LATIM MEDIEVAL. Medieval Latin. Le Latin Médiévale . Arquivos no final da página

MEDIEVAL LATIN . LATIM MEDIEVAL .  LATIN MÉDIÉVALE.  PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. BRASIL. 2014
Contents: 01, 02, 03, 04,
LATIM MEDIEVAL. MEDIEVAL  LATIN. LE LATIN MÉDIÉVALE
Samples of medieval Latin
Latin 5600 homepage. University of Michigan Edu
Lexica
1. D´ARNIS  AND MIGNE´S LEXICON MANUALE MEDIAE ET INFIMAE LATINITATIS AT DARCY CARVALHO CREATOR
2. 
NIEMEYER´S MEDIAE LATINITATIS LEXICON MINUS ONLINE AT UMICH.EDU
 J. F. Niermeyer's Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus is a highly practical lexicon, providing researchers, teaching staff and students in the field of Medieval History with concise, essential information.  All entries are contextualized with relevant text passages. The lexicon explores the post-classical Latin language of the Western European Middle Ages from 550 to 1150, tracing the development and use of words. It opens up the great body of technical words relating to law and institutions and to the social structures of feudalism encountered early and high medieval sources, stressing explanations and quotations rather than syntax or etymology. The 2nd edition includeS also  a wider scope of geographic, temporal and source coverage. Niermeyer draws on a wide range of sources, including: letters, chronicles, annals, and histories ; diplomas, monuments, charters and cartularies ; lives, exempla, miracle collections, passions and martyrologies ; royal, ecclesiastical and university acta, statutes and visitations ; collections of civil, customary and canon laws ; the early medieval Fathers and theologians. Access requires identification.

INTRODUCTIO. 
Requisitus ad accessum ad linguam Latinam medio-aevalem
Ut facile accedere ad studium et ad litteraturam linguae  latinae  medio-aevalis,  necesse est scire elementa grammaticae latinae classicae,  elementa quae sunt disponibilia in omnibus grammaticis elementaribus linguae. Infra praebimus in ARCHIVA ADDICIONATA opera de Jaime Rodrigues Fernandes,  quae usae erant in scholis Brasilianis inter plurimas alias autoribus Luso- brasilianis jam on-line in Darcy Carvalho Creator  Archive Org.
For immediate access to the rich medieval literature in Latin, we just need an elementary knowledge of classical Latin that can be easily and quickly acquired in the hundred of school grammars produced in Europe and America in the last 200 years and before,  most of which are on-line, in Archive Org., Google,  Gallica and in other sites of the whole Europe.
Requisito para o acesso imediato aos textos latinos medievais é o conhecimento elementar do latim clássico, conhecimento que podemos  rapidamente e sem dificuldade adquirir nas obras escolares  há cinquenta anos utilizadas nas escolas do Brasil e Portugal. Nos livros didáticos brasileiros usados para o ensino do latim nos ginásios, encontramos exposições concisas de gramática latina classica, que são mais do que suficientes para o estudo tanto do latim medieval como do moderno. Para uma primeira abordagem desta vasta área ler os textos abaixo disponibilizados para download em ARQUIVOS ADICIONADOS.
O Latim Medieval é o Latim escrito resultante da evolução histórica da Europa, depois da queda do Império Romano. Transformando-se continuamente, ao longo dos séculos, incorporando novos vocábulos para exprimir novas idéias, simplificando estruturas gramaticais do Latim clássico, a língua latina demonstrou plena capacidade de continuar a servir de meio de expressão, artística, diplomática, técnica e eclesiástica, segundo lugares, épocas e necessidades. As línguas neolatinas, por sua vez, resultaram da evolução do Latim falado durante a Idade Média.

Cito : Medieval Latin  was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends and medieval Latin begins. Some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500,[1] and still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900. FINIS CITATIONIS 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Latin

O LATIM MEDIEVAL – UMA CONSTRUÇÃO ARTIFICIAL OU UMA  LÍNGUA VIVA?

М. А. Таривердиева

СРЕДНЕВЕКОВАЯ ЛАТЫНЬ - ИСКУССТВЕННЫЙ КОНСТРУКТ ИЛИ "ЖИВОЙ" ЯЗЫК?

O LATIM MEDIEVAL – UMA CONSTRUÇÃO ARTIFICIAL OU UMA  LÍNGUA VIVA?

“As atividades dos cientistas da corte do imperador Carlos Magno, na coleta de manuscritos e agilização da antiga herança literária romana  (a chamada Reforma de Carlos Magno, ou o Renascimento Carolíngio, do fim do século VIII  ao início do IX,  dividem a  Idade Média Latina em dois períodos: 1) O primeiro período, estende-se dos séculos III-VIII e é  caracterizado pela perda  gradual da capacidade de escrever, segundo as normas clássicas,  período durante o qual continuou o livre desenvolvimento da linguagem latina oral, com  a emergência de inovações  em todos os níveis da linguagem; 2) O segundo período, séculos IX-XIII, caracteriza-se  pela  recuperação das  regras linguísticas clássicas, que doravante passam a ser  seguidas na  prática da escrita e na criatividade literária”.

“Podemos considerar o tempo do aparecimento dos primeiros trabalhos literários em  línguas românicas como o terminus ante quem  para o funcionamento ativo e desenvolvimento da língua latina medieval , o que, aparentemente, levou alguns lingüistas a chamarem  as línguas românicas " de línguas  neolatinas."

(Индоевропейское языкознание и классическая филология - XII. Материалы чтений, посвященных памяти профессора И. М. Тронского. - СПб., 2008. - С. 409-413

01= ABOUT MEDIEVAL  LATIN  TEXTS

Many important medieval authors are available only through manuscript versions of their works. For practical purposes  this means that they are unreadable by people innocent of Paleography.  In studying medieval Latin as a reference to modern simple utilitarian Latin we should be thankful and satisfied with modern editions of ancient manuscripts. Professor Eric Knibbs explain how to use critical editions of medieval texts. Publishers of medieval Latin texts usually respect the medieval orthography or spelling. Students of modern Latin therefore should be aware of the spelling  peculiarities of a medieval Latin and be prepared to cope with them. A long medieval text can be re-edited in accordance with the Ramist orthography, prevalent in France and in the Central European countries, by careful, very careful,  use of the substitution mechanism availabe in windows: never order " substitute all". 

ERIC KNIBBS . YALE UNIVERSITY.  How To Use Modern Critical  Editions Of Medieval Texts.  Apud  ACADEMIA . EDU.                 

https://www.academia.edu/4363871/How_to_Use_Modern_Critical_Editions_of_Medieval_Latin_Texts

02=  SPELLING OF MEDIEVAL LATIN,  GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

http://www.dmlbs.ox.ac.uk/british-medieval-latin/language/latin-in-the-middle-ages

The most obvious difference in appearance between Medieval Latin and Classical Latin is in how words were spelled. Although Classical spellings were generally retained for inherited vocabulary, changes in pronunciation which had happened over the centuries — many the same as those which had led to the divergence of the everyday Romance languages from Latin and from each other — influenced the corresponding spelling of the words. Thus we often find ci before a vowel where the Classical spelling would have been ti (e.g racio for ratio), and the diphthongs ae and oe which had come to be pronounced the same as the simple e sound are often written e. (We also find as a result examples where ae or oe are written where the expected spelling would be just e.) Other alternations in spelling arising from changes in pronunciation are the interchange of b and v, the insertion or deletion of h, the use of single consonants for double ones (and vice versa), and the substitution of y for i. Sometimes spellings were also influenced by the pronunciation of a word in the everyday local language related to or derived from the Latin word (or thought to have been so).

For new vocabulary the writers often faced the challenge of having no certain model to follow. While writers of Latin still had some sense of words having ‘a spelling’, inherited from the standardized Classical language, this principle was already undermined by variation, and for borrowed vocabulary, the source language (Old or Middle English, Anglo-Norman French, etc.) typically had no single standard spelling that could be borrowed. Indeed, the word in the source language would usually have had slighly different pronunciations in different areas in any case. Moreover, frequently the borrowed vocabulary would contain sounds not found in inherited Latin vocabulary, such as the ‘sh’ sound of English and French. Writers would therefore use the Latin alphabet as best they could to represent the words they wished to write. We find some extreme examples in British Medieval Latin of the resulting variation, such as ‘maeremium’ (‘timber’, borrowed from Anglo-Norman merim and related words, originally derived from Late Latin materiamen) which is attested in more than 50 different spellings (e.g. maerremium, mahermium, maisremium, etc.).

Finally, we must remember that writing materials were expensive in the Middle Ages, and it was extremely common for scribes to use abbreviations. Typically abbreviation was indicated by some form of mark or stroke made through, above, or immediately following the letter preceding the position of the omitted letter(s). Many modern editions of texts ‘expand’ such abbreviations to make reading the texts easier, but the correct way to expand such forms is not always clear, particularly at the end of a word, where scribes often seem to have used abbreviation as a convenient way to avoid giving a borrowed word an explicit (grammatical) ending.

Grammar

The most important differences in the grammar of Medieval Latin again lie in the greater flexibility allowed in the use of the various forms of words and constructions, alongside the general continuation of most of the Classical grammatical system.

The inflectional system was not always used as consistently or rigidly as in Classical Latin. Thus, prepositions and verbs which would have been followed by a noun or adjective in one case in Classical Latin are not uncommonly found followed by a word in a different case. Similarly, conjunctions which in Classical Latin would have been followed by a verb in the subjunctive mood might be found followed by a verb in the indicative (or vice versa). Also, verbs which had been deponent in Classical Latin (i.e. had passive forms but active meanings) are often found used in active forms (in the same meanings).

New constructions also arose, in some instances used as an alternative to existing ones. Most significant among these was the increase in use of the indirect statement construction consisting of quod or quia followed by a clause with a finite verb (sometimes indicative, sometimes subjunctive) instead of the Classical way of expressing the same meaning (using the accusative and infinitive construction). The quod or quia construction had in fact already existed in the Classical language, but only in restricted circumstances, and it rose to prominence not only in Medieval Latin but also in the Romance languages (cf. modern French je dis que …).

Vocabulary

The DMLBS naturally concentrates on the vocabulary of the language and highlights the differences (or, rather, innovations) in this area. It is easy in this regard to overlook the simple fact that the vast majority of Medieval Latin vocabulary is vocabulary inherited from earlier stages of the language and used in ways and in meanings that were a normal part of those earlier period's usage.

Still, we see that inherited words frequently do develop or show new meanings of various kinds, including restrictions of existing meanings, metaphorical and metonymic extensions of existing meanings, and meanings arising from connections with other related or similar words. For instance, we find regulariter in the sense of ‘in accordance with a monastic rule’, pupula can refer to the eye and a disease of the eye as well as to just the pupil, and purare ‘to free from dirt’ is found more generally than just the ceremonial context in the Classical evidence. The new meanings are usually found in addition to the continuation of one or more Classical ones; less often we find such words used only in new senses.

Sometimes the changes in meaning even affected grammatical words, and as a result the grammar of the language has the appearance of having changed: for instance, we frequently find the pronouns se (‘himself, herself, itself’) and eum (‘him etc.’) interchanged.

Writers were also able to coin new words. Sometimes these were based on existing Latin vocabulary, such as deriving new nouns in -tio from verbs in order to denote the ‘act or process’ of the verb (and often also the ‘product or result’ too), or adverbs from existing adjectives (e.g. querule ‘plaintively’ from querulus ‘plaintive’).

The most striking type of new coinage, though, was of course the borrowed vocabulary. When a writer came across something to be expressed for which there was no existing Latin word (e.g. a new invention or social position) or the writer did not know the right Latin word, the typical response was to adopt and adapt a word from that writer's native vocabulary, making minimal changes as necessary to fit it into the Latin grammatical system. Such changes might include adding a suitable inflectional ending, normally that of the most common pattern for that kind of word (e.g. the first conjugation endings for a verb).

03=  GENERAL NOTE ABOUT MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY  MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY WAS NOT STANDARDIZED, IT MAY THEREFORE VARY FROM AUTHOR TO AUTHOR

“Students of modern Latin that study medieval texts to profit  from  its syntaxis and vocabulary should standardize the spelling of the medieval text. In the Colloquia of Erasmus, students of Classical Latin will notice that many familiar words are spelled somewhat differently in  this text. The spelling in this edition of Erasmus' Colloquia follows the conventions of medieval Latin, when orthography was not standardized and was often reflective either of local pronunciation, or of the ignorance of the scribe as to correct Classical spelling rules.”

SOME SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF SPELLING CHANGES THE STUDENT WILL ENCOUNTER IN MEDIEVAL  TEXTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:  •Reduction of diphthongs: both ae and oe become e. Examples: scaena = scena; coepisti = cepisti. •Consonant reduction: immo = imo. •Increase in the value of some long vowels: Example: the adverb hic = heic; omnes = omneis.  •Consonant substitution: c (k) = qu. Example: the adverbial cum introducing a clause = quum (N.B. the preposition cum retains its Classical spelling). •The letter x is written xs: expectabam = exspectabam.  •The letter h is inserted in the middle of words: istuc = isthuc, and sometimes suppressed in the beginning of words.  • Mihi is written michi, nihil appears as nichil.The letter y appears frequently, v. g.  ydromellum  .  Author: Jennifer K. Nelson.

http://www.stoa.org/colloquia/nelson/index-div2-d0e203.html

04=  FOR A  GENERAL  DOWNLOADABLE  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF  LATIN GRAMMARS  SEE  THE SITES BELOW:

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

 MANUAL PRÁTICO DE LATIM MEDIEVAL POR DAG NORBERG . TRADUÇÃO DE JOSÉ PEREIRA DA SILVA, RIO DE JANEIRO, CIFEFIL, 2007. 

https://archive.org/details/ManualPraticoDeLatimMedievalPorDagNorberg127PaginasTraducaoDeJose

Este manual tem versões em Francês, Manuel pratique du latin médieval,Paris, 1980 ,e em Inglês , A Practical Handbook of Medieval Latin. Pode ser completado pela L´introduction à l´étude du latin médieval de Karl Strecker, disponível no Archive.org .Dag Norberg apresenta uma concisa introdução ao estudo da língua latina medieval, área de estudos que ainda se encontra em seus primeiros passos no Brasil e no mundo

 INTRODUCTION A L'ETUDE DU LATIN MEDIEVAL (1900). STRECKER, KARL, 1861-1945. Paris : E. Droz https://archive.org/details/introductionletu00stre

 DICTIONAIRE ILLUSTRE LATIN FRANÇAIS. FELIX GAFFIOT ET RÉNÉ DURAND , HACHETTE, PARIS, 1935. 1730 PÁGINAS

https://archive.org/details/FelixGaffiotDictionnaireIllustr.LatinFrancais

Maximo dicionario Francês- Latino, escolar e científico. Latim do início até o ano 600, da Era Cristã. Contém vocabulario cristão. Felix Gaffiot huge Latin French dictionary, 1730 pages, three columns each. Largest of its kind in French. Gaffiot died in 1937, just after first edition. Albert Blaise added Christian vocabulary to this second edition published by Réné Durand. Librairie Hachette. Paris. 1935. There is a recent enlarged edition with another title.

 J.F. NIERMEYER'S MEDIAE LATINITATIS LEXICON MINUS (1976 EDITION), A LATIN-FRENCH/ENGLISH LEXICON

https://archive.org/details/NiermeyerLexiconMinus1976

Completa o dicionário de Gaffiot e Durand.

 LEXICON MANUALE AD SCRIPTORES MEDIAE ET INFIMAE LATINITATIS. W.  H. MAIGNE  D´ARNIS , PUBLIÉ  PAR  M, L´ABBÉ MIGNE, 1858. Recueil des mots de la basse latinité, dressé pour servir à l'intelligence des auteurs, soit sacrés, soit profanes, du moyen âge (1866). https://archive.org/details/lexiconmanualead00maiguoft

 F.A.C. MANTELLO AND A.G. RIGG, EDS., MEDIEVAL LATIN: AN INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL GUIDE (CUA PRESS, 1996) ISBN 0-8132-0842- Uma das obras mais recentes sobre o Latim Medieval. Read some  helpful customer reviews on Amazon.com:

1 I read this book when I was on holiday and couldn't put it down. The scope of the book is huge taking you not only through medieval language use and literature but also deep into medieval life. Copious examples of medieval letters and writings bring the "dark ages" back to life in a vivid and fascinating way. The book is ideal for anyone who is interested in Medieval Latin or society and everyday life back then. If you want to read firsthand medieval Latin texts I recommend Liber Kalilae et Dimnae: & Liber Septem Sapientium (Latin Edition), De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum (Latin Edition), Gesta Romanorum (Latin Edition) and Historia Regni Henrici Septimi Regis Angliae (Latin Edition)

2 I received my copy just a few days ago, and I feel confident in allocating five stars simply from my impressions so far. Don't be put off by "Bibliographical Guide" in the title: while it meets that description admirably, it really does serve as a comprehensive survey and introduction to the field. The general linguistic material is most enlightening, and judiciously put together. The very many concise treatments of particular genres and literatures are invaluable. Overall, this appears to be the most useful adjunct to any study of Medieval Latin through the available primers (Harrington, Sidwell, and the rest). It takes things further in just the right ways, I find.

3 By Darcy Carvalho - Published on Amazon.com. Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide [Paperback] F. A. Mantello (Editor), A. G. Rigg (Editor). This is a massive wonderful rich book carefully composed by well-known international Latinists. It did not contain texts of mediaeval Latin though . It just fully describes the many areas and interesting research available for mediaevalist willing to study the many faces of the Latin language after the year 200 of our Christian Era. As Latin texts can now be easily obtained in internet, the lack of samples of mediaeval Latin does not reduce the extreme importance of this book for latin studies in general. The bibliographies are extensive thoughful and very surprising. We can well regret that the articles could not be longer for the lack of space and multitude of topics.

EGIDIO FORCELINI. UMA REFERÊNCIA ESPECIAL PARA ESTUDANTES DO LATIM DE QUALQUER ÉPOCA

 O LÉXICO DE TODA A LATINIDADE POR EGIDIO FORCELLINI É OBRA EXEMPLAR VASTISSIMA COMPLETAMENTE REDIGIDA EM LATIM.   Encontra-se em Archive. org e nos DOCUMENTA CATHOLICA OMNIA http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/

PRAEFATIO. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. ED. QUARTA. https://archive.org/details/LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Ed.Quarta.Praefatio

VOL. 1. A-C. ED. QUARTA . LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol.1.A-c.Ed

VOL.2. D-K. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM https://archive.org/details/Vol.2.D-k.Ed.Quarta.lexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum

Vol.3. L-Q. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/Vol.3lexiconTotiusLatinitatisAbAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol.3.L-q

VOL. 4. A. R-S. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM.

https://archive.org/details/Vol.4.A.R-sLexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol

VOL. 4. B. T-Z. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/Vol.4.B.T-z.LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol

5 PROF. RAND JOHNSON . Department of World Languages and Literatures

Western Michigan University. Latin 5600, Medieval Latin

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~johnsorh/MedievalLatin/

6 DAG NORBERG, A Practical Handbook of Medieval Latin (Paris 1980) (translated by R.H. Johnson, for non-commercial use only)

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~johnsorh/MedievalLatin/Norberg/index.html

O3

LATIN RESOURCES FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

SOURCE:  LATIN RESOURCES FOR LATIN STUDENTS AT THE CENTRE FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

Andrew Hicks.  HTML code by Christian Knudsen

University of Toronto. 125 Queen's Park, Third Floor. Toronto, Ontario. M5S 2C7 CANADA

DICTIONARIES (SELECTED)

Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary (1879). Still a standard lexicon. Freely available online through The Perseus Digital Library.

•             Charlton T. Lewis. An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1891, numerous reprints). An abbreviated version of the same (also available online through Perseus, but perhaps its best recommendation is its affordability: numerous used copies starting around $30 at Abe Books.com).

•             P.G.W. Glare, ed. Oxford Latin Dictionary (1968-1982). An excellent recourse for Classical Latin, less so for Medieval Latin.

•             Alexander Souter. A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 AD (1949). An excellent supplement to Lewis and Short and the OLD (also affordable at Abe Books.com).

•             R.E. Latham. A Revised Medieval Latin Word List from British and Irish Sources (1965). Another affordable lexical aid containing words not included in Lewis and Short (check Abe Books.com).

•             L.F. Stelten. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin (1995). Useful for reading scripture, canon law, liturgy, church fathers, etc. (find it at Amazon.com).

•             J.G.T. Graesse. Orbis Latinus: Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (1909). This standard lexicon of place names is freely available online via Columbia University's Sources of Medieval History.

•             Jan Frederik Niermeyer. Mediae latinitatis lexicon minus (1976). An invaluable resource, including English, French and German translations and (at least through c. 1150) generous quotations and citations.

•             Du Cange's classic glossary, the Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis (Paris, 1678; numerous reprints), can still be consulted with much profit, but it should be used with great care; it is not recommended as the first port of call. The École des chartes (ELEC), in association with the Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes (IRHT), has prepared a fully digitized, searchable version of Du Cange, which presents Léopold Favre's ten volume edition of 1883-1887). The full text of Louis Hentschel's revision (1840-1850) is available through the the Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project at Standford, though the files are quite large (PDFs starting at 145MB).

•             The University of Toronto subscribes to the Database of Latin Dictionaries, a rich resource that searches the following dictionaries (note that dates reflect the editions indexed, not always the original publication date): Lexicon totius latinitatis cum appendicibus (Forcellini, 1940); Lexicon totius latinitatis Onomasticon (Perin, 1940); A Latin Dictionary (Lewis and Short, 1933); Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens (Blaise and Tombeur, 1954-1967 and 2005); Lexicon latinitatis medii aeui (Blaise, 1975); Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (du Cange, 1883-1887); Firmini Verris Dictionarius (Merrilees and Edwards, 1994); Anonymi Montepessulanensis Dictionarius (Grondeux, 1998); Dictionarius familiaris et compendiosus (Merrilees and Edwards, 2002). University of Toronto computers can link directly; University of Toronto students can access the database at home by searching for "Database of Latin Dictionaries" in the E-Resources catalogue at the library website and logging in with a UTORid.

GRAMMARS (SELECTED)

•             Charles E. Bennett. New Latin Grammar (1908, reprinted by Bolchazy-Carducci, 1995). Freely available online via The Latin Library.

•             J.B. Greenough et al.. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1888). Also available online via both The Perseus Digital Library and William Harris's Humanities and the Liberal Arts.

•             B.H. Kennedy. The Revised Latin Primer, ed. and rev. J. Mountford (1962, reprint. 1976). Find it on Abe Books.com

•             Students with a solid Classical Latin background may find helpful the brief comparative grammar appended to K. Sidwell's Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 362-372. A more in-depth exposition of Medieval Latin syntax and morphology can be found in: A.G. Rigg's "Morphology and Syntax," in F.A.C Mantello and A.G. Rigg, Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographic Guide (Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 83-92; A.G. Elliott's grammatical introduction to K.P. Harrington's reader, Medieval Latin (2nd ed., rev. by J. Pucci, Chicago, 1997); and be aware of P. Stotz's Handbuch zur Lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters, vol. 4: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 2/5/4, Munich, 1998).

MORPHOLOGY, GRAMMAR, AND SYNTAX REVIEWS

The following list gathers some of the instructional materials posted for the various courses.

•             Traditional Grammatical Terminology (by A.G. Rigg) (also available as PDF)

•             Conditional Sentences

•             Purpose Clauses, Sequence of Tenses

•             Present System Synopsis

•             Perfect System Synopsis

•             Verb Synopsis Practice

•             Participles

•             Periphrasis

•             Accusative-Infinitive

•             Places: Accusative, Ablative, and Locative

•             Pronouns, Possesive Adjectives, and Demonstratives

•             Relatives, Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives

•             Noun and Adjective Summary

•             Present Participle/Gerund/Gerundive Review Worksheet (answers)

•             Latin Prosody

•             Uses of Quin

Site written and maintained by Andrew Hicks, HTML code by Christian Knudsen.

04_AUTORES MEDIEVAIS

 1   Flavius Blondus

Blondus, Flavius. Historiarum ab inclinatione romanorum imperii ([Reprod.]). 1483

http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/Visualiseur?Destination=Gallica&O=NUMM-060241

http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/cgi-bin/blondus.pl?seite=1

Flavio Blondo.   http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavio_Biondo

Flavius Blondus ( 1388- 1463)  nasceu  em  Forlì, capital  da Romagna, ca. 1388 e faleceu  em Roma, em 4 de junho de 1463.  Foi humanista, historiador, arqueólogo, erudito, enciclopedista, antiquário, filólogo e latinista,  primeiro a cunhar o termo Idade Média e um dos primeiros a ocupar-se com o estudo sobre a Antiguidade, sendo considerado precursor da arqueologia. Foi secretário e chanceler dos papas Eugênio IV, Nicolau V, Calisto III e Pio II. Recebeu refinada educação,  tendo  aulas de retórica, poética e gramática com Giovanni Ballistário de Cremona. Durante  permanência em Milão, descobriu e transcreveu algumas obras de Cícero tais como Brutus e De claris oratoribus. Em 1433, transferiu-se para Roma. Foi nomeado secretário do Papa Eugênio IV e acompanhou- o  no exílio em 1444. Depois da morte do seu patrono, Flávius Biondus  colocou-se a serviço dos papas sucessores,  Nicolau V, Calixto III e do grande humanista Pio II.  

Blondo publicou três compêndios sistemáticos e documentados sobre as ruínas de Roma, que lhe deram  fama de arqueólogo.  Antiquários e historiadores subsequentes tiveram por base os fundamentos estabelecidos por Flavio Biondo  e por seu contemporâneo Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459). Numa época em que as ruínas da antiga Roma  ainda estavam esquecidas e inexploradas ,  Flavio Blondo  e  outros  humanistas, como Leone Batttista Alberti (1404-1472) começaram a explorar e a documentar a arquitetura, a topografia e a história da  Roma antiga, e com  isso  recriaram  a imagem de uma Roma  gloriosa. A primeira obra de Flavio foi  De Roma Instaurata , em 3 vols, 1444-1446 , que  é  uma reconstrução da topografia da Roma antiga.  A segunda ,  De Roma triumphante, publicada em 1459,  trata dos tempos do paganismo  como modelo para as reformas governamentais e militares da  sua época, apresentando  o papado como uma continuação do Império Romano. As maiores obras de Biondo foram a  Italia illustrata,  de 1474, livro de geografia, baseado  nas viagens pessoais do autor, que nele relata  a história das dezoito províncias italianas;  e a Historiarum ab inclinatione Romanorum imperii decades , Décadas das histórias desde a inclinação do Império dos Romanos, escrita entre 1439 e 1453, e publicada em 1483. { Nota baseada na Wikipedia}

Thomas Aquinas

http://dhspriory.org/thomas/DeRegno.htm

De regno ad regem Cypri. ON KINGSHIP TO THE KING OF CYPRUS by Thomas Aquinas  translated by Gerald B. Phelan, revised by I. Th. Eschmann, O.P. Toronto: The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1949.. Re-edited and chapter numbers aligned with Latin, by Joseph Kenny, O.P.  

CONTENTS

Address to the King of Cyprus

BOOK ONE: THE THEORY OF MONARCHY

1.Preliminary observations . 2.Different kinds of rule. 3.The absolute merits of monarchy . 4.The absolute demerits of tyranny. 5.The historical merits of monarchy. Discussion. 6.The historical merits of monarchy. Solution . 7.Limited monarchy (fragment); Christian allegiance and tyrannical domination. 8.The reward of a king: (a) honour and glory?  9.The reward of a king: (b) eternal beatitude. 10.The reward of a king: (c) eternal beatitude (continued) .11.The reward of a king: (d) temporal prosperity . 12.The punishment for tyranny. 13.The method of this investigation. 14.God, the Creator, and the King-Founder. 15.Divine and human government (fragment); The king in Christendom. 16.The king in Christendom (continued).

BOOK TWO: THE PRACTICE OF A MONARCH

1.The King-Founder. Geopolitical considerations. 2.Geopolitical considerations (continued). 3.Economic autarchy. 4.Geopolitical considerations (continued). Appendix: Selected parallel texts.

GENERAL NOTE ABOUT MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY

Medieval orthography was not standardized, it may therefore vary from author to author. “Students of modern Latin that study medieval texts to profit  from  its syntaxis and vocabulary should standardize the spelling of the medieval text. In the Colloquia of Erasmus, students of Classical Latin will notice that many familiar words are spelled somewhat differently in  this text. The spelling in this edition of Erasmus' Colloquia follows the conventions of medieval Latin, when orthography was not standardized and was often reflective either of local pronunciation, or of the ignorance of the scribe as to correct Classical spelling rules.”

SOME SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF SPELLING CHANGES THE STUDENT WILL ENCOUNTER IN MEDIEVAL  TEXTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

•Reduction of diphthongs: both ae and oe become e. Examples: scaena = scena; coepisti = cepisti.  •Consonant reduction: immo = imo.  •Increase in the value of some long vowels: Example: the adverb hic = heic; omnes = omneis. •Consonant substitution: c (k) = qu. Example: the adverbial cum introducing a clause = quum (N.B. the preposition cum retains its Classical spelling). •The letter x is written xs: expectabam = exspectabam. •The letter h is inserted in the middle of words: istuc = isthuc, and sometimes suppressed in the beginning of words. • Mihi is written michi, nihil appears as nichil •The letter y appears frequently, v. g.  ydromellum, ydeoma. Date: last revised 2003-12-18 Author: Jennifer K. Nelson.This page is covered by a Creative Commons Share Alike license.

http://www.stoa.org/colloquia/nelson/index-div2-d0e203.html


05=     BAYERISCHE AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN  online.     

Kommission für die Herausgabe eines mittellateinischen Wörterbuches  Impressum  Suche  Kontakt  zur Website der BAdW

http://www.mlw.badw.de/mittellatein/

Was ist Mittellatein?

Mit dem Begriff „Mittellatein“ bezeichnet man kurz die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters, also in etwa der Zeit von 500 bis 1500. Im Unterschied zu Bezeichnungen wie „Mittelhochdeutsch“ oder „Mittelenglisch“ wird hier nicht auf eine ältere Sprachstufe Bezug genommen, sondern es wird ein gewisser Zeitraum der Verwendung des Lateins bezeichnet. Die Sprache des antiken Rom fand ihre Fortsetzung nicht nur in den romanischen Sprachen; sie lebte gleichzeitig und ohne daß ihr Gebrauch je unterbrochen wurde, als eine Sprache der Literatur und Kultur, der Wissenschaft, des Rechts und der Kirche fort, die in zunehmenden Maße in der Schule erlernt werden mußte. In weiten Teilen Europas blieb sie das ganze Mittelalter hindurch für viele Bereiche die vorherrschende Schriftsprache, und sogar bis weit in die Neuzeit überwogen in der Buchproduktion Deutschlands die lateinischen Werke zahlenmäßig die in deutscher Sprache verfaßten. Obwohl das Latein des Mittelalters sich immer wieder am antiken Modell orientierte, entwickelte sich die Sprache durch den Gebrauch weiter und paßte sich einer sich wandelnden Welt an. In die Rechtssprache etwa fanden viele volkssprachliche Begriffe in latinisierter Form Eingang, Termini anderer Fachdisziplinen wurden aus dem Griechischen, seltener aus dem Arabischen übernommen, in Schule und Dichtung versuchte man die eigene Sprachkenntnis oft durch bewußtes Streben nach den Grenzen des sprachlich Möglichen unter Beweis zu stellen.

 Die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters in Kontinuität und Wandel im Vergleich zum Latein der heidnischen Antike und der Kirchenväterzeit zu beschreiben, ist der Gegenstand von Wörterbüchern und Grammatik. Sie stellen zugleich das Werkzeug bereit, das den Wissenschaftlern verschiedenster Fachrichtungen ein korrektes und differenziertes Verständnis ihrer mittelalterlichen Quellen ermöglicht. Diese Hilfsmittel sind gerade in einer Zeit, da verbreitete gute Lateinkenntnisse zugunsten neuer Bildungsinhalte zurücktreten, von besonderer Bedeutung.

 Eine Grammatik zum Mittellatein legte vor Peter STOTZ: Handbuch zur lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 2. Abteilung, 5. Teil),  t. 1: Einleitung, lexikologische Praxis, Wörter und Sachen, Lehnwortgut, München 2002;  t. 2: Bedeutungswandel und Wortbildung, 2000;  t. 3: Lautlehre, 1996;  t. 4: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik, 1998,  t. 5: Bibliographie, Quellenübersicht und Register, 2004.

 Das umfassendste abgeschlossene Wörterbuch zum Latein des Mittelalters, auf das die Forschung bis heute angewiesen ist, stammt in seinen Grundzügen hingegen immer noch aus dem 17. Jahrhundert: Charles du Fresne DU CANGE,  Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis, 3 Bde., Paris 1678 mit mehreren Bearbeitungen, zuletzt von Léopold FAVRE, Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis conditum a Carolo du Fresne Du Cange..., 10 Bde., Niort 1883-1887 (Neudruck zuletzt in 5 Bänden: Graz 1954). Online-Ausgabe der École nationale des chartes.      

 http://www.mlw.badw.de/mittellatein/ 

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