MEDIEVAL LATIN ALIQUOT SPECIMINA LATINITATIS MEDIAEVALIS QUELQUES EXEMPLES DU LATIN MÉDIEVAL TEXTOS EXEMPLIFICATIVOS DE LATIM MEDIEVAL

 PROF. DR.DARCY CARVALHO. FEAUSP. SÃO PAULO. BRAZIL 2019. STUDIES IN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LATIN

[Cf. Il Latino Medievale] Medieval Latin. What is it?
Among existing languages medieval Latin is a singular case. L. Bieler calls it "a language without a people", noting the uniqueness of this characteristic: "The languages ​​of the world, both ancient and modern, are by definition spoken and understood by numerous individuals who do not have them as mother tongues: but they , equally by definition, are also the spoken languages ​​of certain peoples ". Medieval Latin does not seem to fit the definition of a living language or a dead language: R.Meister called it "the language of a tradition" : "neither a national language nor a universal language ... It is not exclusively the language of the Church, nor is it the language of a class. It is a language without a linguistic community, and yet not a dead language. Medieval Latin is the language of a communion of ideas 

LINGUAM LATINAM UT LINGUA INTERNATIONALIS AUXILIARIS PROPONEMUS: Ad hoc proposito assiduum commercium cum autoribus mediaevalibus necessarium est. Plurimi coetus clarissimorum virorum, saeculo decurso, congregati sunt ad considerandum viabilitatem huius propositionis. Cito:Dissertationis doctoris Bayet summa: Nuper, ineunte mense septembri, Avenione Conventus linguae Latinae fovendae, edocendae, renovandae est congregatus. Dissertationes, relationes, vota quae in illo clarissimorum virorum coetu prolata sunt ac disceptata magni cum sint momenti —benigne annuente Moderatore Johanne Capelle — sociis Palaestrae Latinae ultro libenterque legenda proponimus. Praecipuae igitur dissertationes et relationes — quae tunc sermone latino scriptae sunt aut summatim latine contractae — in sequentibus fasciculis prodibunt. Ex proposito fit necessitas : Joannes Bayet , Sorbonensis Universitatis professor praeclarus, consilium seu propositum Avenionensis Conventus in sessione augurali his verbis exprimebat de Grammatica Linguae Latinae Simplicissimae « Volumus enim efficere ut omnium gentium studiosi, cum humaniorum litterarum tum naturalium mathematicarumve scientiarum participes, una lingua utentes, inventa sua inter se communicare et in compendium redigere possint. Ad quod Latina lingua, ut antiqua, solida, firmiter constituta, rerum temporumque justa conciliatrix, multis partibus aptissima apparet, ita difficilis usu videtur propter grammaticae curiosas,ut dicunt, implicationes. At exclusa grammatica non imaginamur quicquid sine dubitatione quadam vel enuntiari vel intellegi posse. Quo fit ut debeam quandam Latinae grammaticae formam vobis demonstrare quae simul ab antiquae linguae consuetudine non abhorreat et animos eorum non frangat qui veritatem eloquii potius quam elegantiam persequi debeant. Hoc proposito fine, nominum genera tempora modique accurate ediscenda sunt. Quod autem ad constructionem pertinet, ratione et via utendum est ut quam expeditissime quidvis pure eloqui possis, simpliciorem si necesse sit, enuntiationem adhibens, dummodo idem valeat. Praeverbiorum enim usus aut adverbiorum, appositio ipsa vel asyndeton saepissime eadem possunt quae exquisiti concinnae orationis circuitus servandae sunt autem commoditates ablativi absoluti et infinitorum et fortasse ipsius gerundii ; opere etiam pretium faciendum est, sed nimia exclusa religione, constructionum per conjunctiones, adverbia, pronomina, quibus sensus principalis distinguitur aut expletur ; earum maxime quibus similitudines et condiciones significantur. Sed sacra, ut ita dicam, mysteria obliquae orationis et consuetudinis temporum, quidni differantur? — At et prima et ultima sit cura verborum ordinem vere Latinum religiose retinere. Sic persuasum habeo nos Latinae linguae quam dicunt syntaxin in paucas paginas redigere posse, seu ut eae solae bene memoria teneantur, seu ut, ad quemvis grammaticae libellum adjunctae, quasi summarium constituant notionum quibus necesse sit utantur omnes qui Latine inter se communicare velint ». Johannes Bayet, Professor Doctor. Apud Palestra Latina. Anno. XXVI (Fase. IV) N. 156. M. Decembri A. MCMLVI. Ipso loco legite: 1 Jimenez Delgado: Lingua Latina iterum Universalis deveniat oportet; 2 J. Bayet, De Grammatica; 3  A. Guercio, Qua de causa restituere inter nationes oporteat linguae Latinae usum, et quomodo autem Latinitas habitus et voces induere possit recentiores aetatis; 3  P. J. Enk, Quae causa est, cur scientia linguae Latinae nostris temporibus vulgo tantopere imminuta sit quibusque modis augescere possit; 4 R. Avallone, Latinam linguam in syntaxi, in stilo, in lexico renovemus. Invenite omnia infra in Archivo. Ibi quoque invenite: 5 l. M. Sansecundo, De poesi ac poetis quid protulerint rhetores antiqui; 6 J. Sidera, Conventus linguae Latinae «Viventi» reddendae Avenione coactus; 7  J. M. Mir, Nova et vetera vocabula: Oculus , Ocularia, Microscopium.[...] Bibliographia. 

Audite et videte

Luigi Miraglia De causis corruptæ institutionis Latinæ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OyhWKTmJBo


DU CANGE, CHARLES DU FRESNE: GLOSSARIUM AD SCRIPTORES MEDIAE ET INFIMAE LATINITATIS. - FRANKFURT <MAIN>, 1710.

https://www2.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/ducange.html

Einführung. Introduction. This dictionary documents the development of the Latin lexicon in contact with the 'barbarian' languages of late antiquity and the Middle Ages. This substantially increases the scope of the vocabulary contained in the THESAURUS ERUDITIONIS. In addition to Late and Middle Latin expressions of DuCange recorded numerous words of the vernacular languages. It is also a rich source of factual information of all kinds, as the above title is rightly emphasized.The common divorce of 'Mittellatein' and 'Neo-Latin' makes it easy to forget that the 'impure' Latinity, which humanism rejected, nevertheless did not get out of sight. The continuity of the church, university, political and juridical bodies, if not the syntax and the graphics, at least in part obtained the vocabulary of the so-called 'barbarian' Latin so called humanist. In addition, it was necessary to scientifically secure the understanding of Latin documents of the Middle Ages, which were historically significant and often still legally or religiously binding. Thus, the humanist scholars of the post-antique Latin lexic did not pay little attention.D. G. Morhof (1639-1691) illustrates this with the example of feudal law, whose technical terms can not be understood without special study. He names the scholarly works of the seventeenth century that deal with this special language, and sees in the glossary of DuCange their summary and coronation: Ceterum ad Juris Feudalis intelligentiam pleniorem novâ quasi linguâ opus est. Nam Autores mediae aetatis, de quorum fontibus petenda sunt illa Jura Exotica, suos quosdam terminos habent, quos nemo intelligit, nisi qui lectioni Librorum istorum est assuetus. Glossary Barbararum Vocum, quas collegerunt Frid. Lindebrogius [Friedrich Lindenbrog; 1573-1648], Henr. Spelmannus [Henry Spelman; 1564-1641] in Archaeologia sua, Gothofredus Wendelinus [Gottfried Wendelin: Leges Salicae illustratae. Antwerp 1649] in Glossario Vocum Legis Salicae, Gerh. Joh. Vossius [1577-1649] in Glossematis suis, et qui instar omnium est, Carolus du Fresne [DuCange] in Glossario Scriptorum mediae et infimae aetatis, quasi quasi Oceanus est omnium illorum Glossariorum minorum and particularium. "(DG Morhof: Polyhistor , ND 1966, ed. Lübeck 1747, Vol. 2, p. 590 [= Polyhistor Practicus Lib. VI. Sect. VII. § 16])There were several reasons for the choice of the edition of Frankfurt am Main in 1710: it is not inconsiderably increased compared to the first edition (Paris 1678) and its Frankfurt reprint of 1681; it has not yet been reprinted or digitally reproduced; it is easier to cope with than the following, enormously increased expenditure, starting with the edition edited by the Maurinians, Paris 1733-1736; and, most importantly, in the perspective of CAMENA and TERMINI, it represents the state of knowledge of the epoch that is central to our projects. The DuCange from 1710 is suitable to represent in our offer numerous lexicological works of the 17th century.

Glossarium Ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis : in quo Latina Vocabula novatae Significationis, aut Usus rarioris, Barbara et Exotica explicantur, eorum Notiones et Originationes reteguntur : Complures aevi medii Ritus et Mores, Legum, Consuetudinum municipalium, et Jurisprudentiae recentioris Formulae, et obsoletae voces;Utriusque Ordinis, Ecclesiastici et Laici, Dignitates et Officia, et quamplurima alia illustrantur. E libris editis, ineditis, aliisque monumentis cum publicis, tum privatis. Accedit Dissertatiode Imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum numismatibus. Ed. Novissima Insigniter Aucta. Francofurti ad Moenum : Ex Officina Zunneriana, apud Johannem Adamum Jungium.

 - T. 1: [A -C]. 1710. -[8]Bl., 88 S., Sp. 91-186, 1462 Sp. - T. 2, P. 1: D - [H]. - 1710.- [1] Bl., 926 Sp. -T. 2, P. 2: I -[N]. - 1710. - [1] Bl., 870 Sp.- T. 3: O [- Z]. - 1710. - [1] Bl., Sp. 5-1736, [2], XI Bl., 91 S.: Ill.  INDEX

Indices ad Glossarium 

I. Excursus circa rerum origines, ritus obsoletos, moresque priscos, atque alia peculiari observatione digna, quae fusiori interdum parergo in hoc Glossario pertractantur.

II. Excursus circa res Francicas, seu quae ad pleniorem Historiae Francicae cognitionem et kritike/n spectant.  III. Aedes publicae, privatae; Aedium partes.  IV. Aedes sacrae, Monasticae, earum partes; Officinae Monasticae, etc.

V. Affinitates, Cognationes. VI. Agrimensoria, Agrorum modi, Urbes, Oppida, Castra, Villae, Fluvii, Lacus,Campi,etc.

VII. Arbores, Stirpes, Herbae,Silvae, Res Forestaria.  VIII. Architectonica, seu quae ad Architecturam pertinent.  IX. Artes, Artifices,Negotiationes, Professiones.

X. Animalia, Quadrupedes, Aves.  XI. Chronologica, et quae ad tempora pertinent.  XII. Cibi, Res Annonaria,Cibaria, Potoria.  XIII. Colores, et quae adcolores spectant.  XIV. Corpus, Corporis humani,et animalium partes.

XV. Dignitates, Civiles,Palatinae, Militares, Honores, Officia, etc.  XVI. Dignitates Ecclesiasticae, Monastica officia, munia, etc.  XVII. Festa Christianorum,Gentilium.

XVIII. Geographica, seu quae ad Geographiam spectant.  XIX. Haeretici, Pagani, Gentiles, etc.  XX. Libri Ecclesiastici,Profani; Epistolae Ecclesiasticae, Civiles; Chartae,Diplomata, Res Libraria.

XXI. Liturgica, seu quae ad Sacramenta et Ecclesiastica officia et Christianam Religionem spectant.

XXII. Ludi, Ludicra, et quae eius modi spectant.  XXIII. Magica, seu quae adMagiam, Sortes, Auguria, Superstitiones et eius modi spectant. 

XXIV. Medica, Mulomedica, Chirurgica, Morbi, Aegritudines, et cetera, quae ad rem Medicam pertinent.  XXV. Mensurae Aridorum, Liquidorum, Pannorum, Pondera, etc.

XXVI. Metalla, Res Metallaria.XXVII. Militaria, seu vocabula, ad rem Militarem spectantia.

XXVIII. Ministeria sacra,Vasa, Ornamenta Ecclesiastica.  XXIX. Monastica, seu vocabula ad rem Monasticam spectantia, Ordines Monastici, Militares.

XXX. Monetae, Res Monetaria.  XXXI. Mores, seu vocabula, quae ad mores hominum spectant.  XXXII. Mulctae Judiciariae. 

XXXIII. Musica, Musica instrumenta, Cantus Ecclesiasticus.

XXXIV. Navalia, Res Navalis, Navicularia.  XXXV. Pisces, Piscatura. 

XXXVI. Poenae, Supplicia,Tormenta, et quae eiusmodi spectant.  XXXVII. Purgationes canonicae, vulgares, Sacramenta, Juramenta, etc.

XXXVIII. Status et Conditiones hominum.  XXXIX. Supellex Domestica, Rustica.  XL. Tituli Honorarii, Compellatorii. 

XLI. Tributa, Vectigalia, Praestationes, Exactiones, Operae, Servitia, etc.XLII. Venatica, seu quaeVenationem et Aucupium spectant. 

XLIII. Vestes Ecclesiasticae, Laicae : Res Vestiaria .XLIV. Vocabula Anglo-Saxonica, vel quae linguae Anglo-Saxonicae originem suam debent.  XLV. Vocabula forensia, seu Fori ac Jurisprudentiae mediae aetatis; sed et hodiernae.

XLVI. Vocabula Gallica seu Francica, pleraque obsoleta ac antiquata : quaedam etiam ex iis, quae adhuc sunt in usu, quorum origines et notiones reteguntur,aut quae obiter ex veteribus eiusdem língua e Scriptoribus laudantur et illustrantur.

XLVII. Vocabula Graeca notionis insolentis, aut Graeco-barbara, quae interdum laudantur et illustrantur. 

XLVIII. Accedit novus vocum Gallicarum, in utroque, Latino potissimum, Glossario expositarum, luculentus ac copiosissimus Index.

Etymologicon Vocabulorum Linguae Gallicae, Quorum Origines Pluribus reteguntur et illustrantur, in utroque, Latino potissimum, Glossario, locis indicatis.

De Imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum Numismatibus Dissertatio.

Du Cange, Charles du Fresne: Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Latinitatis. Frankfurt am Main, 1710.

https://www2.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/ducange.html

[12/01/2019 23:29:51]

Medieval Latin in Italy

The I Tatti Renaissance Library of Harvard University Press is a new series that makes available the major literary, historical, philosophical, and scientific works of the Italian Renaissance written in Latin. Each volume provides a Latin text together with an accurate English translation on facing pages, accompanied by the editor’s introduction, notes,bibliography, and index. The I Tatti Renaissance Library aims to make this essential literature accessible to students and scholars in a wide variety of disciplines as well as to general readers. It follows the Loeb Classical Library , now in public domain.           http://www.hup.harvard.edu/collection.php?cpk=1145

The Renaissance. The age of humanism

https://www.britannica.com/art/Italian-literature/The-Renaissance

The European Renaissance (the rebirth of the classical past) really began in 14th-century Italy with Petrarch and Boccaccio. The 15th century in Italy was of very great importance because it was the century in which a new vision of human life as well as more modern principles of ethics and politics, gradually found their expression. This was the result of political conditions and the rediscovery of classical antiquity. Nearly all Italian princes competed with each other in the 15th century to promote culture by patronizing research, offering hospitality and financial support to literary men of the time, and founding libraries. Their courts became centres of research and discussion, thus making possible the great cultural revival of the period. The most notable courts were that of Florence, under Lorenzo de’ Medici “the Magnificent”; that of Naples, under the Aragonese kings; that of Milan, first under the Visconti and later the Sforza family; and finally the papal court at Rome, which gave protection and support to a large number of Italian and Byzantine scholars. The search for lost manuscripts of ancient authors, begun by Petrarch in the previous century, led to an extraordinary revival of interest in classical antiquity: in particular, much research was devoted to ancient philosophy in general and in particular to Plato (Aristotle had been the dominant voice in the Middle Ages), a fact that was to have profound influence on the thinking of the Renaissance as a whole.

The new culture of the 15th century was a revaluation of man. Humanism opposed the medieval view of man as a being with relatively little value and extolled him as the centre of the universe, the power of his soul as linking the temporal and the spiritual, and earthly life as a realm in which the soul applies its powers. These concepts, which mainly resulted from the new interest in Plato, were the subject of many treatises, the most important of which were Giannozzo Manetti’s De dignitate et excellentia hominis (completed in 1452; On the Dignity of Man) and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola’s Oratio de hominis dignitate (written 1486; Oration on the Dignity of Man). The humanist vision evolved during this period condemned many religious opinions of the Middle Ages still widely prevalent: monastic ideals of isolation and noninvolvement in the affairs of the world, for example, were attacked by Leonardo Bruni, Lorenzo Valla, and Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini. Forthright though these attacks were, humanism was not essentially anti-Christian, for it generally remained faithful to Christian beliefs, and the papal court itself regarded humanism as a force to be assimilated rather than defeated.

In the first half of the 15th century, the humanists wrote for the most part in Latin prose. Toward the end of the 15th century, Giovanni Pontano, Michele Marullo Tarcaniota, Politian (Angelo Ambrogini Poliziano), and Jacopo Sannazzaro succeeded in creating poetry in which conventional and less conventional themes were expressed with new, original intimacy and fervour. Toward the middle of the 15th century Italian began to vie with Latin as the literary language. 

Pietro Bembo of Venice published his Prose della volgar lingua (“Writings on the Vulgar Tongue”) in 1525. In this work, which was one of the first historical Italian grammars, Bembo demanded an Italian literary language based on 14th-century Tuscan models, particularly Petrarch and Boccaccio. He found Dante’s work stylistically uneven and insufficiently decorous. He was opposed by those who thought that a literary language should be based on contemporary usage, particularly by Gian Giorgio Trissino, who developed Dante’s theories on Italian as a literary language. In practice the problem was both linguistic and stylistic, and there were in the first half of the 16th century a great number of other contributors to the question, though it was Bembo’s theories that finally triumphed in the second part of the century. This was largely due to the activities of the Florentine Accademia della Crusca, and this more scientific approach to the language question resulted in the academy’s first edition of an Italian dictionary in 1612.

Political, historical, biographical, and moral literature

Niccolò Machiavelli’s works reflected Renaissance thought in its most original aspects, particularly in the objective analysis of human nature. Machiavelli has been described as the founder of a new political science: politics divorced from ethics. His own political experience was at the basis of his ideas, which he developed according to such general principles as the concepts of virtù (“individual initiative”) and fortuna (“chance”). A man’s ability to control his destiny through the exercise of virtù is contested by forces beyond his control, summed up in the concept of fortuna. His famous treatise Il principe (The Prince), composed in 1513, in which he states his conviction of the superiority of virtù, revealed the author’s prophetic attitude, based on his reading of history and his observation of contemporary political affairs. Its description of a model ruler became a code for the wielding of absolute power throughout Europe for two centuries. Machiavelli’s Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio (c. 1513–21; Discourse on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius), showed the same realistic attitude: public utility was placed above all other considerations, and political virtue was distinguished from moral virtue. His seven books on Dell’arte della guerra (1521; The Art of War), concerning the creation of a modern army, were more technical, whereas his historical works, including the Istorie fiorentine (1520–25; Florentine History), exemplified theories expounded in his treatises. Machiavelli also holds a place in the history of imaginative literature, above all for his play La Mandragola (1518), one of the outstanding comedies of the century. 

https://archive.org/details/NicolaiMachiavelliPrincepsAliaqueNonnullaExItalicoNuncDemumPartimVersa/page/n6

Although more of a realist (or pessimist) than Machiavelli, Francesco Guicciardini was the only 16th-century historian who could be placed within the framework of the political theories he constructed. He drew attention to the self-interest of those involved in political action and made Machiavelli’s theories appear idealistic by contrast. One of Guicciardini’s main works, his Ricordi (1512–30; “Things to Remember”; Eng. trans. Maxims and Reflections of a Renaissance Statesman), has a place among the most original political writings of the century. Guicciardini was also the first, in his Storia d’Italia (1537–40), to compose a truly national history of Italy, setting it in a European context and attempting an impartial analysis of cause and effect.[…]


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