LATIM MEDIEVAL. MEDIEVAL LATIN. LE LATIN MÉDIÉVALE. Arquivos no final da página

MEDIEVAL LATIN . LATIM MEDIEVAL .  LATIN MÉDIÉVALE.  PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO. BRASIL. 2014
LATIM MEDIEVAL. MEDIEVAL  LATIN. LE LATIN MÉDIÉVALE. SAMPLES OF MEDIEVAL LATIN. LEXICA FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES
MEDIEVAL LATIN AS A WORLD LANGUAGE. O LATIM MEDIEVAL COMO LÍNGUA INTERNACIONAL DE COMUNICAÇÃO E CULTURA.
Le Latin -Langue morte ou langue vivante ? Cristine Mohrmann écrit : Plus qu'aucune autre langue, le latin mérite d'être appelé langue mondiale, au sens plein du mot. Et ceci est vrai tant au sens diachronique et historique que du point de vue synchronique et actuel. Le dialecte du minuscule territoire du Latium, le latin, est d'abord devenu langue de Rome, puis il s'est propagé grâce aux armes romaines pour devenir langue universelle de l'empire occidental, voire langue d'administration de la totalité de l'Empire. Adopté par le christianisme, l'Église occidentale en fera sa langue officielle. Mieux encore, langue de l'Église et du christianisme, le latin remplit le rôle d'instrument d'une civilisation considérée comme exemplaire, et il servit de langue véhiculaire pour la culture médiévale, dans l'enseignement, dans la littérature et dans toutes les manifestations de la vie civilisée. On peut parler d'une double survivance du latin : d'une part dans les langues romanes, prolongement naturel et organique du latin populaire, modifié et différencié dans les diverses régions de l'Empire par les contacts avec les langues des conquérants, germaniques et autres ; d'autre part dans le latin médiéval, successeur et continuateur du latin littéraire tel qu'il avait été enseigné au cours des siècles dans les écoles. Cette double survivance a fait du latin un élément constitutif de la civilisation occidentale. Il n'est donc pas seulement un simple phénomène historique : on peut parler d'une présence du latin à l'heure actuelle, non seulement d'une présence directe dans l'enseignement, dans les études classiques, etc., mais aussi, ce qui est plus important, d'une présence indirecte comme ferment de nos langues modernes et de notre civilisation en général (Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale ). 
Latin - Dead or living language? Cristine Mohrmann writes: More than any other language, Latin deserves to be called world language, in the full sense of the word. And this is true both diachronically and historically, as well as from the synchronic and current point of view. The dialect of the tiny territory of Lazio, Latin, first became the language of Rome, then it spread thanks to the Roman arms to become universal language of the Western empire, even language of administration of the totality of the 'Empire. Adopted by Christianity, the Western Church will make it its official language. Better still, the language of the Church and of Christianity, Latin fulfills the role of an instrument of a civilization considered as exemplary, and it served as a lingua franca for medieval culture, in education, in literature and in all the manifestations of civilized life. We can speak of a double survival of Latin: on the one hand in the Romance languages, a natural and organic extension of the popular Latin, modified and differentiated in the various regions of the Empire by the contacts with the languages of the conquerors, Germanic and others; on the other hand, in medieval Latin, a successor and continuator of literary Latin as it had been taught over the centuries in schools. This double survival has made Latin a constituent element of Western civilization. It is not only a simple historical phenomenon: we can speak of a presence of Latin at the present time, not only of a direct presence in education, in classical studies, etc., but also, more importantly, an indirect presence as a ferment of our modern languages and of our civilization in general.
Montello and Riggs write: The Latin language has existed for some 3,000 years and has exerted an influence that is nothing less than astonishing. Its classical form, the literary language of the Roman Republic and Empire and the vehicle of a great literature, is still taught in schools and universities. Its vulgar or popular forms were the precursors of the Romance languages—Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Catalan, Provençal, Sardinian, Romansh, Rumanian, and their many dialects. Its medieval form was Europe's lingua franca, offering the incomparable advantage of a living language common to the whole of Western Christendom and transcending local linguistic variations. Its revived "classical" form was the learned language of humanism and of early modern Europe until late in the seventeenth century. The present "deadness" of Latin can in no way obscure its historical role as the West's culturally preeminent instrument of thought and expression for well over 1,500 years. What is perhaps most remarkable about its survival is that it continued to be learned and used for literary, scholarly, liturgical, administrative, and many mundane purposes long after it had ceased to be anyone's native language. The Latin used in the Middle Ages is here interpreted broadly to include late antiquity and therefore to extend from c. A.D. 200 to 1500, this 1,300 year epoch was a period of profound linguistic change, of fluid interaction of languages: Latin responded to the influence of the classical literary tradition, Christianity, and the developing vernacular idioms, and these new languages were simultaneously receptive to the influence of Latin, borrowing not only lexical material but also themes, images, rhetorical devices, compositional techniques, and texts to be translated. Cf. Medieval Latin. An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide. Edited by F.A.C. Mantello. Department of Greek and Latin, The Catholic University of America and A.G. Rigg. Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto. 

Was ist Mittellatein? What is Medieval Latin? Que é o Latim Medieval?

Mit dem Begriff „Mittellatein“ bezeichnet man kurz die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters, also in etwa der Zeit von 500 bis 1500. Im Unterschied zu Bezeichnungen wie „Mittelhochdeutsch“ oder „Mittelenglisch“ wird hier nicht auf eine ältere Sprachstufe Bezug genommen, sondern es wird ein gewisser Zeitraum der Verwendung des Lateins bezeichnet. Die Sprache des antiken Rom fand ihre Fortsetzung nicht nur in den romanischen Sprachen; sie lebte gleichzeitig und ohne daß ihr Gebrauch je unterbrochen wurde, als eine Sprache der Literatur und Kultur, der Wissenschaft, des Rechts und der Kirche fort, die in zunehmenden Maße in der Schule erlernt werden mußte. In weiten Teilen Europas blieb sie das ganze Mittelalter hindurch für viele Bereiche die vorherrschende Schriftsprache, und sogar bis weit in die Neuzeit überwogen in der Buchproduktion Deutschlands die lateinischen Werke zahlenmäßig die in deutscher Sprache verfaßten. Obwohl das Latein des Mittelalters sich immer wieder am antiken Modell orientierte, entwickelte sich die Sprache durch den Gebrauch weiter und paßte sich einer sich wandelnden Welt an. In die Rechtssprache etwa fanden viele volkssprachliche Begriffe in latinisierter Form Eingang, Termini anderer Fachdisziplinen wurden aus dem Griechischen, seltener aus dem Arabischen übernommen, in Schule und Dichtung versuchte man die eigene Sprachkenntnis oft durch bewußtes Streben nach den Grenzen des sprachlich Möglichen unter Beweis zu stellen.

 Die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters in Kontinuität und Wandel im Vergleich zum Latein der heidnischen Antike und der Kirchenväterzeit zu beschreiben, ist der Gegenstand von Wörterbüchern und Grammatik. Sie stellen zugleich das Werkzeug bereit, das den Wissenschaftlern verschiedenster Fachrichtungen ein korrektes und differenziertes Verständnis ihrer mittelalterlichen Quellen ermöglicht. Diese Hilfsmittel sind gerade in einer Zeit, da verbreitete gute Lateinkenntnisse zugunsten neuer Bildungsinhalte zurücktreten, von besonderer Bedeutung.

The term "Medieval Latin" refers briefly to the Latin language of the Middle Ages, that is the Latin language as it existed  in the time period from 500 to 1500. In contrast to terms such as "Middle High German" or "Middle English" is not taken to an older language level, but it is a certain period of use of Latin. The language of ancient Rome found its continuation not only in the Romance languages; at the same time, and without their use ever being interrupted, it continued as a language of literature and culture, of science, of law, and of the Church, which had to be increasingly learned in school. Throughout much of the Middle Ages, Latin remained the predominant literary language in many areas throughout the Middle Ages, and even in the modern age, even in modern German literature, Latin works outnumbered those written in German. Although the Latin of the Middle Ages was always based on the ancient model, the language evolved through use and adapted to a changing world. In the legal language, for example, many vernacular terms were used in Latinized form, terms of other disciplines were taken from the Greek, more rarely from Arabic, in school and poetry, one often tried to prove one's own language knowledge by conscious striving for the limits of linguistic possibilities. Describing the Latin language of the Middle Ages in continuity and change in comparison to the Latin of pagan antiquity and the Church Father's time is the subject of dictionaries and grammar. At the same time, they provide the tools that enable scientists of various disciplines to have a correct and differentiated understanding of their medieval sources. These tools are particularly important at a time when widespread good knowledge of Latin in favor of new educational content is withdrawn.

Pelo termo "Latim Medieval" é brevemente referida a língua latina da Idade Média, aproximadamente no período de 500 a 1500. Em contraste com termos como "alto e médio alemão" ou "inglês médio" a expressão latim medieval não se refere aqui a um estágio anterior de referência da linguagem, mas a um certo período de uso do latim. A linguagem da Roma antiga encontrou sua continuação não apenas nas línguas românicas ( português, espanhol, italiano, francês, romeno, catalão, etc.); mas também, ao mesmo tempo, não teve seu uso interrompido, continuando como uma linguagem de literatura e cultura, de ciência, de direito e da Igreja, língua que precisava ser cada vez mais aprendida na escola. Em muitas partes da Europa permaneceu durante toda a Idade Média, em muitas áreas foi a língua escrita predominante, e mesmo na era moderna livros impressos em latim superavam em número a produção de livros em alemão. Embora o latim escrito da Idade Média fosse sempre baseado no modelo antigo, a linguagem evoluiu através do uso e adaptou-se a um mundo em mudança. Na linguagem jurídica muitos termos vernáculos encontraram entrada em forma latinizada. Em outras disciplinas baseava-se a terminologia no grego, raramente no árabe. Na escola e na poesia muitas vezes se testou o próprio conhecimento da língua latina pela busca consciente dos limites do linguisticamente possível. Descrever a língua latina da Idade Média em continuidade e mudança em comparação com o latim da antiguidade pagã e o do tempo dos Padres da Igreja é assunto para dicionaristas e gramáticos. Ao mesmo tempo, eles fornecem as ferramentas que permitem que cientistas de várias disciplinas tenham uma compreensão correta e diferenciada de suas fontes medievais. Essas ferramentas são particularmente importantes em um momento em que o amplo conhecimento do latim é suprimido em favor de novos conteúdos educacionais.

SAMPLES OF MEDIEVAL LATIN.  THE MEDIEVAL LATIN LITERATURE

Cf. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN EDU. LATIN 5600 HOMEPAGE: An important supply of medieval Literary Texts 

Jan M. Ziolkowski writes: Medieval Latin literature deserves wonderment not only for its sheer quantity but also for its unusual and attractive qualities. Despite a slow dying prejudice that during the post-classical period the classical language degenerated into a kind of kitchen Latin, little of Medieval Latin language deserves to be caricatured as degraded in this way. Medieval Latin was not just a hard-won language of instruction, frequently correct (though not by rigidly Classical Latin standards), occasionally elegant, and sometimes even beautiful. Nor was it solely or even primarily the language of monks. Rather, it functioned as a medium of communication in many environments. It served as a language of record keeping, religion, and entertainment not only among monks, clerics, and students but also among courtiers (royal, noble, papal, and episcopal), diplomats, travelers, and merchants. Its literature covered a broad spectrum that ranged, in both content and style, from the most conservatively classicizing to the most freely innovating, from the most pious to the most irreverent. In one sense, this literature is connected intimately with all other Western European literatures of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Latin and its literature provided a means—a lingua franca, if the oxymoron and anachronism may be permitted!—that enabled the Christianized peoples of Western Europe to transcend the localism of many different languages and dialects, and to form a true "European Community" avant la lettre. They contributed so substantially to the cultures and subcultures of Europe that Medieval Latin has been termed "the mothertongue of western civilization" . Indeed, Latin and the texts written in it played a leading role in endowing all the vernacular literatures with a common store of vocabulary, rhetoric, images, and much more that persists even to this day. Medieval literature in Latin enhanced the unity of later European vernacular literatures—especially but not exclusively later Romance literatures—because Latin masters and students disseminated compositional techniques and materials throughout Western Europe. The literatures of medieval Europe could not have been literatures in the etymological sense of the word—could not have been written—without the presence of clerics and clerical culture; and this clericization was by definition a latinization, since to be latinate, literate, and clerical were closely related states. As a consequence, when the medieval writers of Western Europe referred to their shared culture, they could resort to the restricted linguisticocultural universalism of the phrase tota latinitas rather than to the geographical designation Europa. Although from today's global and multicultural perspective Europe forms only one of many regions and cultures on earth, to those authors the world meant mainly the orbis latinus. Thus it is important to be sensitive to the complex, and sometimes fruitful, diglossia that prevailed in many locales. Particularly in the twelfth century, the learned language of Latin coexisted not merely peaceably but even prosperously with the spoken languages. In Towards a History of Medieval Latin Literature, apud Montello and Riggs.

Requisitus ad accessum ad linguam Latinam medio-aevalem
Ut facile accedere ad studium et ad litteraturam linguae  latinae  medio-aevalis,  necesse est scire elementa grammaticae latinae classicae,  elementa quae sunt disponibilia in omnibus grammaticis elementaribus linguae. Infra praebimus in ARCHIVA ADDICIONATA opera de Jaime Rodrigues Fernandes,  quae usae erant in scholis Brasilianis inter plurimas alias autoribus Luso- brasilianis jam on-line in Darcy Carvalho Creator  Archive Org.
For immediate access to the rich medieval literature in Latin, we just need an elementary knowledge of classical Latin that can be easily and quickly acquired in the hundred of school grammars produced in Europe and America in the last 200 years and before,  most of which are on-line, in Archive Org., Google,  Gallica and in other sites of the whole Europe.
Requisito para o acesso imediato aos textos latinos medievais é o conhecimento elementar do latim clássico, conhecimento que podemos  rapidamente e sem dificuldade adquirir nas obras escolares  há cinquenta anos utilizadas nas escolas do Brasil e Portugal. Nos livros didáticos brasileiros usados para o ensino do latim nos ginásios, encontramos exposições concisas de gramática latina classica, que são mais do que suficientes para o estudo tanto do latim medieval como do moderno. Para uma primeira abordagem desta vasta área ler os textos abaixo disponibilizados para download em ARQUIVOS ADICIONADOS.
O Latim Medieval é o Latim escrito resultante da evolução histórica da Europa, depois da queda do Império Romano. Transformando-se continuamente, ao longo dos séculos, incorporando novos vocábulos para exprimir novas idéias, simplificando estruturas gramaticais do Latim clássico, a língua latina demonstrou plena capacidade de continuar a servir de meio de expressão, artística, diplomática, técnica e eclesiástica, segundo lugares, épocas e necessidades. As línguas neolatinas, por sua vez, resultaram da evolução do Latim falado durante a Idade Média.

Cito : Medieval Latin  was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends and medieval Latin begins. Some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500,[1] and still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900. FINIS CITATIONIS 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Latin

 MEDIEVAL LATIN – UN ARTIFICIAL CONSTRUCTION OR A  LIVING LANGUAGE? BY M.A. TARIVERDIEVA.

М. А. Таривердиева

Cf. СРЕДНЕВЕКОВАЯ ЛАТЫНЬ - ИСКУССТВЕННЫЙ КОНСТРУКТ ИЛИ "ЖИВОЙ" ЯЗЫК?

O LATIM MEDIEVAL – UMA CONSTRUÇÃO ARTIFICIAL OU UMA  LÍNGUA VIVA?

“As atividades dos cientistas da corte do imperador Carlos Magno, na coleta de manuscritos e agilização da antiga herança literária romana  (a chamada Reforma de Carlos Magno, ou o Renascimento Carolíngio, do fim do século VIII  ao início do IX,  dividem a  Idade Média Latina em dois períodos: 1) O primeiro período, estende-se dos séculos III-VIII e é  caracterizado pela perda  gradual da capacidade de escrever, segundo as normas clássicas,  período durante o qual continuou o livre desenvolvimento da linguagem latina oral, com  a emergência de inovações  em todos os níveis da linguagem; 2) O segundo período, séculos IX-XIII, caracteriza-se  pela  recuperação das  regras linguísticas clássicas, que doravante passam a ser  seguidas na  prática da escrita e na criatividade literária”.

“Podemos considerar o tempo do aparecimento dos primeiros trabalhos literários em  línguas românicas como o terminus ante quem  para o funcionamento ativo e desenvolvimento da língua latina medieval , o que, aparentemente, levou alguns lingüistas a chamarem  as línguas românicas " de línguas  neolatinas."

(Индоевропейское языкознание и классическая филология - XII. Материалы чтений, посвященных памяти профессора И. М. Тронского. - СПб., 2008. - С. 409-413

01= ABOUT MEDIEVAL  LATIN  TEXTS

Many important medieval authors are available only through manuscript versions of their works. For practical purposes  this means that they are unreadable by people innocent of Paleography.  In studying medieval Latin as a reference to modern simple utilitarian Latin we should be thankful and satisfied with modern editions of ancient manuscripts. Professor Eric Knibbs explain how to use critical editions of medieval texts. Publishers of medieval Latin texts usually respect the medieval orthography or spelling. Students of modern Latin therefore should be aware of the spelling  peculiarities of a medieval Latin and be prepared to cope with them. A long medieval text can be re-edited in accordance with the Ramist orthography, prevalent in France and in the Central European countries, by careful, very careful,  use of the substitution mechanism availabe in windows: never order " substitute all". 

ERIC KNIBBS . YALE UNIVERSITY.  How To Use Modern Critical  Editions Of Medieval Texts.  Apud  ACADEMIA . EDU.                 

02=  SPELLING OF MEDIEVAL LATIN,  GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

http://www.dmlbs.ox.ac.uk/british-medieval-latin/language/latin-in-the-middle-ages

The most obvious difference in appearance between Medieval Latin and Classical Latin is in how words were spelled. Although Classical spellings were generally retained for inherited vocabulary, changes in pronunciation which had happened over the centuries — many the same as those which had led to the divergence of the everyday Romance languages from Latin and from each other — influenced the corresponding spelling of the words. Thus we often find ci before a vowel where the Classical spelling would have been ti (e.g racio for ratio), and the diphthongs ae and oe which had come to be pronounced the same as the simple e sound are often written e. (We also find as a result examples where ae or oe are written where the expected spelling would be just e.) Other alternations in spelling arising from changes in pronunciation are the interchange of b and v, the insertion or deletion of h, the use of single consonants for double ones (and vice versa), and the substitution of y for i. Sometimes spellings were also influenced by the pronunciation of a word in the everyday local language related to or derived from the Latin word (or thought to have been so).

For new vocabulary the writers often faced the challenge of having no certain model to follow. While writers of Latin still had some sense of words having ‘a spelling’, inherited from the standardized Classical language, this principle was already undermined by variation, and for borrowed vocabulary, the source language (Old or Middle English, Anglo-Norman French, etc.) typically had no single standard spelling that could be borrowed. Indeed, the word in the source language would usually have had slighly different pronunciations in different areas in any case. Moreover, frequently the borrowed vocabulary would contain sounds not found in inherited Latin vocabulary, such as the ‘sh’ sound of English and French. Writers would therefore use the Latin alphabet as best they could to represent the words they wished to write. We find some extreme examples in British Medieval Latin of the resulting variation, such as ‘maeremium’ (‘timber’, borrowed from Anglo-Norman merim and related words, originally derived from Late Latin materiamen) which is attested in more than 50 different spellings (e.g. maerremium, mahermium, maisremium, etc.).

Finally, we must remember that writing materials were expensive in the Middle Ages, and it was extremely common for scribes to use abbreviations. Typically abbreviation was indicated by some form of mark or stroke made through, above, or immediately following the letter preceding the position of the omitted letter(s). Many modern editions of texts ‘expand’ such abbreviations to make reading the texts easier, but the correct way to expand such forms is not always clear, particularly at the end of a word, where scribes often seem to have used abbreviation as a convenient way to avoid giving a borrowed word an explicit (grammatical) ending.

Grammar

The most important differences in the grammar of Medieval Latin again lie in the greater flexibility allowed in the use of the various forms of words and constructions, alongside the general continuation of most of the Classical grammatical system.

The inflectional system was not always used as consistently or rigidly as in Classical Latin. Thus, prepositions and verbs which would have been followed by a noun or adjective in one case in Classical Latin are not uncommonly found followed by a word in a different case. Similarly, conjunctions which in Classical Latin would have been followed by a verb in the subjunctive mood might be found followed by a verb in the indicative (or vice versa). Also, verbs which had been deponent in Classical Latin (i.e. had passive forms but active meanings) are often found used in active forms (in the same meanings).

New constructions also arose, in some instances used as an alternative to existing ones. Most significant among these was the increase in use of the indirect statement construction consisting of quod or quia followed by a clause with a finite verb (sometimes indicative, sometimes subjunctive) instead of the Classical way of expressing the same meaning (using the accusative and infinitive construction). The quod or quia construction had in fact already existed in the Classical language, but only in restricted circumstances, and it rose to prominence not only in Medieval Latin but also in the Romance languages (cf. modern French je dis que …).

Vocabulary

The DMLBS naturally concentrates on the vocabulary of the language and highlights the differences (or, rather, innovations) in this area. It is easy in this regard to overlook the simple fact that the vast majority of Medieval Latin vocabulary is vocabulary inherited from earlier stages of the language and used in ways and in meanings that were a normal part of those earlier period's usage.

Still, we see that inherited words frequently do develop or show new meanings of various kinds, including restrictions of existing meanings, metaphorical and metonymic extensions of existing meanings, and meanings arising from connections with other related or similar words. For instance, we find regulariter in the sense of ‘in accordance with a monastic rule’, pupula can refer to the eye and a disease of the eye as well as to just the pupil, and purare ‘to free from dirt’ is found more generally than just the ceremonial context in the Classical evidence. The new meanings are usually found in addition to the continuation of one or more Classical ones; less often we find such words used only in new senses.

Sometimes the changes in meaning even affected grammatical words, and as a result the grammar of the language has the appearance of having changed: for instance, we frequently find the pronouns se (‘himself, herself, itself’) and eum (‘him etc.’) interchanged.

Writers were also able to coin new words. Sometimes these were based on existing Latin vocabulary, such as deriving new nouns in -tio from verbs in order to denote the ‘act or process’ of the verb (and often also the ‘product or result’ too), or adverbs from existing adjectives (e.g. querule ‘plaintively’ from querulus ‘plaintive’).

The most striking type of new coinage, though, was of course the borrowed vocabulary. When a writer came across something to be expressed for which there was no existing Latin word (e.g. a new invention or social position) or the writer did not know the right Latin word, the typical response was to adopt and adapt a word from that writer's native vocabulary, making minimal changes as necessary to fit it into the Latin grammatical system. Such changes might include adding a suitable inflectional ending, normally that of the most common pattern for that kind of word (e.g. the first conjugation endings for a verb).

03=  GENERAL NOTE ABOUT MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY  MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY WAS NOT STANDARDIZED, IT MAY THEREFORE VARY FROM AUTHOR TO AUTHOR

“Students of modern Latin that study medieval texts to profit  from  its syntaxis and vocabulary should standardize the spelling of the medieval text. In the Colloquia of Erasmus, students of Classical Latin will notice that many familiar words are spelled somewhat differently in  this text. The spelling in this edition of Erasmus' Colloquia follows the conventions of medieval Latin, when orthography was not standardized and was often reflective either of local pronunciation, or of the ignorance of the scribe as to correct Classical spelling rules.”

SOME SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF SPELLING CHANGES THE STUDENT WILL ENCOUNTER IN MEDIEVAL  TEXTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:  •Reduction of diphthongs: both ae and oe become e. Examples: scaena = scena; coepisti = cepisti. •Consonant reduction: immo = imo. •Increase in the value of some long vowels: Example: the adverb hic = heic; omnes = omneis.  •Consonant substitution: c (k) = qu. Example: the adverbial cum introducing a clause = quum (N.B. the preposition cum retains its Classical spelling). •The letter x is written xs: expectabam = exspectabam.  •The letter h is inserted in the middle of words: istuc = isthuc, and sometimes suppressed in the beginning of words.  • Mihi is written michi, nihil appears as nichil.The letter y appears frequently, v. g.  ydromellum  .  Author: Jennifer K. Nelson.

http://www.stoa.org/colloquia/nelson/index-div2-d0e203.html

04=  FOR A  GENERAL  DOWNLOADABLE  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF  LATIN GRAMMARS  SEE  THE SITES BELOW:

http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22DARCY%20CARVALHO%22&sort=-downloads

 MANUAL PRÁTICO DE LATIM MEDIEVAL POR DAG NORBERG . TRADUÇÃO DE JOSÉ PEREIRA DA SILVA, RIO DE JANEIRO, CIFEFIL, 2007. 

https://archive.org/details/ManualPraticoDeLatimMedievalPorDagNorberg127PaginasTraducaoDeJose

Este manual tem versões em Francês, Manuel pratique du latin médieval,Paris, 1980 ,e em Inglês , A Practical Handbook of Medieval Latin. Pode ser completado pela L´introduction à l´étude du latin médieval de Karl Strecker, disponível no Archive.org .Dag Norberg apresenta uma concisa introdução ao estudo da língua latina medieval, área de estudos que ainda se encontra em seus primeiros passos no Brasil e no mundo

 INTRODUCTION A L'ETUDE DU LATIN MEDIEVAL (1900). STRECKER, KARL, 1861-1945. Paris : E. Droz https://archive.org/details/introductionletu00stre

 DICTIONAIRE ILLUSTRE LATIN FRANÇAIS. FELIX GAFFIOT ET RÉNÉ DURAND , HACHETTE, PARIS, 1935. 1730 PÁGINAS

https://archive.org/details/FelixGaffiotDictionnaireIllustr.LatinFrancais

Maximo dicionario Francês- Latino, escolar e científico. Latim do início até o ano 600, da Era Cristã. Contém vocabulario cristão. Felix Gaffiot huge Latin French dictionary, 1730 pages, three columns each. Largest of its kind in French. Gaffiot died in 1937, just after first edition. Albert Blaise added Christian vocabulary to this second edition published by Réné Durand. Librairie Hachette. Paris. 1935. There is a recent enlarged edition with another title.

 J.F. NIERMEYER'S MEDIAE LATINITATIS LEXICON MINUS (1976 EDITION), A LATIN-FRENCH/ENGLISH LEXICON

https://archive.org/details/NiermeyerLexiconMinus1976

Completa o dicionário de Gaffiot e Durand.

 LEXICON MANUALE AD SCRIPTORES MEDIAE ET INFIMAE LATINITATIS. W.  H. MAIGNE  D´ARNIS , PUBLIÉ  PAR  M, L´ABBÉ MIGNE, 1858. Recueil des mots de la basse latinité, dressé pour servir à l'intelligence des auteurs, soit sacrés, soit profanes, du moyen âge (1866). https://archive.org/details/lexiconmanualead00maiguoft

 F.A.C. MANTELLO AND A.G. RIGG, EDS., MEDIEVAL LATIN: AN INTRODUCTION AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL GUIDE (CUA PRESS, 1996) ISBN 0-8132-0842- Uma das obras mais recentes sobre o Latim Medieval. Read some  helpful customer reviews on Amazon.com:

1 I read this book when I was on holiday and couldn't put it down. The scope of the book is huge taking you not only through medieval language use and literature but also deep into medieval life. Copious examples of medieval letters and writings bring the "dark ages" back to life in a vivid and fascinating way. The book is ideal for anyone who is interested in Medieval Latin or society and everyday life back then. If you want to read firsthand medieval Latin texts I recommend Liber Kalilae et Dimnae: & Liber Septem Sapientium (Latin Edition), De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum (Latin Edition), Gesta Romanorum (Latin Edition) and Historia Regni Henrici Septimi Regis Angliae (Latin Edition)

2 I received my copy just a few days ago, and I feel confident in allocating five stars simply from my impressions so far. Don't be put off by "Bibliographical Guide" in the title: while it meets that description admirably, it really does serve as a comprehensive survey and introduction to the field. The general linguistic material is most enlightening, and judiciously put together. The very many concise treatments of particular genres and literatures are invaluable. Overall, this appears to be the most useful adjunct to any study of Medieval Latin through the available primers (Harrington, Sidwell, and the rest). It takes things further in just the right ways, I find.

3 By Darcy Carvalho - Published on Amazon.com. Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide [Paperback] F. A. Mantello (Editor), A. G. Rigg (Editor). This is a massive wonderful rich book carefully composed by well-known international Latinists. It did not contain texts of mediaeval Latin though . It just fully describes the many areas and interesting research available for mediaevalist willing to study the many faces of the Latin language after the year 200 of our Christian Era. As Latin texts can now be easily obtained in internet, the lack of samples of mediaeval Latin does not reduce the extreme importance of this book for latin studies in general. The bibliographies are extensive thoughful and very surprising. We can well regret that the articles could not be longer for the lack of space and multitude of topics.

LEXICA FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

EGIDIO FORCELINI. UMA REFERÊNCIA ESPECIAL PARA ESTUDANTES DO LATIM DE QUALQUER ÉPOCA

LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM.IOSEPHO FURLANETO EMENDATUM. EDITIO QUARTA 1864-1926. CURANTIBUS FRANCISCO CONRADINI ET IOSEPHO PERIN. EX SITU DOCUMENTA CATHOLICA OMNIA. SIX VOLUMES. LATIN EXPLAINED IN LATIN. NECESSARY REFERENCE FOR ALL POSTERIOR LEXICA. 

 O LÉXICO DE TODA A LATINIDADE POR EGIDIO FORCELLINI É OBRA EXEMPLAR VASTISSIMA COMPLETAMENTE REDIGIDA EM LATIM.   Encontra-se em Archive. org e no site  DOCUMENTA CATHOLICA OMNIA http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/

PRAEFATIO. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. ED. QUARTA. https://archive.org/details/LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Ed.Quarta.Praefatio

VOL. 1. A-C. ED. QUARTA . LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol.1.A-c.Ed

VOL.2. D-K. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM https://archive.org/details/Vol.2.D-k.Ed.Quarta.lexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum

Vol.3. L-Q. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/Vol.3lexiconTotiusLatinitatisAbAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol.3.L-q

VOL. 4. A. R-S. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AB AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM.

https://archive.org/details/Vol.4.A.R-sLexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol

VOL. 4. B. T-Z. ED. QUARTA. LEXICON TOTIUS LATINITATIS AEGIDIO FORCELLINI LUCUBRATUM. https://archive.org/details/Vol.4.B.T-z.LexiconTotiusLatinitatisAegidioForcelliniLucubratum.Vol

5 PROF. RAND JOHNSON . Department of World Languages and Literatures

Western Michigan University. Latin 5600, Medieval Latin

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~johnsorh/MedievalLatin/

6 DAG NORBERG, A Practical Handbook of Medieval Latin (Paris 1980) (translated by R.H. Johnson, for non-commercial use only)

http://homepages.wmich.edu/~johnsorh/MedievalLatin/Norberg/index.html

O3

LATIN RESOURCES FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

SOURCE:  LATIN RESOURCES FOR LATIN STUDENTS AT THE CENTRE FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

Andrew Hicks.  HTML code by Christian Knudsen

University of Toronto. 125 Queen's Park, Third Floor. Toronto, Ontario. M5S 2C7 CANADA

DICTIONARIES (SELECTED)

Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary (1879). Still a standard lexicon. Freely available online through The Perseus Digital Library.

•             Charlton T. Lewis. An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1891, numerous reprints). An abbreviated version of the same (also available online through Perseus, but perhaps its best recommendation is its affordability: numerous used copies starting around $30 at Abe Books.com).

•             P.G.W. Glare, ed. Oxford Latin Dictionary (1968-1982). An excellent recourse for Classical Latin, less so for Medieval Latin.

•             Alexander Souter. A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 AD (1949). An excellent supplement to Lewis and Short and the OLD (also affordable at Abe Books.com).

•             R.E. Latham. A Revised Medieval Latin Word List from British and Irish Sources (1965). Another affordable lexical aid containing words not included in Lewis and Short (check Abe Books.com).

•             L.F. Stelten. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin (1995). Useful for reading scripture, canon law, liturgy, church fathers, etc. (find it at Amazon.com).

•             J.G.T. Graesse. Orbis Latinus: Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (1909). This standard lexicon of place names is freely available online via Columbia University's Sources of Medieval History.

•             Jan Frederik Niermeyer. Mediae latinitatis lexicon minus (1976). An invaluable resource, including English, French and German translations and (at least through c. 1150) generous quotations and citations.

LEXICA FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES

 Du Cange's classic glossary, the Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis (Paris, 1678; numerous reprints), can still be consulted with much profit, but it should be used with great care; it is not recommended as the first port of call. The École des chartes (ELEC), in association with the Institut de recherche et d'histoire des textes (IRHT), has prepared a fully digitized, searchable version of Du Cange, which presents Léopold Favre's ten volume edition of 1883-1887). The full text of Louis Hentschel's revision (1840-1850) is available through the the Medieval and Modern Thought Text Digitization Project at Standford, though the files are quite large (PDFs starting at 145MB).

https://www2.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/ducange.html

Apresentação do Glossarium Scriptorum Mediae et Infimae Aetatis, liber qui quase oceanus est omnium illorum glossariorum minorum et particularium linguae latinae ab antiquitate usque ad saeculum xii.

Representando por si só numerosas obras lexicológicas do século XVII, o dicionário monolíngue de DuCange documenta o desenvolvimento do vocabulário do latim em contato com os léxicos das línguas bárbaras e vernáculas, desde a Antiguidade tardia até a Idade Média. Isto aumenta substancialmente o escopo do vocabulário contido no seu thesaurus eruditionis. Os verbetes do DuCange registram, além do latim tardio e do latim médio, numerosos vocábulos das línguas vernáculas, sendo assim também, uma rica fonte de informações factuais de todos os tipos, como corretamente prenuncia o  seu título. A distinção que usualmente se faz entre o latim medieval ( Mittellatein), e o neo-latim, (Neulatein), pode ser facilmente descartada, uma vez que aquele latim impuro, rejeitado e combatido pelos humanistas, nunca deixou de existir no decurso da longa história desta língua internacional. A Igreja, a Universidade, as corporações políticas e jurídicas acolheram, se não a própria sintaxe e a ortografia, pelo menos, em parte, o vocabulário geral em circulação, pertencente à latinidade bárbara, como passou a ser chamada pelos humanistas dos séculos XIV e XV. Palavras bárbaras ou vernáculas incorporadas ao léxico latino pós-romano são sempre muito importantes para assegurar a compreensão científica de documentos da Idade Média. Em muitos casos foram também historicamente significativas, e religiosa ou legalmente vinculativas, razões pelas quais os estudiosos humanistas do léxico latino pós-antigo não lhes prestaram pouca atenção. Ilustra isso D. G. Morhof (1639-1691) com o exemplo das leis feudais, cujos termos não podem ser entendidos sem estudos especiais. Os trabalhos acadêmicos do século XVII, que trataram desta linguagem especial, vêem no glossário de DuCange seu resumo e coroação.

Cito: Ceterum ad juris feudalis intelligentiam pleniorem nova quasi lingua opus est. Nam auctores mediae aetatis, de quorum fontibus petenda sunt illa jura exotica, suos quosdam terminos habent, quos nemo intelligit, nisi qui lectioni librorum istorum est assuetus. Excutienda itaque sunt glossaria barbararum vocum, quas collegerunt Friedrich Lindenbrog; 1573-1648 et Henry Spelman; 1564-1641, in Archaeologia sua; Gottfried Wendelin: Leges Salicae illustratae, Antwerpen 1649, in Glossario Vocum Legis Salicae; Gerh. Joh. Vossius [1577-1649] in Glossematis suis; et qui instar omnium est, Carolus du Fresne DuCange in Glossario Scriptorum Mediae et Infimae Aetatis, liber qui quasi oceanus est omnium illorum glossariorum minorum et particularium. Cf. D. G. Morhof: Polyhistor, Lübeck 1747. Polyhistor Practicus Lib. VI. Sect. VII. § 16. https://archive.org/details/polyhistorliter00fabrgoog/page/n12

O DuCange, que teve diversas edições na França e na Alemanha, é suficiente para representar as numerosas obras lexicológicas do século XVII, como atesta o seu próprio longo título descritivo e o índice, reproduzidos nesta sua edição alemã :

Charles Du Fresne (1610-1688): Glossarium Ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis : in quo Latina vocabula novatae significationis, aut usus rarioris, barbara et exotica explicantur, eorum notiones et originationes reteguntur : complures Aevi Medii ritus et mores, legum, consuetudinum municipalium, et jurisprudentiae recentioris formulae, et obsoletae voces; utriusque ordinis, ecclesiastici et laici, dignitates et officia, et quam plurima alia Illustrantur. E libris editis, ineditis, aliisque monumentis cum publicis, tum privatis. Accedit dissertatio de imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum numismatibus. - editio novissima insigniter aucta. - Francofurti ad Moenum : ex Officina Zunneriana, Apud Johannem Adamum Jungium. Indices ad Glossarium. Indicum Syllabus:

I. Excursus circa rerum origines, ritus obsoletos, moresque priscos, atque alia peculiari observatione digna, quae fusiori interdum parergo in hoc glossario pertractantur. Ii. Excursus circa res francicas, seu quae ad pleniorem historiae francicae cognitionem spectant. Iii. Aedes publicae, privatae; aedium partes. Iv. Aedes sacrae, monasticae, earum partes; officinae monasticae, etc. V. Affinitates, cognationes. Vi. Agrimensoria, agrorum modi, urbes, oppida, castra, villae, fluvii, lacus, campi, etc. Vii. Arbores, stirpes, herbae, silvae, res forestaria. Viii. Architectonica, seu quae ad architecturam pertinent. Ix. Artes, artifices, negotiationes, professiones. X. Animalia, quadrupedes, aves. Xi. Chronologica, et quae ad tempora pertinent. Xii. Cibi, res annonaria, cibaria, potoria. Xiii. Colores, et quae ad colores spectant. Xiv. Corpus, corporis humani, et animalium partes. Xv. Dignitates, civiles, palatinae, militares, honores, officia, etc. Xvi. Dignitates ecclesiasticae, monastica officia, munia, etc. Xvii. Festa christianorum, gentilium. Xviii. Geographica, seu quae ad geographiam spectant. Xix. Haeretici, pagani, gentiles, etc. Xx. Libri ecclesiastici, profani; epistolae ecclesiasticae, civiles; chartae, diplomata, res libraria. Xxi. Liturgica, seu quae ad sacramenta et ecclesiastica officia et christianam religionem spectant. Xxii. Ludi, ludicra, et quae eiusmodi spectant. Xxiii. Magica, seu quae ad magiam, sortes, auguria, superstitiones et eiusmodi spectant. Xxiv. Medica, mulomedica, chirurgica, morbi, aegritudines, et cetera, quae ad rem medicam pertinent. Xxv. Mensurae aridorum, liquidorum, pannorum, pondera, etc. Xxvi. Metalla, res metallaria. Xxvii. Militaria, seu vocabula, ad rem militarem spectantia. Xxviii. Ministeria sacra, vasa, ornamenta ecclesiastica. Xxix. Monastica, seu vocabula ad rem monasticam spectantia, ordines monastici, militares.

Xxx. Monetae, res monetaria. Xxxi. Mores, seu vocabula, quae ad mores hominum spectant. Xxxii. Mulctae judiciariae. Xxxiii. Musica, musica instrumenta, cantus ecclesiasticus. Xxxiv. Navalia, res navalis, navicularia. Xxxv. Pisces, piscatura. Xxxvi. Poenae, supplicia, tormenta, et quae eiusmodi spectant. Xxxvii. Purgationes canonicae, vulgares, sacramenta, juramenta, etc. Xxxviii. Status et conditiones hominum. Xxxix. Supellex domestica, rustica. Xl. Tituli honorarii, compellatorii. Xli. Tributa, vectigalia, praestationes, exactiones, operae, servitia, etc.  Xlii. Venatica, seu quae venationem et aucupium spectant. Xliii. Vestes ecclesiasticae, laicae : res vestiaria. Xliv. Vocabula anglo-saxonica, vel quae linguae anglo-saxonicae originem suam debent. Xlv. Vocabula forensia, seu fori ac jurisprudentiae mediae aetatis; sed et hodiernae. Xlvi. Vocabula gallica seu francica, pleraque obsoleta ac antiquata : quaedam etiam ex iis, quae adhuc sunt in usu, quorum origines et notiones reteguntur, aut quae obiter ex veteribus eiusdem linguae scriptoribus laudantur et illustrantur. Xlvii. Vocabula graeca notionis insolentis, aut graeco-barbara, quae interdum laudantur et illustrantur. Xlviii. Accedit novus vocum gallicarum, in utroque, latino potissimum, glossario expositarum, luculentus ac copiosissimus index. (= etymologicon vocabulorum linguae gallicae, quorum origines pluribus reteguntur et illustrantur, in utroque, latino potissimum, glossario, locis indicatis.) (cum referentias ad glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis de DuCange, Lyon 1688.).De imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum numismatibus dissertatio.

https://www2.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/ducange.html

Introduction. This dictionary documents the development of the Latin lexicon in contact with the 'barbarian' languages of late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In addition to Late and Middle Latin expressions of DuCange recorded numerous words of the vernacular languages. It is also a rich source of factual information of all kinds, as the above title advertises rightly.The common divorce of 'Mittellatein' and 'Neo-Latin' makes it easy to forget that the 'impure' Latinity, which humanism rejected, nevertheless did not get out of sight. The continuity of the church, university, political and juridical bodies, if not the syntax and the graphics, at least in part obtained the vocabulary of the so-called 'barbarian' Latin so called humanist. In addition, it was necessary to scientifically secure the understanding of Latin documents of the Middle Ages, which were historically significant and often still legally or religiously binding. Thus, the humanist scholars of the post-antique Latin lexic did not pay little attention.D. G. Morhof (1639-1691) illustrates this with the example of feudal law, whose technical terms can not be understood without special study. He names the scholarly works of the seventeenth century that deal with this special language, and sees in the glossary of DuCange their summary and coronation: Ceterum ad Juris Feudalis intelligentiam pleniorem nova quasi lingua opus est. Nam Autores mediae aetatis, de quorum fontibus petenda sunt illa Jura Exotica, [...], suos quosdam terminos habent, quos nemo intelligit, nisi qui lectioni Librorum istorum est assuetus. Glossary Barbararum Vocum, quas collegerunt Frid. Lindebrogius [Friedrich Lindenbrog; 1573-1648], Henr. Spelmannus [Henry Spelman; 1564-1641] in Archaeologia su, Gothofredus Wendelinus [Gottfried Wendelin: Leges Salicae illustratae. Antwerp 1649] in Glossario Vocum Legis Salicae, Gerh. Joh. Vossius [1577-1649] in Glossematis suis, et qui instar omnium est, Carolus du Fresne [DuCange] in Glossario Scriptorum mediae et infimae aetatis, quasi quasi Oceanus est omnium illorum Glossariorum minorum and particularium. "(DG Morhof: Polyhistor , ND 1966, ed. Lübeck 1747, Vol. 2, p. 590 [= Polyhistor Practicus Lib. VI. Sect. VII. § 16])There were several reasons for the choice of the edition of Frankfurt am Main in 1710: it is not inconsiderably increased compared to the first edition (Paris 1678) and its Frankfurt reprint of 1681; it has not yet been reprinted or digitally reproduced; it is easier to cope with than the following, enormously increased expenditure, starting with the edition edited by the Maurinians, Paris 1733-1736; and, most importantly, in the perspective of CAMENA and TERMINI, it represents the state of knowledge of the epoch that is central to our projects. The DuCange from 1710 is suitable to represent in our offer numerous lexicological works of the 17th century.

Einführung.Dieses Wörterbuch dokumentiert die Entwicklung der lateinischen Lexik im Kontakt mit den 'barbarischen' Sprachen in Spätantike und Mittelalter. Damit wird der Umfang des im THESAURUS ERUDITIONIS enthaltenen Wortschatzes wesentlich erweitert. Neben spät- und mittellateinischen Ausdrücken verzeichnet der DuCange zahlreiche Vokabeln der Volkssprachen. Er ist auch eine ergiebige Quelle für Sachinformationen aller Art, wie die oben ausgeschriebene Titelangabe zurecht betont.

Die gängige Scheidung von 'Mittellatein' und 'Neulatein' läßt leicht vergessen, daß die 'unreine' Latinität, die der Humanismus ablehnte, in der Folge dennoch keineswegs aus dem Blick geriet. Die Kontinuität von Kirche, Universität, politischen und juridischen Körperschaften erhielt, wenn nicht die Syntax und Graphie, so doch zum Teil den Wortschatz des von den Humanisten so genannten 'barbarischen' Lateins im Umlauf. Zudem galt es, das Verständnis lateinischer Dokumente des Mittelalters, die historisch bedeutsam und vielfach noch rechtlich oder religiös verbindlich waren, wissenschaftlich abzusichern. So widmeten die humanistischen Gelehrten der nachantiken lateinischen Lexik nicht geringe Aufmerksamkeit.

D. G. Morhof (1639-1691) illustriert dies am Beispiel des Lehensrechts, dessen Fachausdrücke man ohne ein besonderes Studium nicht verstehen könne. Er nennt die im 17. Jahrhundert entstandenen gelehrten Werke, die diese Sondersprache behandeln, und sieht im Glossarium von DuCange deren Zusammenfassung und Krönung: Ceterum ad Juris Feudalis intelligentiam pleniorem nova quasi lingua opus est. Nam Autores mediae aetatis, de quorum fontibus petenda sunt illa Jura Exotica, [...], suos quosdam terminos habent, quos nemo intelligit, nisi qui lectioni Librorum istorum est assuetus. Excutienda itaque sunt Glossaria Barbararum Vocum, quas collegerunt Frid. Lindebrogius [Friedrich Lindenbrog; 1573-1648], Henr. Spelmannus [Henry Spelman; 1564-1641] in Archaeologia sua, Gothofredus Wendelinus [Gottfried Wendelin: Leges Salicae illustratae. Antwerpen 1649] in Glossario Vocum Legis Salicae, Gerh. Joh. Vossius [1577-1649] in Glossematis suis, et qui instar omnium est, Carolus du Fresne [DuCange] in Glossario Scriptorum mediae et infimae aetatis, qui liber quasi Oceanus est omnium illorum Glossariorum minorum et particularium." (D. G. Morhof: Polyhistor, ND 1966 d. Ausg. Lübeck 1747, Bd. 2, S. 590 [= Polyhistor Practicus Lib. VI. Sect. VII. § 16]). Für die Wahl der Ausgabe Frankfurt a.M. 1710 sprachen mehrere Gründe: Sie ist gegenüber der Erstausgabe (Paris 1678) und deren Frankfurter Nachdruck von 1681 nicht unwesentlich vermehrt und sorgfältig gesetzt; sie liegt bisher weder im Nachdruck noch als digitale Reproduktion vor; sie ist im Umfang eher zu bewältigen als die folgenden, enorm vermehrten Ausgaben, beginnend mit der von den Maurinern bearbeiteten Ausgabe Paris 1733-1736; und, was in der Perspektive von CAMENA und TERMINI am wichtigsten ist, sie repräsentiert den Kenntnisstand der Epoche, die im Zentrum unserer Projekte steht. Der DuCange von 1710 ist geeignet, in unserem Angebot zahlreiche lexikologische Werke des 17. Jahrhunderts zu vertreten.

•             The University of Toronto subscribes to the Database of Latin Dictionaries, a rich resource that searches the following dictionaries (note that dates reflect the editions indexed, not always the original publication date): Lexicon totius latinitatis cum appendicibus (Forcellini, 1940); Lexicon totius latinitatis Onomasticon (Perin, 1940); A Latin Dictionary (Lewis and Short, 1933); Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens (Blaise and Tombeur, 1954-1967 and 2005); Lexicon latinitatis medii aeui (Blaise, 1975); Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (du Cange, 1883-1887); Firmini Verris Dictionarius (Merrilees and Edwards, 1994); Anonymi Montepessulanensis Dictionarius (Grondeux, 1998); Dictionarius familiaris et compendiosus (Merrilees and Edwards, 2002). University of Toronto computers can link directly; University of Toronto students can access the database at home by searching for "Database of Latin Dictionaries" in the E-Resources catalogue at the library website and logging in with a UTORid.

GRAMMARS (SELECTED)

•             Charles E. Bennett. New Latin Grammar (1908, reprinted by Bolchazy-Carducci, 1995). Freely available online via The Latin Library.

•             J.B. Greenough et al.. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1888). Also available online via both The Perseus Digital Library and William Harris's Humanities and the Liberal Arts.

•             B.H. Kennedy. The Revised Latin Primer, ed. and rev. J. Mountford (1962, reprint. 1976). Find it on Abe Books.com

•             Students with a solid Classical Latin background may find helpful the brief comparative grammar appended to K. Sidwell's Reading Medieval Latin (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 362-372. A more in-depth exposition of Medieval Latin syntax and morphology can be found in: A.G. Rigg's "Morphology and Syntax," in F.A.C Mantello and A.G. Rigg, Medieval Latin: An Introduction and Bibliographic Guide (Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 83-92; A.G. Elliott's grammatical introduction to K.P. Harrington's reader, Medieval Latin (2nd ed., rev. by J. Pucci, Chicago, 1997); and be aware of P. Stotz's Handbuch zur Lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters, vol. 4: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 2/5/4, Munich, 1998).

MORPHOLOGY, GRAMMAR, AND SYNTAX REVIEWS

The following list gathers some of the instructional materials posted for the various courses.

•             Traditional Grammatical Terminology (by A.G. Rigg) (also available as PDF)

•             Conditional Sentences

•             Purpose Clauses, Sequence of Tenses

•             Present System Synopsis

•             Perfect System Synopsis

•             Verb Synopsis Practice

•             Participles

•             Periphrasis

•             Accusative-Infinitive

•             Places: Accusative, Ablative, and Locative

•             Pronouns, Possesive Adjectives, and Demonstratives

•             Relatives, Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives

•             Noun and Adjective Summary

•             Present Participle/Gerund/Gerundive Review Worksheet (answers)

•             Latin Prosody

•             Uses of Quin

Site written and maintained by Andrew Hicks, HTML code by Christian Knudsen.

04_AUTORES MEDIEVAIS

 1   Flavius Blondus

Blondus, Flavius. Historiarum ab inclinatione romanorum imperii ([Reprod.]). 1483

http://visualiseur.bnf.fr/Visualiseur?Destination=Gallica&O=NUMM-060241

http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/cgi-bin/blondus.pl?seite=1

Flavio Blondo.   http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavio_Biondo

Flavius Blondus ( 1388- 1463)  nasceu  em  Forlì, capital  da Romagna, ca. 1388 e faleceu  em Roma, em 4 de junho de 1463.  Foi humanista, historiador, arqueólogo, erudito, enciclopedista, antiquário, filólogo e latinista,  primeiro a cunhar o termo Idade Média e um dos primeiros a ocupar-se com o estudo sobre a Antiguidade, sendo considerado precursor da arqueologia. Foi secretário e chanceler dos papas Eugênio IV, Nicolau V, Calisto III e Pio II. Recebeu refinada educação,  tendo  aulas de retórica, poética e gramática com Giovanni Ballistário de Cremona. Durante  permanência em Milão, descobriu e transcreveu algumas obras de Cícero tais como Brutus e De claris oratoribus. Em 1433, transferiu-se para Roma. Foi nomeado secretário do Papa Eugênio IV e acompanhou- o  no exílio em 1444. Depois da morte do seu patrono, Flávius Biondus  colocou-se a serviço dos papas sucessores,  Nicolau V, Calixto III e do grande humanista Pio II.  

Blondo publicou três compêndios sistemáticos e documentados sobre as ruínas de Roma, que lhe deram  fama de arqueólogo.  Antiquários e historiadores subsequentes tiveram por base os fundamentos estabelecidos por Flavio Biondo  e por seu contemporâneo Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459). Numa época em que as ruínas da antiga Roma  ainda estavam esquecidas e inexploradas ,  Flavio Blondo  e  outros  humanistas, como Leone Batttista Alberti (1404-1472) começaram a explorar e a documentar a arquitetura, a topografia e a história da  Roma antiga, e com  isso  recriaram  a imagem de uma Roma  gloriosa. A primeira obra de Flavio foi  De Roma Instaurata , em 3 vols, 1444-1446 , que  é  uma reconstrução da topografia da Roma antiga.  A segunda ,  De Roma triumphante, publicada em 1459,  trata dos tempos do paganismo  como modelo para as reformas governamentais e militares da  sua época, apresentando  o papado como uma continuação do Império Romano. As maiores obras de Biondo foram a  Italia illustrata,  de 1474, livro de geografia, baseado  nas viagens pessoais do autor, que nele relata  a história das dezoito províncias italianas;  e a Historiarum ab inclinatione Romanorum imperii decades , Décadas das histórias desde a inclinação do Império dos Romanos, escrita entre 1439 e 1453, e publicada em 1483. { Nota baseada na Wikipedia}

Thomas Aquinas

http://dhspriory.org/thomas/DeRegno.htm

De regno ad regem Cypri. ON KINGSHIP TO THE KING OF CYPRUS by Thomas Aquinas  translated by Gerald B. Phelan, revised by I. Th. Eschmann, O.P. Toronto: The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1949.. Re-edited and chapter numbers aligned with Latin, by Joseph Kenny, O.P.  

CONTENTS

Address to the King of Cyprus

BOOK ONE: THE THEORY OF MONARCHY

1.Preliminary observations . 2.Different kinds of rule. 3.The absolute merits of monarchy . 4.The absolute demerits of tyranny. 5.The historical merits of monarchy. Discussion. 6.The historical merits of monarchy. Solution . 7.Limited monarchy (fragment); Christian allegiance and tyrannical domination. 8.The reward of a king: (a) honour and glory?  9.The reward of a king: (b) eternal beatitude. 10.The reward of a king: (c) eternal beatitude (continued) .11.The reward of a king: (d) temporal prosperity . 12.The punishment for tyranny. 13.The method of this investigation. 14.God, the Creator, and the King-Founder. 15.Divine and human government (fragment); The king in Christendom. 16.The king in Christendom (continued).

BOOK TWO: THE PRACTICE OF A MONARCH

1.The King-Founder. Geopolitical considerations. 2.Geopolitical considerations (continued). 3.Economic autarchy. 4.Geopolitical considerations (continued). Appendix: Selected parallel texts.

GENERAL NOTE ABOUT MEDIEVAL ORTHOGRAPHY

Medieval orthography was not standardized, it may therefore vary from author to author. “Students of modern Latin that study medieval texts to profit  from  its syntaxis and vocabulary should standardize the spelling of the medieval text. In the Colloquia of Erasmus, students of Classical Latin will notice that many familiar words are spelled somewhat differently in  this text. The spelling in this edition of Erasmus' Colloquia follows the conventions of medieval Latin, when orthography was not standardized and was often reflective either of local pronunciation, or of the ignorance of the scribe as to correct Classical spelling rules.”

SOME SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF SPELLING CHANGES THE STUDENT WILL ENCOUNTER IN MEDIEVAL  TEXTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

•Reduction of diphthongs: both ae and oe become e. Examples: scaena = scena; coepisti = cepisti.  •Consonant reduction: immo = imo.  •Increase in the value of some long vowels: Example: the adverb hic = heic; omnes = omneis. •Consonant substitution: c (k) = qu. Example: the adverbial cum introducing a clause = quum (N.B. the preposition cum retains its Classical spelling). •The letter x is written xs: expectabam = exspectabam. •The letter h is inserted in the middle of words: istuc = isthuc, and sometimes suppressed in the beginning of words. • Mihi is written michi, nihil appears as nichil •The letter y appears frequently, v. g.  ydromellum, ydeoma. Date: last revised 2003-12-18 Author: Jennifer K. Nelson.This page is covered by a Creative Commons Share Alike license.

http://www.stoa.org/colloquia/nelson/index-div2-d0e203.html


05=     BAYERISCHE AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN  online.     

Kommission für die Herausgabe eines mittellateinischen Wörterbuches  Impressum  Suche  Kontakt  zur Website der BAdW

http://www.mlw.badw.de/mittellatein/

Was ist Mittellatein?

Mit dem Begriff „Mittellatein“ bezeichnet man kurz die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters, also in etwa der Zeit von 500 bis 1500. Im Unterschied zu Bezeichnungen wie „Mittelhochdeutsch“ oder „Mittelenglisch“ wird hier nicht auf eine ältere Sprachstufe Bezug genommen, sondern es wird ein gewisser Zeitraum der Verwendung des Lateins bezeichnet. Die Sprache des antiken Rom fand ihre Fortsetzung nicht nur in den romanischen Sprachen; sie lebte gleichzeitig und ohne daß ihr Gebrauch je unterbrochen wurde, als eine Sprache der Literatur und Kultur, der Wissenschaft, des Rechts und der Kirche fort, die in zunehmenden Maße in der Schule erlernt werden mußte. In weiten Teilen Europas blieb sie das ganze Mittelalter hindurch für viele Bereiche die vorherrschende Schriftsprache, und sogar bis weit in die Neuzeit überwogen in der Buchproduktion Deutschlands die lateinischen Werke zahlenmäßig die in deutscher Sprache verfaßten. Obwohl das Latein des Mittelalters sich immer wieder am antiken Modell orientierte, entwickelte sich die Sprache durch den Gebrauch weiter und paßte sich einer sich wandelnden Welt an. In die Rechtssprache etwa fanden viele volkssprachliche Begriffe in latinisierter Form Eingang, Termini anderer Fachdisziplinen wurden aus dem Griechischen, seltener aus dem Arabischen übernommen, in Schule und Dichtung versuchte man die eigene Sprachkenntnis oft durch bewußtes Streben nach den Grenzen des sprachlich Möglichen unter Beweis zu stellen.

 Die lateinische Sprache des Mittelalters in Kontinuität und Wandel im Vergleich zum Latein der heidnischen Antike und der Kirchenväterzeit zu beschreiben, ist der Gegenstand von Wörterbüchern und Grammatik. Sie stellen zugleich das Werkzeug bereit, das den Wissenschaftlern verschiedenster Fachrichtungen ein korrektes und differenziertes Verständnis ihrer mittelalterlichen Quellen ermöglicht. Diese Hilfsmittel sind gerade in einer Zeit, da verbreitete gute Lateinkenntnisse zugunsten neuer Bildungsinhalte zurücktreten, von besonderer Bedeutung.

 Eine Grammatik zum Mittellatein legte vor Peter STOTZ: Handbuch zur lateinischen Sprache des Mittelalters (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 2. Abteilung, 5. Teil),  t. 1: Einleitung, lexikologische Praxis, Wörter und Sachen, Lehnwortgut, München 2002;  t. 2: Bedeutungswandel und Wortbildung, 2000;  t. 3: Lautlehre, 1996;  t. 4: Formenlehre, Syntax und Stilistik, 1998,  t. 5: Bibliographie, Quellenübersicht und Register, 2004.

 Das umfassendste abgeschlossene Wörterbuch zum Latein des Mittelalters, auf das die Forschung bis heute angewiesen ist, stammt in seinen Grundzügen hingegen immer noch aus dem 17. Jahrhundert: Charles du Fresne DU CANGE,  Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis, 3 Bde., Paris 1678 mit mehreren Bearbeitungen, zuletzt von Léopold FAVRE, Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis conditum a Carolo du Fresne Du Cange..., 10 Bde., Niort 1883-1887 (Neudruck zuletzt in 5 Bänden: Graz 1954). Online-Ausgabe der École nationale des chartes.      

 http://www.mlw.badw.de/mittellatein/ 

LEXICA FOR MEDIEVAL STUDIES
1. D´ARNIS  AND MIGNE´S LEXICON MANUALE MEDIAE ET INFIMAE LATINITATIS AT DARCY CARVALHO CREATOR

The Lexicon manuale ad scriptores mediae et infimae latinitatis is a short medieval Latin dictionary, explained in Latin and partially translated into French. It constitutes an abbreviation of the Glossarium mediæ et infimæ latinitatis by Du Cange et alii.  Un glossaire n'est pas un dictionnaire monolingue, par exemple, il ne comporte pas d' information grammaticale; un glossaire n'est pas un dictionnaire bilingue, les mots n'ont
pas des traductions, les explications sont en latin; une glose n'est pas une définition,mais une explication courte, ou un commentaire, et parfois toute une dissertation; le latin medieval n'est pas du latin classique ni moderne, mais la langue écrite d’un continent pendant un millenaire; la graphie du latin medieval a beaucoup varié selon les lieux et les siècles, un même mot peut se trouver a plusieurs endroits de l'alphabet; le Glossarium est pour moitié composé de citations, dont beaucoup sont en ancien français.Temos aqui um léxico ou glossário de latim medieval partialmente traduzido em francês. Trata-se de uma abreviaçao  escolar do grande  Glossário da latinidade média e infima publicado por Du Cange e outros.

2. 
NIEMEYER´S MEDIAE LATINITATIS LEXICON MINUS ONLINE AT UMICH.EDU
 J. F. Niermeyer's Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus is a highly practical lexicon, providing researchers, teaching staff and students in the field of Medieval History with concise, essential information.  All entries are contextualized with relevant text passages. The lexicon explores the post-classical Latin language of the Western European Middle Ages from 550 to 1150, tracing the development and use of words. It opens up the great body of technical words relating to law and institutions and to the social structures of feudalism encountered early and high medieval sources, stressing explanations and quotations rather than syntax or etymology. The 2nd edition includeS also  a wider scope of geographic, temporal and source coverage. Niermeyer draws on a wide range of sources, including: letters, chronicles, annals, and histories ; diplomas, monuments, charters and cartularies ; lives, exempla, miracle collections, passions and martyrologies ; royal, ecclesiastical and university acta, statutes and visitations ; collections of civil, customary and canon laws ; the early medieval Fathers and theologians. Access requires identification.

This is a Medieval Latin—French/English Dictionary, originally called, Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus. Composuit J. F. Niermeyer in Universitate Amstelodamensi Professor.We reproduce below its preface. The Archive.org has the first fascicule of this work.

https://archive.org/details/JanFrederikNiermeyerMediaeLatinitatisLexicobOk.org

PREFACE OF THE AUTHOR: Rarely will a science be found in a position so anomalous as that of medieval studies, wanting as they do an indispensable tool, a modern, practical dictionary of the Ianguage in which the large majority of the documents are written. The Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis, the old Du Cange, in the rather unwieldy shape it has taken in the editions by Henschel and Favre, remains a valuable instrument, no doubt, but also a very awkward one. It is too prolix to provide rapid information. Its explanations, couched in humanist Latin, are justly celebrated, but not particularly attractive. What is worse, in a great many cases it is practically impossible to check its quotations. Most of them are inevitably taken from editions now obsolete; many are lacking in bibliographical or chronological data. Moreover, today few scholars are so fortunate as to possess a copy of Du Cange. On the other hand, the new Du Cange, planned since 1920, is still under way, and certainly nobody now past childhood will live to see its completion. For many years to come it will be a partially published work, like the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. And again like the Thesaurus, it will be bulky and unfit for quick use. In my view we really want two different dictionaries of medieval Latin: the large-scale new Du Cange, and besides that a compendious lexicon for rapid information.

And I think it would be bad policy to postpone the lesser task until the far-off moment when the greater scheme is finally consummated. Word-lists which have been so far published as the first-fruits of the preparatory work organized by the International Academic Union, their compilers being Sign. Arnaldi for Italy and Messrs. Baxter and Johnson for Great Britain and Ireland, are rendering appreciable service, but they are confined to narrow geographical and, in the case of Arnaldo, chronological limits. Their explanations are very brief. The list by Baxter and Johnson does not contain any references. A survey of the entire field is badly needed. Only this can revive general interest in the study of the original sources, help to train young scholars efficiently and check the regrettable tendency which gives rise to the stream of translated material coming forth in our day. These ends can be attained only by giving up Latin as a medium of explanation and replacing it by some of the modern Ianguages, which have developed an adequate scientific terminology.

Perhaps a lack of mutual understanding between historians and philologists lies at the root of their common failure to produce a modern Du Cange. Philology is chiefly interested in belles-lettres and especially in poetry. Now medieval Latin was not made by poets. The essential enlargement of the Latin vocabulary must be sought, not in their more or less far-fetched neologisms, but in that great body of technical words which served to denote the concepts belonging to the wide field of law and institutions, to describe the social facts referred to in charters, laws and chronicles. For this purpose, in order to express a thousand things which did not exist in the Ancient World, medieval people were obliged to create the indispensable vocabulary, partly by borrowing from vernacular languages, partly by applying words inherited from the classics in quite new ways. In these circumstances I think there is no reason to apologize for the fact that a historian, who has gained some acquaintance with charters and other documents, should have ventured on this enterprise. Several generations of historians have preceded him in the same path, by studying details of terminology in their accounts of the political, legal and social institutions of the Western World of the Middle Ages, as well as by preparing editions of authorities and documents, many of which meet the highest philological standards. The works of these illustrious scholars—professional historians who practised the craft of the philologist and practised it well—have to a great extent provided the basis for this book, not only as far as critical editions of source-material are concerned, but in the field of lexicography as well. Especially the glossaries added to a number of editions and in particular to many volumes of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica have proved of the utmost utility for my purpose. On the other hand, some standard works on institutions, like those of Fustel, Luchaire, Flach,Waitz, Brunner and others, although getting out of date, have still much value on account of their wealth of quotations, and I have gratefuily availed myself of them. Large works of reference like the Deutsches Rechtsworterbuch, the Dictionnaire d’Histoire et de Geographie

Ecclésiastiques, the Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique and others have been equally serviceable. Personally I have read many thousands of charters and some hundreds of other writings. For this I of course selected the most important sources and the best modern publications. From Du Cange-Favre I have taken only a number of quotations relative to words and meanings which I could not otherwise sufficiently illustrate, especially passages from charters, in so far as dates and places of origin are given. I have checked nearly all these quotations and as far as possible modernized the bibliographical data.

It is clear that a dictionary of medieval Latin can take for granted everything that belongs to the classical inheritance. But we must not forget that in fact medieval Latinity was constantly drawing upon two sources. While it again and again renewed contact with the classics, at the same time it remained intimately connected with later Latin and especially with the language of the Vulgate and the Christian Fathers. Now we cannot expect our students, who have been educated in the humanities, to have any knowledge of later Latin. Therefore I decided to incorporate the vocabulary of later Latin, in so far as it reappears in medieval writings, giving quotations only in exceptionaf cases, when the word or meaning in question is rare. This part of my task was comparatively easy, thanks to the excellent Glossary of Later Latin by Professor Souter, a very welcome addition to Forceluni and the Thesaurus. A formidable problem for my scheme was the rapidly growing number of words borrowed from or modelled after the popular languages which appear from the twelfth and especially from the thirteenth century onward. As knowledge of Latin spread, regard for its purity declined. Alien elements were introduced much more freely than before. During the same period the quantity of material available to us grows immensely. From about A.D. 1150 I was unable to make my selection of quotations in any degree representative. These combined reasons have induced me to note for most of the words and meanings which appear only in the later Middle Ages simply the century and, if necessary, the region in which they occur. So the great majority of my quotations come from the six centuries between A.D. 550 and 1150. Much care has been given to selecting early examples, so that we can ascertain when, where and how a word was adopted or a meaning developed. This kind of knowledge may provide inestimable help to the solution of critical problems, in particular those concerned with genuine and forged charters. For this reason I have taken considerable pains to furnish, in addition to the bibliographical data, short chronological and geographical indications locating the sources quoted, especially charters. It is an open question what exactly belongs to the Latin vocabulary and what does not. I must confess that I am unable to formulate entirely satisfactory criteria for drawing a clear line between Latinized and non Latinized barbarous words. There is a broad transitional zone. For my purpose sorting out was mainly a practical business. At any rate I feel that it would have been wrong to leave out all the passages where an author describes a word as barbarous. In truth such words often were already currently used by contemporary scribes and the notorious formula, -ut vulgo dicitur-, means simply that the author prides himself on writing better Latin than other people of his day.  In order to make this book as useful as possible within its limited scope all the stress has been laid on two things: explanations and quotations. The latter have been chosen chiefly in order to illustrate the meanings, not so much to show syntactic peculiarities. Syntax as well as grammatical matter has been deliberately neglected. As to etymology, I have just mentioned the language from which a word has been borrowed, or simply noted Germ., in case of borrowing from one or more of the Germanic languages. The fact that a word is derived from another word which either belongs to the classical vocabulary or appears elsewhere in this book has been pointed out only when the derivation is not quite obvious. In some cases I have added for comparison words from the principal modern languages (French, Italian, English, German) which are related to the words treated and may help us to understand their semantic evolution.  J. F. N. Finis citationis.

This very important and short preface delivers important information on the dynamics and semantic evolution of the medieval vocabulary, which deserve close the careful attention of modern latinists engaged in compiling a working Latin glossary for present day general use.Such a glossary will be composed not only by classical and medieval words but also by large hosts of neologisms and borrowings from modern Romance languages. The set of Barbaric words will be composed by Germanic, Slavic and Anglosaxon borrowings.

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