02 Simplificação das línguas eslavas

02 SIMPLIFICAÇÃO DAS LÍNGUAS ESLAVAS, PROF, DR, DARCY CARVALHO. SÃO PAULO, BRASIL, 2014

Contents: 01 02 03 04

01= NEOSLAVONIC LANGUAGE CREATED BY VOJTĚCH MERUNKA AND MEMBERS OF THE INTERSLAVIC COMMUNITY

Neoslavonic is a  constructed Slavic language inspired by the Old Church Slavonic, developed in the 9th century by two Byzantine Greek missionaries and co-patrons saints of the Europe, the brothers Konstantinos (Cyrillus) and Methodios of Salonica. Cyril and Methodius modified the Greek  alphabet and devised an artificial Slavic language, based on old Bulgarian  in order to make the Christian scriptures understood by all the Slavs. The importance of this kind of project for modern Latinists  is evident, they no only widen the understanding of the problems involved in creating pan-languages, easy to be understood by speakers of related vernaculars without previous study,  but also  provide important solutions that can be applied in reviving Latin as an academic auxiliary language.

VOJTĚCH MERUNKA writes:  ‘Welcome to our on-line English tutorial of the Neoslavonic language (NS), which is a part of the non-commercial Interslavic language project of the interslavic community. Neoslavonic (Interslavic) is a "zonal constructed language" intended to facilitate communication among the speakers and writers of the modern day Slavic languages - Belorussian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Polish, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Sorbian (i.e. Lusatian, Wendish), Ukrainian and their various dialects - all of which derive from an original "Proto-Slavic" tongue, which over thousands of years, morphed into very divergent "dialects," each becoming a separate language unto itself.

Over half of Europe's territory is inhabited by Slavic-speaking communities; moreover, the worldwide population of people of Slavic descent is estimated to be about 400 million.  

Because our Slavic languages all derive from that common Proto-Slavic tongue, knowledge of one Slavic language will often allow one to have at least a rough understanding of text written in another Slavic language - but not sufficiently enough to achieve a strong comprehension. This fact has inspired linguists and others over the centuries to attempt to create a universal Slavic language that would be more understandable to all Slavs.  Among these include Old Church Slavonic, developed in the 9th century by two Byzantine Greek missionaries and co-patrons saints of the Europe, the brothers Konstantinos (Cyril) and Methodios of Salonica, as well as dozens of other projects since then. What they have in common is that they are all based on the assumption that the Slavic languages are similar enough to make such an auxiliary language possible at all. 

Neoslavonic language design is based on the harmony of following three principles:

1= To share grammar and common vocabulary with modern spoken Slavic languages in order to build a universal language that Slavic people can understand without any prior learning.

2= To be an easy-learned language for those who want to use this language actively. Non-Slavic people can use this language as the door to the big Slavic world. We believe, that knowledge of NS enables both Slavic and non-Slavic people greater passive (e.g. receptive) understanding and better learning of the living Slavic languages.

3= Neoslavonic continues the tradition of the Old Church Slavonic language (OCS). OCS was the first literary Slavic language, believed to have been artificially developed in the 9th century by two Byzantine Greek missionaries Saints Kyrillos and Methodios, who were credited with standardizing the Slavic dialects and were using it for translating the Bible and other ecclesiastical texts as the tool of the Christianisation of the Slavic people. OCS is still frequently used by the Orthodox Church and sometimes also by the Roman-Catholics in many Slavic countries up to the present days. NS is designed as the modernized and simplified but still sufficiently compatible version of this language. 

Our Interslavic project is not the only one of its kind. In the last two centuries, there was proposed a lot of very similar constructed languages. The greatest progress in this matter we re-use has been made in the 19th by the Slovenian priest and linguist Matija Majar Ziljski and the Czech translator and writer Václav František Bambas. Moreover, the successful projects of reconstruction of the modern Serbian, Czech, Slovak, Indonesian, Arabic and Hebrew language have inspired our project as well.

Our memorandum says, that our Interslavic language project is based exclusively on forms that exist throughout the Slavic language continuum, and Esperanto-like artificiality is carefully avoided: every word stem, grammatical ending or morphological element can be found in several Slavic languages, ideally in all of them. This design strategy locates Interslavic language at the very center of the living Slavic languages.

Why do we need an artificial inter-Slavic language?

We know that one half (maybe yet more) of the total number of Slav-speaking people has Russian language. If the Russian language would be sufficiently simple and understandable to other Slavs without learning, our project would be unnecessary. Unfortunately it is not. Russian is far from the imaginary linguistic center of Slavic languages. It has a specific alphabet, phonetics, grammar and vocabulary without the universal Slavic validity. The very similar situation we have in all modern Slavic languages, above all in other candidates for the universal Slavic language (e.g. Polish).

Our strategy is to develop and broadcast this auxiliary language in such way that it can be naturally incorporated into the collection of spoken Slavic languages as an auxiliary tool enabling international dialogue, knowledge and cultural transfer without the need of translating information into several national languages.

Our experience is that speakers of Slavic languages tend to perceive Neoslavonic/Interslavic language as either an ancient or remote dialect of their own native language, or a neighboring language closely related to their own. People are often surprised how much they can understand of it.

Spoken languages are living things and we know that no conlang (Esperanto, Interlingua, ...) or reconstructed modern national language (Slovak, Hebrew, Indonesian, ...) in the world is used in the exactly same form as when it was first published. Therefore we welcome anybody – linguist, non-linguist, native speaker, non-native speaker – to join our ranks and work with us on this great task!

  http://www.neoslavonic.org/

SENTENCE STRUCTURE, WORD ORDER NEOSLAVONIC

In the Neoslavonic language (as well as in all Slavic languages), the word order in a sentence is rather flexible. In English, the position of words in sentences is necessary to inform, whether it is a noun, adjective, verb, subject, object, or something else. The NS words have their own endings (declension and conjugation), in which is stored the complete information about their grammatical category, so there is no need any word to respect a specific position in the sentence.

Though the NS sentence is generally arranged "subject-verb-object" in the same way as in English, the grammar rules allow to use virtually any combination of subject, verb, object, ... in order to stress different components of the sentence.

Here we can keep the rule: In the first approximately 7 words is the most important information of the sentence we want to say.

Of course it is not true that words can be mixed in any way. For example, if some adjective belongs to some noun, it must lie in front of its corresponding noun or behind of its corresponding noun and between these words must not be mixed any another element of the sentence. Overall, this means that the NS sentence is best to be explained as a branched tree. The branches represent particular sentence components, mutually may have flexible order, but elements within some one branch must not be mixed with elements of some another branch.

BASIC SENTENCE ELEMENTS ARE:

1.subject part. This is a noun or conjunction of more nouns or pronouns or numerals in the nominative case,

2.verb part, which is made by at least one verb optionally extended by adverbs,

3.object part, which is a noun or conjunction of more nouns in accusative case or other case without preposition,

4.proverbial parts, which are either made by adverbs or nouns or pronouns or numerals in various cases with prepositions.

Any noun or pronoun or numeral at any position can be extended by additional adjectives or pronouns or numerals or attributes,

Any adjective can be extended by additional adjectives or adverbs, and

Any adverb can be extended by additional adverbs.

Example 1 A standard sentence with the English-like word order:

Veliky zajec bystro běži okolo nas do mnogo temnego lesa.

A big hare quickly runs around us to a very dark forest.

Different word order, where "a big hare" is less important than the information about our experience (running around us, running to a dark forest). This new sentence has the same syntactical tree as of the previous example. The only difference is in the order of tree branches.  This can not be easily expressed in English:

Okolo nas do mnogo temnego lesa bystro běži veliky zajec.

This is an example of the wrong sentence, where words are impermissibly mixed between two branches.

Example 2

Dobry student piše svojemu učitelu velike pismo na novem komputeru.

A good student write his/her teacher a big letter on a new computer.

If we will want to stress 1) "a new computer" and 2) "size of a letter" and than later we will speak about the writing process and its details (a student, a teacher), we can reorder this sentence as follows. Note that in this case, the arrangement of tree branches is completely reversed from the English standard:

Na novem komputeru velike pismo svojemu učitelu piše dobry student.

People educated in applied mathematics know that these branched trees can also be displayed as plain texts using special brackets. Elements within each brackets can change the order, but the content inside the brackets can not be mixed with the content of another brackets: 

{{veliky zajec} {bystro běži} {okolo nas} {do mnogo temnego lesa}}

 {{okolo nas} {do mnogo temnego lesa} {bystro běži} {veliky zajec}}

 {{dobry student} {piše} {svojemu učitelju} {velike pismo} {na novem komputeru}}

 {{na novem komputeru} {velike pismo} {svojemu učitelu} {piše} {dobry student}}

 or in more detail as

 {clause {subj. veliky zajec} {v. bystro běži} {prov. okolo nas} {prov. do mnogo temnego lesa}}

 {clause {prov. okolo nas} {prov. do mnogo temnego lesa} {v. bystro běži} {subj. veliky zajec}}

 {clause {subj. dobry student} {v. piše} {obj. D svojemu učitelu} {obj. A velike pismo} {prov. na novem komputeru}}

 {clause {prov. na novem komputeru} {obj. A velike pismo} {obj. D svojemu učitelu} {v. piše} {subj. dobry student}}

 We can say that English needs the fixed position of words in sentences in order to add words missing information about whether these words are subjects, objects, verbs or something else. It is obvious that Slavic languages (as well as Latin and Greek) operate with words containing more unambiguous grammatical information without the need to use fixed positions. Free word order can then be used to express the finer details of communication in these languages.' Finis citationis.

 02= SLOVIO         

 http://www.slovio.com/

Slovio, is the international simplified Slavic language, as simple as Esperanto but understood by some 400 million people around the world. This makes Slovio one of the most widely understood languages around the world. This international language is gaining, daily, new ground: because it is as simple as the simplest constructed language and at the same time can be put to an immediate daily use for communication with some 400 million speakers. 

Unlike traditional Slavic langauges, it uses only the most basic latin alphabet, without any accents or special characters, and it can be typed on any keyboard - including the U.S. keyboard. You will be amazed how many people will understand you, how many people will talk to you! Slovio will open up a whole new world for you, for your business, for your website, for your products, for profits, for education, for friendship and for pleasure. 

Slovio is the planned language of choice for modern people. Simple logical grammar, simple phonetic spelling, and full compatibility with all European languages - only simpler. Current Slovio dictionary contains nearly 40 thousand words, names and expressions. That is more words than some "natural" languages. Enter the Slovio World! Learn Slovio now!

Here is a sample text in the latin and cyrillic scrypts:

Новйу межународйу йазика! Што ес Словио? Словио ес новйу межународйу йазика ктор разумийут чтирсто милион лудис на целойу земла. Словио можете употребит дла гворение со чтирсто милион славйу Лудис от Прага до Владивосток; от Санкт Петербург через Варшава до Варна; от Средземйу Морие и от Северйу Морие до Тихйу Океан. Словио имайт простйу, логикйу граматиа и Словио ес идеалйу йазика дла днесйу лудис. Учийте Словио тпер!

Novju mezxunarodju jazika!

 Sxto es Slovio? Slovio es novju mezxunarodju jazika ktor razumijut cxtirsto milion ludis na celoju zemla. Slovio mozxete upotrebit dla gvorenie so cxtirsto milion slavju Ludis ot Praga do Vladivostok; ot Sankt Peterburg cxerez Varsxava do Varna; ot Sredzemju Morie i ot Severju Morie do Tihju Okean. Slovio imajt prostju, logikju gramatia i Slovio es idealju jazika dla dnesju ludis. Ucxijte Slovio tper! Finis citationis

3=  INTERSLAVIC LANGUAGE

Medžuslovjanski jezyk — Меджусловjaнски jезык

http://steen.free.fr/interslavic/slovianto.html

Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
2 de jul de 2014 06:17
Ċ
Darcy Carvalho,
1 de jul de 2014 08:28
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