCY CARVALHO [29/05/2013]

COMMENT: Makoto writes [The next step will be to identify THE GRAMMATICAL PARTICLES in your sentence, written in hiragana. ] She then identifies just the following particles , , から, , より.

 Particles permit us to divide the Japanese text into meaning segments. As they  are usually written in hiragana, no difficulty will be  found in identifying particles. The problem  is just their  huge number, 420 units. Happily we find in Wikipedia several studies that take care of them. Add to your tool kit for translating written Japanese the following contributions dealing with particles. Improve your hiragana knowledge by making  your own lists of them.

1.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_particles

2.      http://nihongoichiban.com/home/japanese-grammar-particles/

3.      http://thejapanesepage.com/grammar/particles

Further searching on Google for Japanese particles, you will find other very useful lessons. [ Darcy Carvalho 10/06/2013]

 

 

DA DECLINAÇÃO JAPONESA. THE JAPANESE DECLENSION

A lingua japonesa tem uma declinação única com os seguintes cinco  casos, indicados por posposição de particulas : NOMINATIVO: WA E GA ; GENITIVO: NO;    DATIVO: NI; ABLATIVO: KARAから, DE, ETC.; E ACUSATIVO: WO を・PARA INSERIR A PARTICULA WA, DEVEMOS DATILOGRAFAR HA.

Exemplificarei utilizando o WWWJDIC e o GOOGLE TRANSLATE.

http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwjdic.cgi?1C

http://translate.google.com/    [ INGLÊS]

Japanese has five cases indicated by postposives particles that identify the subject, nominative, the possessive, genitive, the direct object, acusative, the indirect object, dative , and the ablative. The corresponding  case particles are applied not just to words but to whole sentences. too.

We will demonstrate with very simple examples,  how we can study written Japanese and translate phrases without having to follow the steps proposed by Makoto and without knowing anything about isolated kanjis. I will formulate sentences that permit to exemplify how the five cases of the Japanese declension  are indicated by the postpositives particles. First we  formulate sentences  in English or Portuguese ; next  we input them into Google Translate to obtain  the corresponding  Japanese text. This Japanese text is then pasted on WWWJIC to generate a vocabulary in kanji words , with  their pronunciation indicated in hiragana and the meanings supplied in English.

[1] EM TOQUIO, UM PROFESSOR DEU UM LIVRO A UM ESTUDANTE DA FACULDADE DE ECONOMIA. INPUTING [ IN TOKYO, A TEACHER GAVE A BOOK TO A STUDENT OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMICS] we get in Google Translate:

京で先生は経済学部の学生に本を与えた。

Toukyou DE sensei WA keizaigakubu NO gakusei NI hon WO otaeta.  

東京先生経済学部学生与えた

VOCABULARY

  • 東京 【とうきょう】 (n) Tokyo; (P); ED
  • 先生 【せんせい(P); せんじょう(ok) (n) (1) (hon) teacher; master; doctor; (suf) (2) (hon) with names of teachers, etc. as an honorific; (n) (3) (せんじょう only) (arch) (See 前生) previous existence; (P); 【シーサン】 ; (n) (hon) boy (chi: xinshng); ED
  • 経済学部 【けいざいがくぶ】 (n) economics department; economics school; ED
  • 学生 【がくせい; がくしょう; がくそう】 (n) (がくせい) student (esp. a university student) (P); (がくしょう; がくそう) (n) (1) (arch) Heian-period student of government administration; (2) (arch) Buddhist scholar; researcher at a Buddhist temple; person studying Buddhism; (3) (arch) learning; scholarship; SP
  • 【ほん; もと】 (ほん) (n,pref) book; main; head; this; our; counter for long cylindrical things; (もと) (n,n-suf,n-t) (1) origin; original; SP
  • Possible inflected verb or adjective: (plain, past)
    与える 【あたえる】 (v1,vt) (1) to give (esp. to someone of lower status); to bestow; to grant; to confer; to present; to award; (2) to provide; to afford; to offer; to supply; (3) to assign; (4) to cause; (5) {comp} to pass (a variable to a function); (P); ED

[2] EM YOKOHAMA UM PROFESSOR DEU UM LIVRO GRANDE PARA UM ALUNO DA FACULDADE DE ECONOMIA. ESTE ALUNO BRILHANTE VEIO  DE TOQUIO. IN YOKOHAMA A PROFESSOR GAVE A LARGE BOOK TO A  STUDENT OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMICS. THIS BRIGHT STUDENT CAME FROM TOKYO.

 横浜で教授は経済学部の学生に大きな本をくれた。この学生は、東京から来ました。

横浜教授経済学部学生大きな本をくれた。

YOKOHAMA DE KYOUJYU WA KEIZAIGAKUBU NO GAKUSEI NI HON WO KURETA.

VOCABULARY

  • 横浜 【よこはま】 (n) Yokohama (city); ED
  • 教授 【きょうじゅ】 (n,vs,adj-no) (1) professor; (2) teaching; instruction; (P); ED
  • 経済学部 【けいざいがくぶ】 (n) economics department; economics school; ED
  • 学生 【がくせい; がくしょう; がくそう】 (n) (がくせい) student (esp. a university student) (P); (がくしょう; がくそう) (n) (1) (arch) Heian-period student of government administration; (2) (arch) Buddhist scholar; researcher at a Buddhist temple; person studying Buddhism; (3) (arch) learning; scholarship; SP
  • 大きな 【おおきな】 (adj-s) big; large; great ( form 大きい); SP
  • 【ほん; もと】 (ほん) (n,pref) book; main; head; this; our; counter for long cylindrical things; (もと) (n,n-suf,n-t) (1) origin; original; SP

この明るい学生東京から来ました

KONO AKARUI GAKUSEI WA TOUKYOU  KARA KIMASHITA.

 

VOCABULARY

  • 明るい : 明るい(P); 明い(io) 【あかるい】 (adj-i) (1) bright; colourful; (2) cheerful; (3) (as ~に明るい) familiar (with); knowledgeable (about); (4) fair (e.g. politics); clean; (P); ED
  • 学生 【がくせい; がくしょう; がくそう】 (n) (がくせい) student (esp. a university student) (P); (がくしょう; がくそう) (n) (1) (arch) Heian-period student of government administration; (2) (arch) Buddhist scholar; researcher at a Buddhist temple; person studying Buddhism; (3) (arch) learning; scholarship; SP
  • 東京 【とうきょう】 (n) Tokyo; (P); ED
  • Possible inflected verb or adjective: (polite, past)
    来る 来る(P) 【くる】 (vk,vi,aux-v) (1) to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to arrive; (2) (See 行って来る) to come back; to do ... and come back; (3) to come to be; to become; to get; to grow; to continue; (vk,vi) (4) to come from; to be caused by; to derive from; (5) (See と来たら) to come to (i.e. "when it comes to spinach ..."); 来る(P) 【きたる】 ; (v5r,vi) (1) to come; to arrive; to be due to; (adj-pn) (2) (ant: 去る・6) next (e.g. "next April"); forthcoming; coming; (P); SP

横浜教授経済学部学生大きな本をくれた。

VOCABULARY

  • 横浜 【よこはま】 (n) Yokohama (city); ED
  • 教授 【きょうじゅ】 (n,vs,adj-no) (1) professor; (2) teaching; instruction; (P); ED
  • 経済学部 【けいざいがくぶ】 (n) economics department; economics school; ED
  • 学生 【がくせい; がくしょう; がくそう】 (n) (がくせい) student (esp. a university student) (P); (がくしょう; がくそう) (n) (1) (arch) Heian-period student of government administration; (2) (arch) Buddhist scholar; researcher at a Buddhist temple; person studying Buddhism; (3) (arch) learning; scholarship; SP
  • 大きな 【おおきな】 (adj-s) big; large; great ( form 大きい); SP
  • 【ほん; もと】 (ほん) (n,pref) book; main; head; this; our; counter for long cylindrical things; (もと) (n,n-suf,n-t) (1) origin; original; SP

この学生は、東京から来ました

  • 学生 【がくせい; がくしょう; がくそう】 (n) (がくせい) student (esp. a university student) (P); (がくしょう; がくそう) (n) (1) (arch) Heian-period student of government administration; (2) (arch) Buddhist scholar; researcher at a Buddhist temple; person studying Buddhism; (3) (arch) learning; scholarship; SP
  • 東京 【とうきょう】 (n) Tokyo; (P); ED
  • Possible inflected verb or adjective: (polite, past)
    来る 来る(P) 【くる】 (vk,vi,aux-v) (1) to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to arrive; (2) (See 行って来る) to come back; to do ... and come back; (3) to come to be; to become; to get; to grow; to continue; (vk,vi) (4) to come from; to be caused by; to derive from; (5) (See と来たら) to come to (i.e. "when it comes to spinach ..."); 来る(P) 【きたる】 ; (v5r,vi) (1) to come; to arrive; to be due to; (adj-pn) (2) (ant: 去る・6) next (e.g. "next April"); forthcoming; coming; (P); SP

This is a different kind of exercise. We take a written text , and paste it in WWWJDIC to obtain its vocabulary .

日本地理。[1]日本はアジア大陸の東にある島国です。[2] 太き島は東から、北海道、本州,四国、九州といいます。[3]日本の東と南西には太平洋がありま。す。[4] アジア大陸と日本の間にオホーツク海と日本海と東シナ海あります。[5] アジア大陸と日本の間にオホーツク海と日本海と東シナ海あります。

INSTRUMENTS:

http://translate.google.com/#en/ja/KOREAN%20PENINSULA

 

http://www.csse.monash.u.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwjdic.cgi?9U

日本地理。NIHON CHIRI, GEOGRAPHY OF JAPAN

[1]日本アジア大陸の東ある島国です

NIHON WA AJIA TAIRIKU NO HIGASHI NI ARU KUNI DESU.

日本はアジア大陸の東にある島国です。

VOCABULARY

日本 【にほん; にっぽん】NIHON, NIPPON (n) Japan; ; 

アジア大陸 【アジアたいりく 】 AJIA TAIRIKU (n) Asian Continent; 

東に 【ひがしに】HIGASHI NI (adv) east;

島国 【しまぐに; とうごく】SHIMAGUNI (n) island country                          (sometimes  used as a metaphor for Japan)

[2] 太き島は東から、北海道、本州,四国、九州といいます。
     から、北海道本州四国九州といいます。

OOKII SHIMA WA HIGASHI KARA, HOKKAIDO, HONSHU, SHIKOKU, KYUSHU TOIIMASU.

VOCABULARY

  • 【ふと】 (n-pref,n) (1) fat; fatty; (n-pref) (2) grand; magnificent; excellent; 
  • 【しま; じま; とう】 (n) (しま) island; (suf) (じま; とう) island; SP
  • 【あずま; ひがし】 (あずま) (n) east; Eastern Japan; (ひがし) (n) east; SP
  • 北海道 【ほっかいどう】 (n) Hokkaido (northernmost of the four main islands of Japan);  
  • 本州 【ほんしゅう】 (n) Honshu (largest of the four main islands of Japan); 
  • 四国 【しこく】 (n) Shikoku (smallest of the four main islands of Japan); 
  • 九州 【きゅうしゅう】 (n) Kyushu (southernmost of the four main islands of Japan); 

[3] 日本の東と南西には太平洋があります、
    日本南西には太平洋あります、。

NIHON NO HIGASHI TO NANSEI NI TAIHEIYO GA ARIMASU .

VOCABULARY

  • 日本 【にほん; にっぽん】NIHON, NIPPON (n) Japan; ; 
  • 【あずま; ひがし】 HIGASHI  (n) east;
  • 南西 【なんせい; みなみにし】NANSEI (n,adj-no) southwest; ; 
  • 太平洋 【たいへいよう】tAIHEIYO (n) Pacific Ocean; ; 
  • あります (v)  ARIMASU to be ;

[5] アジア大陸日本間にオホーツク日本海シナ海あります

アジア大陸日本間にオホーツク海日本海東シナ海あります

 

VOCABULARY

 

アジア大陸 【アジアたいりく】 AJIA TAIRIKU(n) Asian Continent; 

  • 日本 【にほん; にっぽん】 (n) Japan; ; 
  • 間に 【あいだに】 (adv) while; during (the time when); 
  • オホーツク海 【おほーつくかい】 (n) Sea of Okhotsk; 
  • 日本海 【にほんかい; にっぽんかい】 (n) Sea of Japan; ; 
  • 東シナ海 【ひがしシナかい】 (n) East China Sea; 
  • あります (v) to be (polite);

[ TO BE CONTINUED]

THE NECESSARY CHANGE IN THE METHODS OF TEACHING JAPANESE. BY  DARCY CARVALHO, SÃO PAULO. SP, BRAZIL[ ONCE A JAPAN FOUNDATION LONG TERM FELLOW- 1988-1989]

HOW TO QUICKLY TRANSLATE JAPANESE.

It is a well known fact that the biggest hindrance for  reasearchers on Japan´s affairs is the difficulty of having  immediate accesss to written materials  in Japanese, due to imperfect knowledge of the language and the hindrance of the writing system. Four recent technological events have completely changed this state of affairs though: the Windows system, with its imbedded multilanguage support for Japanese, and other oriental languages; the internet, that makes available without charge an immense quantity of interesting Japanese texts, including texts generated by  govenment agencies and ministries; the  Jim Breen´s WWWJID, that can instantly produce  many pages of vocabulary for Japanese printed texts of any length;  the Google translate; and Japanese scanners.

However, there are not so far any signs  tradicional teachers of Japanese are becoming aware of the new opportunities, thus openned, for improving  the teaching of the language by giving more emphasis to the written language. Many short texts can be supplied mechanically with complete vocabularies by WWWJID. This however  does not solve yet the whole problem of Japanese translation.

To translate Japanese it is not enough to have the meanings of all the words in a text. We need to know grammar to sort the words out in a meaning way. We now need  develop methods for putting straight  in analytical order any Japanese text, by just following  some eleven simple rules, as those  that Cecil Pollard devised for German, in his Learn German the Easy Way, available in Archive. org.

  NIHON NO CHIRI日本の地理 ,A SAMPLE  FROM WIKIPEDIA

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』移動: 案内、 検索                      日本の地理(にっぽんのちり)では、日本の地理についての概略を記す。アジア(ユーラシア大陸)の東方(欧米から見れば極東)の沿海部にある4つの弧状列島(千島列島、日本列島、琉球列島、伊豆・小笠原諸島)から成り立っていて、太平洋の西部にある島国である。日本海を挟んでロシア、朝鮮民主主義人民共和国(北朝鮮)、大韓民国(韓国)と隣り合っている。東シナ海を挟んでは中国大陸および台湾島と隣り合っている。また、南側で太平洋〈フィリピン海〉を隔てて米領北マリアナ諸島と隣り合っている。日本の周辺は全て海であり、島国である。そのため他国と陸上において接していない。周辺は海であるが、樺太が日本本土から43キロメートル[8]の位置にあり、ロシアが日本から一番近い他国の領土である。[8]

日本の地理出典:フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』移動

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          地理 【ちり】 (n) geography; (P); ED

          出典 【しゅってん】 (n) source (e.g. quotation); authority; (P); ED

          フリー (adj-na) (1) free; (2) freelance; (P); ED

          百科事典 : 百科事典(P); 百科辞典(P) 【ひゃっかじてん】 (n) encyclopedia; encyclopaedia; (P); ED

          ウィキペディア (n) Wikipedia (free online encyclopedia); ED

          移動 【いどう】 (n,vs) (1) movement; transfer; migration; removal; (adj-f) (2) mobile; moving; traveling; travelling; roving; (P); ED

:案内、検索日本の地理(にっぽんのちり)では、日本の地理について

          案内 【あんない】 (n) (1) information; guidance; leading; (vs) (2) to guide; to show (around); to conduct; (P); ED

          検索 【けんさく】 (n,vs) looking up (e.g. a word in a dictionary); retrieval (e.g. data); searching for; referring to; (P); ED

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          地理 【ちり】 (n) geography; (P); ED

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          地理 【ちり】 (n) geography; (P); ED

          について (io) (exp) (1) concerning; regarding; (2) (uk) per (e.g. 100 yen per person); for every; KD

の概略を記す。

          概略 【がいりゃく】 (n-t) outline; summary; gist; in brief; (P); ED

          記す : 記す(P); 誌す; 識す 【しるす(P); きす(記す) (v5s) (1) (See 記する・1) to write down; to note; to jot down; (2) (usu. as 心に記す, etc.) to remember; (P); ED

 

アジア(ユーラシア大陸)の東方(欧米から見れば極東)の沿海部に

          アジア : 亜細亜 【アジア(P); あじあ】 (n) (1) (uk) Asia (esp. "the Far East"); (adj-no) (2) Asian; Asiatic; (P); ED

          ユーラシア大陸 【ユーラシアたいりく】 (n) Eurasian continent; Eurasia; ED

          東方 【とうほう(P); ひがしかた; ひがしがた】 (n,adj-no) (1) eastern direction; (2) the Orient; (n) (3) (ひがしかた, ひがしがた only) {MA} eastern fighter in a match (e.g. sumo wrestling); (P); ED

          欧米 【おうべい】 (n,adj-no) Europe and America; the West; (P); ED

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (conditional)

見る : 見る(P); 観る; 視る 【みる】 (v1,vt) (1) to see; to look; to watch; to view; to observe; (2) (See 診る) to look over; to look on; to assess; to examine; to judge; (3) (uk) (See 看る) to look after; to keep an eye on; to take care of; (4) (usu. 観る) to view (e.g. flowers, movie); (5) (uk) (usu. after a conative verb as ~てみる) to try; to try out; (6) (uk) (usu. after an aconative verb as ~てみると, ~てみれば, ~てみたら, etc.) to see that...; to find that...; (P); ED

          極東 【きょくとう】 (n,adj-no) Far East; (P); ED

          沿海 【えんかい】 (n,adj-no) coast; shore; inshore; coastal waters; (P); ED

          【ぶ】 (pref) department; part; club; team; SP

ある4つの弧状列島(千島列島、日本列島、琉球列島、伊豆・小笠原諸島

          弧状列島 【こじょうれっとう】 Arcuate Islands; GE

          千島列島 【ちしまれっとう】 (n) Kurile Islands; (P); ED

          日本列島 【にほんれっとう; にっぽんれっとう】 (n) the Japanese islands; ED

          琉球列島 【りゅうきゅうれっとう】 (n) Ryukyu Islands; ED

          伊豆 【いず】 Izu (p,s) 【いづ】 Idzu (s) 【いとう】 Itou (s) NA

          小笠原諸島 【おがさわらしょとう】 Bonin Islands (p) NA

)から成り立っていて、太平洋の西部にある島国である。

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

成り立つ : 成り立つ(P); 成立つ 【なりたつ】 (v5t,vi,vt) (1) to consist of; to be made up of; to be composed of; (2) to be practical (logical, feasible, viable); to be concluded; to hold true; (P); ED

          太平洋 : 太平洋(P); 大平洋(iK) 【たいへいよう】 (n) Pacific Ocean; (P); ED

          西部に 【せいぶに】 (adv) west; JWN

          島国 【しまぐに(P); とうごく】 (n) island country (sometimes used as a metaphor for Japan); (P); ED

          である (v5r-i) to be (formal, literary); KD

日本海を挟んでロシア、朝鮮民主主義人民共和国(北朝鮮)、大韓民国

          日本海 【にほんかい(P); にっぽんかい】 (n) Sea of Japan; (P); ED

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

挟む : 挟む(P); 挾む(oK); 挿む 【はさむ】 (v5m,vt) (1) to interpose; to hold between; to insert; (2) to be on either side (e.g. road); to be across (e.g. street, river); to be beyond; (P); : 差し挟む; 挟む; 差し挾む 【さしはさむ】 ; (v5m,vt) (1) to insert; (2) to interrupt; to slip in a word; (3) to harbor (e.g. doubts); to harbour; to entertain (e.g. a theory); ED

          ロシア : 露西亜(ateji); 魯西亜(ateji) 【ロシア; ロシヤ】 (n) (uk) Russia; ED

          朝鮮民主主義人民共和国 【ちょうせんみんしゅしゅぎじんみんきょうわこく】 (n) Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea); DPRK; (P); ED

          北朝鮮 【きたちょうせん】 (n) North Korea; (P); ED

          大韓民国 【だいかんみんこく】 (n) Republic of Korea; ED

(韓国)と隣り合っている。

          韓国 【かんこく】 (n) (South) Korea; (P); : 唐国; 韓国 【からくに】 ; (n) (arch) China; Korea; ED

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

隣り合う : 隣り合う(P); 隣合う(io)(P) 【となりあう】 (v5u,vi) to adjoin each other; to sit side by side; (P); ED

東シナ海を挟んでは中国大陸および台湾島と隣り合っている。

          東シナ海 【ひがしシナかい】 (n) East China Sea; ED

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

挟む : 挟む(P); 挾む(oK); 挿む 【はさむ】 (v5m,vt) (1) to interpose; to hold between; to insert; (2) to be on either side (e.g. road); to be across (e.g. street, river); to be beyond; (P); : 差し挟む; 挟む; 差し挾む 【さしはさむ】 ; (v5m,vt) (1) to insert; (2) to interrupt; to slip in a word; (3) to harbor (e.g. doubts); to harbour; to entertain (e.g. a theory); ED

          中国大陸 【ちゅうごくたいりく】 (n) continent of China; ED

          および (conj) and; as well as; KD

          台湾 【たいわん】 (n,adj-no) Taiwan; (P); ED

          【しま; じま; とう】 (n) (しま) island; (suf) (じま; とう) island; SP

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

隣り合う : 隣り合う(P); 隣合う(io)(P) 【となりあう】 (v5u,vi) to adjoin each other; to sit side by side; (P); ED

また、南側で太平洋〈フィリピン海〉を隔てて米領北マリアナ諸島と

          南側 【みなみがわ(P); なんそく】 (n) south side; (P); ED

          太平洋 : 太平洋(P); 大平洋(iK) 【たいへいよう】 (n) Pacific Ocean; (P); ED

          フィリピン海 【ふぃりぴんかい】 (n) Philippine Sea; battle of the Philippine Sea; JWN

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

隔てる : 隔てる(P); 距てる 【へだてる】 (v1,vt) (1) to separate (by distance, time, etc.); to isolate; to partition; to divide; (2) to interpose; to have between; (3) to alienate; to estrange; (P); ED

          【べい,こめ】 (n) (1) America; (2) raw rice; SP

          【りょう】 (suf) jurisdiction; territory; dominion; SP

          北マリアナ諸島 【きたまりあなしょとう】 (n) Northern Marianas; Northern Mariana Islands; JWN

隣り合っている。

•          Possible inflected verb or adjective: (te-form)

隣り合う : 隣り合う(P); 隣合う(io)(P) 【となりあう】 (v5u,vi) to adjoin each other; to sit side by side; (P); ED

日本の周辺は全て海であり、島国である。

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          周辺 【しゅうへん】 (n) (1) circumference; outskirts; environs; around; in the area of; in the vicinity of; (2) {comp} (computer) peripheral; (P); ED

          全て : 全て(P); 凡て; 総て; 総べて(io) 【すべて】 (n,adj-no) (1) everything; all; the whole; (adv) (2) entirely; completely; wholly; all; (P); ED

          【うみ(P); (ok); わた(ok); わだ(ok) (n) sea; beach; (P); ED

          島国 【しまぐに(P); とうごく】 (n) island country (sometimes used as a metaphor for Japan); (P); ED

          である (v5r-i) to be (formal, literary); KD

そのため他国と陸上において接していない。

          他国 【たこく】 (n,vs) foreign country; another province; (P); ED

          陸上 【りくじょう】 (n,adj-no) (1) land; ground; shore; (n) (2) (abbr) (See 陸上競技・りくじょうきょうぎ) track-and-field events; (P); ED

          において (exp) in; on; at (place); as for; regarding; KD

          接して from 接する 【せっする】 (vs-s,vi) (1) to touch; to come in contact with; to border on; to adjoin; to be adjacent; to be close; (2) to receive (e.g. visitor); to attend to; to serve; to take care of; to look after; to deal with; to see; (3) to receive (news); to get; to hear; (4) to encounter; to come across; (5) {math} to be tangent to; (vs-s,vt) (6) to make touch; to bring into contact with; to bring adjacent to; to bring close; to connect; (P); ED

周辺は海であるが、樺太が日本本土から43キロメートル[8]の位置に

          周辺 【しゅうへん】 (n) (1) circumference; outskirts; environs; around; in the area of; in the vicinity of; (2) {comp} (computer) peripheral; (P); ED

          【うみ(P); (ok); わた(ok); わだ(ok) (n) sea; beach; (P); ED

          である (v5r-i) to be (formal, literary); KD

          樺太 【からふと】 (n) Karafuto (Japanese name for Sakhalin); ED

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          本土 【ほんど】 (n) mainland; one's home country; the country proper; (P); ED

          キロメートル : 【キロメートル(P); キロメイトル】 (n) (uk) kilometer (fre:); kilometre; (P); ED

          位置 : 位置(P); 位地 【いち】 (n,vs) place; situation; position; location; (P); ED

あり、ロシアが日本から一番近い他国の領土である。

          ロシア : 露西亜(ateji); 魯西亜(ateji) 【ロシア; ロシヤ】 (n) (uk) Russia; ED

          日本 【にほん(P); にっぽん】 (n) Japan; (P); ED

          一番 【いちばん】 (n-adv) (1) best; first; number one; (2) game; round; bout; fall; event (in a meet); (P); 【ひとつがい】 ; (n) (uk) pair; couple; brace; ED

          近い 【ちかい】 (adj-i) near; close; short (distance); (P); ED

          他国 【たこく】 (n,vs) foreign country; another province; (P); ED

          領土 【りょうど】 (n,adj-no) dominion; territory; possession; (P); ED

 DARCY CARVALHO. HOW TO TRANSLATE JAPANESE.  CONCLUSION.[01/06/2013]


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Darcy Carvalho,
7 de ago de 2014 14:25
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