02 Latim Medieval na Espanha. Medieval Latin in Spain


Contents: 01 02 03 


Pedro el Católico, Rey de Aragón y Conde de Barcelona (1196-1213): Documentos, Testimonios y Memoria Histórica


Excma. Diputación de Zaragoza.          










https://sites.google.com/site/theetymologies/complete-text                 Translation

Saint Isidore of Seville (c. 560 – 4 April 636) was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "le dernier savant du monde ancien" ("the last scholar of the ancient world").Indeed, all the later medieval history-writing of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) was based on his histories.

At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the royal Visigothic Arians to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death. He was influential in the inner circle of Sisebut, Visigothic king of Hispania. Like Leander, he played a prominent role in the Councils of Toledo and Seville. The Visigothic legislation which resulted from these councils is regarded by modern historians as exercising an important influence on the beginnings of representative government.

Isidore was born in Cartagena, Spain, to Severianus and Theodora, members of an influential family who were instrumental in the political-religious manoeuvring that converted the Visigothic kings from Arianism to Catholicism; he and his siblings were all awarded sainthoods:

•             His elder brother, Leander, was his immediate predecessor in the Catholic Metropolitan See of Seville, and while in office opposed king Liuvigild.

•             A younger brother, Fulgentius, was awarded the Bishopric of Astigi at the start of the new reign of the Catholic King Reccared.

•             His sister Saint Florentina was a nun, and is said to have ruled over forty convents and one thousand religious.

Isidore received his elementary education in the Cathedral school of Seville. In this institution, which was the first of its kind in Hispania, the trivium and quadrivium were taught by a body of learned men, among whom was his brother, the archbishop Leander. With such diligence did he apply himself to study that in a remarkably short time mastered at least a pedestrian level of Latin, a smattering of Greek, and some Hebrew.

Whether Isidore ever embraced monastic life or not is still an open question, but though he himself may never have been affiliated with any of the religious orders, he esteemed them highly — on his elevation to the episcopate he immediately constituted himself protector of the monks and in 619 he pronounced anathema against any ecclesiastic who should in any way molest the monasteries.

After the death of Leander, Isidore succeeded to the See of Seville.

His long incumbency in this office was spent in a period of disintegration and transition. The ancient institutions and classic learning of the Roman Empire were fast disappearing, in spite of the respect the Visigoths showed for the outward trappings of Roman culture.

Realizing that the spiritual as well as the material well-being of the nation depended on the full assimilation of the foreign elements, Isidore set himself to the task of welding into a homogeneous nation the various peoples who made up the Gothic kingdom. To this end he availed himself of all the resources of religion and education. His efforts were attended with complete success. Arianism, which had been the original form of Christianity among the Visigoths, was eradicated, and the new heresy of Acephales was completely stifled at the very outset; religious discipline was everywhere strengthened.

Isidore presided over the Second Council of Seville, begun on 13 November 619, in the reign of King Sisebut. The bishops of Gaul and Narbonne attended, as well as the Hispanic prelates. In the Council's Acts the nature of Christ is fully set forth, countering Arian conceptions.

At this council, begun on 5 December 633, all the bishops of Hispania were in attendance. Isidore, though far advanced in years, presided over its deliberations, and was the originator of most of its enactments.

The council probably expressed with tolerable accuracy the mind and influence of Isidore. The position and deference granted to the king is remarkable. The Church is free and independent, yet bound in solemn allegiance to the acknowledged king: nothing was said of allegiance to the Bishop of Rome.

It was at the Fourth National Council of Toledo and through his influence that a decree was promulgated commanding and requiring all bishops to establish seminaries in their Cathedral Cities, along the lines of the school associated with Isidore already existing at Seville. Within his own jurisdiction he had availed himself of the resources of education to counteract the growing influence of Gothic barbarism. His was the quickening spirit that animated the educational movement of which Seville was the centre. The study of Greek and Hebrew, as well as the liberal arts, was prescribed. Interest in law and medicine was also encouraged. Through the authority of the fourth council this policy of education was made obligatory upon all the bishops of the kingdom.

Isidore's Latin style in the Etymologiae and elsewhere, though simple and lucid, cannot be said to be classical, affected as it was by local Visigothic traditions. It discloses most of the imperfections peculiar to all ages of transition and particularly reveals a growing Visigothic influence.

Isidore was the first Christian writer to essay the task of compiling for his co-religionists a summa of universal knowledge, in the form of his most important work, the Etymologiae (taking its title from the method he uncritically used in the transcription of his era's knowledge). It is also known by classicists as the Origines (the standard abbreviation being Orig.). This encyclopedia — the first such Christian epitome — formed a huge compilation of 448 chapters in 20 volumes. In it, as Isidore entered his own terse digest of Roman handbooks, miscellanies and compendia, he continued the trend towards abridgements and summaries that had characterised Roman learning in Late Antiquity. In the process, many fragments of classical learning are preserved which otherwise would have been hopelessly lost; "in fact, in the majority of his works, including the Origines, he contributes little more than the mortar which connects excerpts from other authors, as if he was aware of his deficiencies and had more confidence in the stilus maiorum than his own" his translator Katherine Nell MacFarlane remarks; on the other hand, some of these fragments were lost in the first place because Isidore’s work was so highly regarded — Braulio called it quecunque fere sciri debentur, "practically everything that it is necessary to know"— that it superseded the use of many individual works of the classics themselves, which were not recopied and have therefore been lost: "all secular knowledge that was of use to the Christian scholar had been winnowed out and contained in one handy volume; the scholar need search no further".

The fame of this work imparted a new impetus to encyclopedic writing, which bore abundant fruit in the subsequent centuries of the Middle Ages. It was the most popular compendium in medieval libraries. It was printed in at least 10 editions between 1470 and 1530, showing Isidore's continued popularity in the Renaissance. Until the 12th century brought translations from Arabic sources, Isidore transmitted what western Europeans remembered of the works of Aristotle and other Greeks, although he understood only a limited amount of Greek. The Etymologiae was much copied, particularly into medieval bestiaries.

Isidore's De fide catholica contra Iudaeos furthers Augustine of Hippo's ideas on the Jewish presence in Christian society. Like Augustine, Isidore accepted the necessity of the Jewish presence because of their expected role in the anticipated Second Coming of Christ. In De fide catholica contra Iudaeos, Isidore exceeds the anti-rabbinic polemics of earlier theologians by criticizing Jewish practice as deliberately disingenuous.

He contributed two harsh decisions to the Fourth Council of Toledo: Canon 60 calling for the forced removal of Jewish children from the parents and their education by Christians and Canon 65 forbidding Jews and Christians of Jewish origin from holding public office.

His other works include

•             Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum (a history of the Goths, Vandals and Suebi kings) (Latin)

•             His Chronica Majora (a universal history)

•             De differentiis verborum, which amounts to brief theological treatise on the doctrine of the Trinity, the nature of Christ, of Paradise, angels, and men.

•             On the Nature of Things (not the poem of Lucretius, but the book of astronomy and natural history dedicated to the Visigothic king Sisebut)

•             Questions on the Old Testament.

•             A mystical treatise on the allegorical meanings of numbers

•             A number of brief letters

•             Sententiae libri tres Codex Sang. 228; 9th century

Isidore was the last of the ancient Christian philosophers, as he was the last of the great Latin Church Fathers. Some consider him to be the most learned man of his age, and he exercised a far-reaching and immeasurable influence on the educational life of the Middle Ages. His contemporary and friend, Braulio, Bishop of Zaragoza, regarded him as a man raised up by God to save the Iberian peoples from the tidal wave of barbarism that threatened to inundate the ancient civilization of Hispania. The Eighth Council of Toledo (653) recorded its admiration of his character in these glowing terms: "The extraordinary doctor, the latest ornament of the Catholic Church, the most learned man of the latter ages, always to be named with reverence, Isidore". This tribute was endorsed by the Fifteenth Council of Toledo, held in 688.

Isidore was interred in Seville. His tomb represented an important place of veneration for the Mozarabs during the initial centuries following the Arab conquest of Visigothic Hispania. In the middle of the 11th century, with the division of Al Andalus into taifas and the strengthening of the Christian holdings in the Iberian peninsula, Fernando I of León found himself in a position to extract tribute from the fractured Arab states. In addition to money, Abbad II al-Mu'tadid, the Abbadid rule of Seville (1042–1069), agreed to turn over St. Isidore's remains to Fernando I. A Catholic poet described al-Mutatid placing a brocaded cover over Isidore's sarcophagus, and remarked, "Now you are leaving here, revered Isidore. You know well how much your fame was mine!" Fernando had Isidore's remains reinterred in the then recently constructed Basilica of San Isidoro in Leon.

He was canonized a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in 1598 by Pope Clement VIII and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1722 by Pope Innocent XIII. In Dante's Paradise (Paradiso' X.130), he is mentioned among theologians and Doctors of the Church alongside the Scot Richard of St. Victor and the Englishman Bede the Venerable.In 2003 he was proposed as the patron saint of the Internet, but was not among the top six vote totals in an Italian Internet poll. The University of Dayton has named their implementation of the Sakai Project in honor of Saint Isidore. An important part of his bones was buried in the cathedral of Murcia (Spain), where they are venerated nowadays.      Source:http://www.wikipedia.org

03=   HENDERSON, JOHN. THE MEDIEVAL WORLD OF ISIDORE OF SEVILLE: TRUTH FROM WORDS. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. xi, 232. $99 978-0-521-86740-5. ISBN: $99978-0-521-86740-5.  REVIEWED BY:GREGORY HALFOND. FRAMINGHAM STATE COLLEGE.   Source: The Medieval Review 08.05.18


The twenty-first century has been very kind to Bishop of Isidore of Seville. Not only has his encyclopedic opus, The Etymologies, appeared in an impressive new translation, [1] but he has been awarded the honorary (and perhaps dubious) designation of patron saint of the internet. Now, John Henderson has produced a methodical commentary of Isidore's labyrinthine Etymologies, a work he calls a "compelling attempt to systematize the conceptual archive of Roman memory," and one of the most popular and influential works over the course of the Middle Ages (x). [2] Henderson does not merely attempt to untangle the threads of Isidore's vast compendium of classical knowledge, but also to demonstrate that the work is not a series of disparate entries loosely organized into topical categories, but rather a narrative that reveals "truth from words."

Another of Henderson's working assumptions is that Isidore's text is a naturally mischievous one, a legitimate conclusion considering the playfulness (some would say ridiculousness) of some of its proposed etymologies. Henderson chooses to follow Isidore's lead, and adopts a Joycean prose style (more Finnegan than Ulyssean), filled with puns, idiosyncratic punctuation and syntax, and layers upon layers of playful academese. Additionally, Henderson intersperses his forests of dense verbiage with odd, offhand witticisms, which range from cute to exasperating. For example, when evaluating Isidore's discussion of arithmetic, Henderson concludes, "Cogito, ergo sums" (52). In my favorite example, our commentator reaches truly impressive levels of ostentatious prose: "Getting the measure of measurement really hits the heights, however, once a soaring Isidore, now into volumetrics, confronts the measure for measure, and rockets from the mode of matter up to the revealed truth of Creation. Here the engines roar" (187). Henderson's translations are equally creative: e.g. "quarum decursus" is translated as "a whizz of an excursus through all this" (79), "malefici" as "mafiosi" (117), and "implevit" as "filled 'em to the brim" (172). Many similar examples could be cited. Henderson is perhaps a little too clever in his prose, and risks trying the patience of even the most tolerant reader. In fact, in the end, his book resembles less a systematic commentary than a jazz improvisation upon a theme. Distinguishing between commentator and author can be a challenge, as can wading through Henderson's dense verbiage. So, while there is much to enjoy in Henderson's reading of Isidore, it more often confuses than elucidates the Bishop's meaning.

Henderson's book is divided into two parts: "Preliminaries" and "Reading the Etymologiae." He begins with a brief introduction in which he presents his thesis that Isidore attempted in his work to recreate the world through words. He observes that Isidore is read by modern classicists primarily as a source for otherwise-lost etymological information. While antiquity produced etymological works "spanning the spectrum from cosmogonic theorizing to ebullient bullshit," only Isidore's text survives in its entirety (5). Unfortunately, because of Isidore's late vintage, classicists tend to neglect him as an original author, let alone a man of his time. Isidore's heavy reliance on the works of earlier encyclopedists and lexicographers makes it easy to underestimate the originality and context-specific nature of his work. Henderson does not offer much discussion of Isidore's own place in the Latin encyclopedic tradition, which stretched from Cato the Censor to Pliny the Elder to Cassiodorus Senator, [3] nor the study of etymology, which dates back to fourth- century Greece. [4] An important model for Isidore to whom Henderson does devote some necessary attention was Marcus Terentius Varro (2nd Century BCE), whose writings probably never made their way directly into Isidore's hands. Beyond Isidore's influences and sources, Henderson also never sufficiently explains how the Bishop of Seville's writings reflect "specific Iberian catholicizing politics within a durable Mediterranean cultural habitus" (7). In fact, the title of this book is a far less accurate indicator of its contents than its subtitle: "Truth from Words."

Henderson uses Part 1 of his book to examine the organization of Isidore's etymological encyclopedia. He begins with the epistolary exchange between Isidore and Bishop Braulio of Saragossa, at whose request the former had begun his Etymologies, and who divided the unedited work into twenty books after Isidore's death. As Henderson rightly notes, the Index Librorum that appears in the manuscript tradition cannot be Isidore's own work, but may instead be Braulio's. Moreover, the following Capitula Librorum of W. M. Lindsay's standard (albeit dated) edition is based on the headings of the respective books and sections of the manuscripts, and suggest that Isidore might have envisioned a twenty-two or twenty-four book work as opposed to Braulio's twenty. Using Book 20 as an example, Henderson persuasively demonstrates how a narrative superstructure underlies Isidore's entries sorted under the seemingly-miscellaneous heading of "Provisions and Various Implements." In Book 20, Isidore systematically leads the reader back in time from the dining room table, to the contents of the meal, to the storage of those contents, to their transportation, and back to their origins on the farm. In his efforts to uncover narrative, Henderson consciously resists "the preemptory intercession of the apparatus of headings as so many obstacles and deterrents to reading," and instead pays "them respect only where they point up exegetic continuity, proportion, or direction" (24).

Having established his modus operandi, Henderson moves on to his reading of Isidore in Part 2. Henderson goes book by book through the Etymologies, glossing Isidore's text in a clearly erudite, but exceptionally idiosyncratic manner. Henderson approaches the text like an educational syllabus whose purpose is to impart worldly (and otherworldly) knowledge. He observes how Isidore begins his educational-cum-artistic program with the Seven Liberal Arts (Books 1- 3), beginning with grammar and individual letters. Isidore's method, as Henderson explains, assumes that a student must learn one discipline before he can move on to the next, i.e. grammar before rhetoric before mathematics. The fuel of Isidore's educational program is word-derivations, since, as the Bishop explains, "One's insight into anything is clearer when its etymology is known" (Etymologiae, I.xxix). [5] For Isidore, the history of humanity is simultaneously the history of etymology, and words offer the means to understanding the fruits of Creation. Isidore's progress through the Liberal Arts, in fact, ends in the heavens (i.e. Astronomy), although Henderson perceives a subtle warning in Isidore's chosen destination, as the mythological origins of the names of the celestial bodies prove that "school can warp as well as weave" (63).

Isidore follows his tour through the Liberal Arts with post-graduate coursework in Medicine, Law, History, and Theology (Books 4-7). The Bible, for Isidore, is a book as well as a library, which "lifts our schooling to a higher level" (99). Books 8-15 take on the ambitious task of organizing the universe by language, nation, species, and environment. The final five books, in Henderson's estimation, deal with "the evolution of human culture through the exploitation of resources by the proliferating technologies pooled and developed in the world accessed by Isidore's words" (182). Henderson concludes that although etymology has been the driving force of the Bishop of Seville's educational program, word-derivations are ultimately less important to our author than "a project in cultural mnemonics" in which the reader gets to view all of Creation from the end-point of "geopolitical history" (210). This is certainly a valid, and largely convincing, reading of Isidore's opus. Unfortunately, Henderson's strange and confusing journey through the Etymologies was not its ideal means of expression. Erudite and learned though it may be, The Medieval World of Isidore of Seville will leave most of its readers more befuddled than satisfied, and anxious for a more traditional commentary of Isidore's great encyclopedia.  NOTES:

1. Isidore of Seville, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, trans. Stephen Barney, W. J. Lewis, J. A. Beach, Oliver Berghof, and Muriel Hall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

2. On the medieval afterlife of Isidore's masterwork, see J. N. Hillgarth, "The Position of Isidorian Studies: A Critical Review of the Literature, 1936-1975," Studi Medievali 24, 3rd Series (1983), 883-93.

3. See Jacques Fontaine, "Isidore de Séville et la mutation de l'encyclopédisme antique," Cahiers d'histoire mondiale 9 (1966), 519-38.

4. Isidore of Seville, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Introduction), 11.

5. Translation from Isidore of Seville, The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, 55.

Darcy Carvalho,
9 de jul. de 2014 13:56
Darcy Carvalho,
24 de set. de 2014 05:15
Darcy Carvalho,
24 de set. de 2014 06:20