LATIM TÉCNICO MODERNO.TECHNICAL LATIN. LATIN FOR ECONOMISTS. Click Δ para acessar Subpáginas.

LATINUM TECHNICUM. LATIM TÉCNICO. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO.  FEA-USP. SÃO PAULO. BRAZIL. 2019. STUDIES IN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LATIN. LATIN FOR ECONOMISTS, HISTORIANS AND GEOGRAPHERS. LINGUA LATINA AD OECONOMOLOGOS. Λατινική γλώσσα για τους οικονομολόγους. 

Access the page: Latin for Economists, Historians and Geographers. Lingua Latina ad Oeconomos, Historicos et Geographos. Latim para Economistas, Historiadores e Geógrafos. Prof. Dr. Darcy Carvalho. Fea-Usp. São Paulo. Brazil. 2019. Studies in Medieval and Modern Latin

https://www.univie.ac.at/latein/

A modern version of the Latin language, grammatically simplified, for general use, at least in the academies, pressuposes the existence of a large vocabulary, comprising didactic, scientific, technical and literary terms.  Most of the existing vocabularies for modern Latin have as their basic sources the works left by the Roman civilization. This procedure is sensible but inadequate for the envisaged objectives of having a modern Latin vocabulary suitable for the present state of the world. Courney Roby in his article Latin Didactic, Scientific, and Technical Literature, that is reproduced below in this page, demonstrate the hard tasks of those trying to dig words out of  classical Latin for individual disciplines of yore. The literary traditions of individual disciplines (e.g., agriculture, architecture, astronomy, and surveying) are examined by Roby as case studies of broad patterns in literary developments, including the building of technical vocabularies, the choice of poetry and prose, and the degree of organization of the text. ... What we may call Latin technical literature was the result of translations of Greek works. Courtney does not mentions the translations of agricultural books of the Carthaginians into Latin. Modern Latin technical vocabulary for present use will be produced from the existing modern languages, by the same methods once employed by the Romans themselves, to incorporate foreign technologies into their civilization, by mere translations and extensive borrowings from the Romance languages and Greek. Read below: Courtney Roby, Latin Didactic, Scientific, and Technical Literature

Our objective is to  create a Modern Latin vocabulary with which to write about everything in the contemporary world. In fact, this vocabulary  already exists and can be easily found in the Classical  Latin dictionaries and  most in the largest  vernacular dictionaries in print. Modern Latin , therefore , has a potential vocabulary  as large as those of the most important vernacular languages of today. As we speak a modern vernacular language, the largest part of  this  modern Latin vocabulary is already in our minds. All we need to write in modern Latin is to learn the  classical Latin morphology. The quickest ways of creating a large modern Latin library is by translating into modern Latin the largest possible quantity of vernacular texts in every quarter  and kind of  literature. The common denominator for writers of modern Latin is the adoption of two  simple rules of syntax: 1. Classical Latin  words have no necessary place in phrases. 2. Modern Latin,  while faithfully keeping the Classical Latin morphology,  adopts the syntax of the modern analytical languages, that is, the place of words in modern Latin is just subject, verb, predicates.  

EXTRACTING WORDS FROM THE MODERN LANGUAGES  AND GREEK 

More than half of the English words are derived, directly or indirectly, from the Latin:

1 Some, like labor and animal, come directly with no change. 

2 Others, like cause, form, note, are almost exactly like their Latin equivalents (causa,forma, nota). 

3 Still others come indirectly, like people, space, peace (populus, spatium, pax). 

4 Many English words which are commonly misspelled offer no difficulty to students of Latin. A few examples are: library, from the Latin noun librarium; laboratory, from laboratorium; committee, from committere; supersede, from supersedere; accommodate, from accommodatus, the perfect participle of accommodare; and separate, from the participle of separare.

Therefore, any English text is a source of usable modern Latin vocabulary. A practical consequence of this is that we can write Latin immediately, thinking in English and composing Latin texts in direct order, with a minimum of consultations to dictionaries.

Our objective is to  create a Modern Latin vocabulary with which to write about everything in the contemporary world. In fact, this vocabulary  already exists and can be easily found in the Classical  Latin dictionaries and  most in the largest  vernacular dictionaries in print. Modern Latin , therefore , has a potential vocabulary  as large as those of the most important vernacular languages of today. As we speak a modern vernacular language, the largest part of  this  modern Latin vocabulary is already in our minds. All we need to write in modern Latin is to learn the  classical Latin morphology. The quickest ways of creating a large modern Latin library is by translating into modern Latin the largest possible quantity of vernacular texts in every quarter  and kind of  litterature. The common denominator for writers of modern Latin is the adoption of two  simple rules of syntax: 1. Classical Latin  words have no necessary place in phrases. 2. Modern Latin,  while faithfully keeping the Classical Latin morphology,  adopts the syntax of the modern analytical languages, that is, the place of words im modern Latin is just subject, verb, predicates.  These two rules have been applied below:
Contents: 01, 02, 03, 04,
01
DE VOCABULARIO LATINO TECHNICO MODERNO.  Apud  YLE COLLOQUIA LATINA

Ad YLE COLLOQUIA LATINA, die 01.10.2003, Darcy Carvalho  hoc nuntium misit:

CITO:  ‘ S. P. D: Si paginam oeconomicam vel mathematicam, technicam, litterariam anglice francogallice, theodice  etc., scriptam, in sermo latino vertere volumus, vocabula latina correcta celeriter invenire prima maximaque difficultas est. In hac situatione, licetne vocabula latina nova procreare aut illa existentes in linguas sorores latinas simpliciter adaptare, latinizando? '

'Exemplifico: Sit anglice ‘the population of Brazil is now very large’. Licetne scribere ‘populatio brasiliana nunc magna est’, quia in omnes linguas neolatinas viventes, vocabula “ population, populación , população, populazione, populatie”,  etymologice provenientes a verbo latino ‘populatio’,  hodierne significant ‘multitudinem hominum’  ? ' Finis Citationis

RE: VOCABULARIUM TECHNICUM MODERNUM, NUNTIUM MISIT: MERCURIUS HUNGARICUS:  Die 01.10.2003
Cito, “ Licet! equidem in modernis vocabulis in Latinum convertendis semper simplicitatem praeferendam esse puto deja vu.. quasi iam hoc scripserim olim..., ita "population" sit Latine populatio -onis f, immo "television" sit televisio -onis f.

Quae modernae denominationes ex magna parte e lingua Latina et certe Graeca originem capiunt, qua de re timere non debemus, ne sermo Maronis his verbis immixtis foedetur ac immaculetur; immo fortiter et crebre huiusmodi novis vocabulis utamur, ut et ceteri eis assuescant, linguaque nostra ita vere viva ac rebus modernis tractandis habilis fiat.

Opus non est denominationibus periphrasticis, ut "television = instrumentum electronicum, quo...", quae non vera denominatio, sed commentarius. Veniant ergo moderna vocabula: num quis timeat ea? Multo magis autem praestat stylum latinum elegantem et lucidum conservare. Sed ut meus amicus carissimus dicere solet: "timeo, ne longus sim". cura ut valeas, Mr. Darcy." Finis Citationis.

CONCLUSIONES PRACTICAS EPISTOLARUM  SUNT:

1. Licet vocabula latina nova procreare aut illa jam in  existentia  apud  linguas sorores latinas simpliciter adaptare, latinizando, cum vertere volumus in sermo latino paginas oeconomicas, mathematicas, technicas, litterarias, quae siant  anglice, francogallice, theodice, id est, vernacule scriptae, et  nobis vocabula latina correcta celeriter invenire necesse sit ;

2. Equidem in modernis vocabulis in Latinum convertendis semper simplicitatem praeferendam esse puto, ita "population" sit Latine populatio -onis f, immo "television" sit televisio -onis f. ;

3. Quae modernae denominationes ex magna parte e lingua Latina et certe Graeca originem capiunt, qua de re timere non debemus, ne sermo Maronis his verbis immixtis foedetur ac immaculetur;

4. Immo fortiter et crebre huiusmodi novis vocabulis utamur, ut et ceteri eis assuescant, linguaque nostra ita vere viva ac rebus modernis tractandis habilis fiat.

02 
'His saeculis recentioribus etiam atque etiam neologismi omnino necessarii ausu felici (interdum ausu infelici) proponebantur'
Caelestis Eisenseer
 
‘Denique praeter regulas grammaticas et stilisticas his saeculis recentioribus etiam atque etiam neologismi omnino necessarii ausu felici (interdum ausu infelici) proponebantur, velut haec: electricus – electricitas (c.a. 1600), telescopium (a. 1558), machina vaporaria (a. 1782), machinae netoriae (a. 1785), navis vaporaria (a. 1803), ferrivia (a. 1830), ferrivia electrica (a. 1847), telegraphum (a. 1831) , ars photographica (a. 1839), motrum electricum (a. 1830), telephonum (a. 1876), microphonum (a. 1878), radiophonia (a. 1921), emissiones televisificae (multicoloriae) (a. 1928). [41] Nostris autem diebus praesentibus maximi momenti sunt: interrete, ordinatrum, telecopiatrum.  [42] Ibidem insuper proposuimus nomen “disculi ordinatralis” [= diskette] [43] pro quo nomine in interretiali notificatione Vaticana nomen invenimus “microdiscia”.’
Apud. Caelestis Eisenseer. De Latine loquendo et scribendo hodiernis temporibus. 
 
03

Quando conveniunt vocabula recentia et nova? At quibus vocabulis novis utemur? Quae Latinitas sit Moderna?

Apud: ‘De Latine dicendi normis quas scriptores recentiores vel neoterici servasse videntur’

Aurore Terentius Tunberg.   http://linguae.weebly.com/de-latine-dicendi-normis.html

Quando conveniunt vocabula recentia et nova

'Quamvis igitur compages et constructio verborum atque dicendi formulae eaedem apud nos permaneant, quae apud veteres auctores, et apud recentiores, qui quidem antiquos imitati sint, crebro reperiantur, vocabula tamen nobis vel recentissima nonnumquam usurpanda vel prorsus nova (etsi perraro) sunt fingenda. Quod nisi per occasionem fecerimus, lingua Latina ad lusum quendam redigetur, vel ad exercitia quaedam, quae tantum in conclavibus scholasticis sint utilia, ubi pueri puellaeque Romanos sese antiquos esse fingere possint, nec ullum argumentum huius vitae proprium tractare.

Nequaquam negamus Latine dicendi, declamandi, colloquendi exercitationem in scholis utilem esse; quae utinam saepius ad docendum adhibeatur! Sed Latine loquendi usum paulo latius patere et ad plures pertinere posse credimus, quippe cuius ope commercia iucunda cum aliis, praesertim cum alienigenis, qui quidem et ipsi Latine sciant, frequentare queamus. Exemplum ad imitandum ab ipso Cicerone sumatur, utpote a quo vocabula linguae Latinae sint addita nonnulla![12]

Quando conveniunt vocabula recentia et nova? Res scilicet multiplex et involuta, quae haud semper legibus praeceptisque finiatur, cuius sensus et intellectus ex sermonibus nostris, e lectione assidua nobis quodammodo innascatur oporteat. Attamen haec praecepta, eaque generalia, fortasse ab omnibus accipientur.

 Si quid nobis fuerit verbis exprimendum non solum hominibus Romanis inauditum, sed etiam cuius simile nihil apud auctores Romanos aut recentiores describatur, ad voces aetate recentissima fictas aut prorsus novas confugere debemus. Nolumus in circumitionibus verborum ultra modum versari, id quod quidam Latine scribentes faciunt, qui prorsus omnia vel recentissima et antiquis temporibus absona Ciceronis tantum vocibus describere cupiant: qualem dicendi rationem vitare volumus, ne impediamur quominus expedite dicamus et ab auditoribus intellegamur.

At quibus vocabulis novis utemur? Idonea nonnumquam sunt in promptu. Etenim nova vocabula Latina sunt hisce centum annis excogitata permulta. Fit autem interdum ut sua quisque Latine loquendi studiosus nova proponat vocabula, propositaque tueatur vel pertinacissime. Saepiuscule igitur accidit ut multa et inter se valde discrepantia vocabula exstent, quibus eadem res significetur. Synonymia (ut Martiani Capellae vocabulo utamur) non est mala neque funesta, dummodo ne verborum copia in confusionem quandam exeat et discordiam. Itaque caute nonnumquam eligendum est (et sperandum fore ut consensus aliquando exstet maior). Exstant lexica quibus talium vocabulorum (id est recentium et novissimorum) magna continetur copia.[13]

Denique, si nihil idoneum his lexicis traditum est, aliquando, id quod supra diximus, vocabula nostra fingamus oportet -- qualia scilicet a quam plurimis intellegantur.  Ad horas unius cuiusque diei computandas, nominandas, noscendas necesse nobis est vocibus aliquando uti recentioribus. Nos enim omnino aliter atque veteres Romani solemus tempora computare. Non iam noctes nostras in vigilias dividimus. Non iam solariis nitimur. Carebant horologiis mechanicis Romani antiqui - ne quid dicamus de electronicis. Nesciebant horas suas in minutas et secundas dispertire.[14] ‘ Finis citationis

Quamvis igitur compages et constructio verborum atque dicendi formulae eaedem apud nos permaneant, quae apud veteres auctores, et apud recentiores, qui quidem antiquos imitati sint, crebro reperiantur, vocabula tamen nobis vel recentissima nonnumquam usurpanda vel prorsus nova (etsi perraro) sunt fingenda. Quod nisi per occasionem fecerimus, lingua Latina ad lusum quendam redigetur, vel ad exercitia quaedam, quae tantum in conclavibus scholasticis sint utilia, ubi pueri puellaeque Romanos sese antiquos esse fingere possint, nec ullum argumentum huius vitae proprium tractare.

Nequaquam negamus Latine dicendi, declamandi, colloquendi exercitationem in scholis utilem esse; quae utinam saepius ad docendum adhibeatur! Sed Latine loquendi usum paulo latius patere et ad plures pertinere posse credimus, quippe cuius ope commercia iucunda cum aliis, praesertim cum alienigenis, qui quidem et ipsi Latine sciant, frequentare queamus. Exemplum ad imitandum ab ipso Cicerone sumatur, utpote a quo vocabula linguae Latinae sint addita nonnulla![12]

Quando conveniunt vocabula recentia et nova? Res scilicet multiplex et involuta, quae haud semper legibus praeceptisque finiatur, cuius sensus et intellectus ex sermonibus nostris, e lectione assidua nobis quodammodo innascatur oporteat. Attamen haec praecepta, eaque generalia, fortasse ab omnibus accipientur.

 Si quid nobis fuerit verbis exprimendum non solum hominibus Romanis inauditum, sed etiam cuius simile nihil apud auctores Romanos aut recentiores describatur, ad voces aetate recentissima fictas aut prorsus novas confugere debemus. Nolumus in circumitionibus verborum ultra modum versari, id quod quidam Latine scribentes faciunt, qui prorsus omnia vel recentissima et antiquis temporibus absona Ciceronis tantum vocibus describere cupiant: qualem dicendi rationem vitare volumus, ne impediamur quominus expedite dicamus et ab auditoribus intellegamur.

At quibus vocabulis novis utemur?

At quibus vocabulis novis utemur? Idonea nonnumquam sunt in promptu. Etenim nova vocabula Latina sunt hisce centum annis excogitata permulta. Fit autem interdum ut sua quisque Latine loquendi studiosus nova proponat vocabula, propositaque tueatur vel pertinacissime. Saepiuscule igitur accidit ut multa et inter se valde discrepantia vocabula exstent, quibus eadem res significetur. Synonymia (ut Martiani Capellae vocabulo utamur) non est mala neque funesta, dummodo ne verborum copia in confusionem quandam exeat et discordiam. Itaque caute nonnumquam eligendum est (et sperandum fore ut consensus aliquando exstet maior). Exstant lexica quibus talium vocabulorum (id est recentium et novissimorum) magna continetur copia.[13]  Denique, si nihil idoneum his lexicis traditum est, aliquando, id quod supra diximus, vocabula nostra fingamus oportet -- qualia scilicet a quam plurimis intellegantur.

 Ad horas unius cuiusque diei computandas, nominandas, noscendas necesse nobis est vocibus aliquando uti recentioribus. Nos enim omnino aliter atque veteres Romani solemus tempora computare. Non iam noctes nostras in vigilias dividimus. Non iam solariis nitimur. Carebant horologiis mechanicis Romani antiqui - ne quid dicamus de electronicis. Nesciebant horas suas in minutas et secundas dispertire.[14]

Menses nostros Nonis et Idibus non iam metimur. Si tali modo aetate nostra semper loqui conati simus, necesse nonnumquam sit audientibus cunctari, cogitare, computare, ut tempus more Romano descriptum etiam secundum rationem nostram intellegant -- ne quid dicamus de eo quod annus Romanus paucioribus continebatur diebus quam annus noster! Nolumus enim quodam antiquitatis imitandae studio id tantum efficere ut sermo noster impediatur nostraeque voces a vita absonae esse videantur. [15]

Haud abs re erit quaedam de notis numeralibus, id est de rationibus numeros scribendi, hoc loco memorare. Homines Latine scribentes notas numerales ratione Arabica iam medio illo, quod appellatur, aevo conformare coeperunt: quam scribendi rationem ad fere omnem rerum magnitudinem describendam multo commodiorem esse quam Romanam compererunt. Litterulas supra scriptas nonnumquam addebant, quibus casus significaretur. Ut duo exempla ante oculos habeamus; notis numeralibus, quae sunt 1201°, idem significatur quod verbis, quae sunt "millesimo ducentesimo primo"; notae numerales, quae sunt 1201m, idem sibi volunt quod verba, quae sunt "millesimum ducentesimum primum." Quamquam quidam grammatici, qui aetate litterarum renascentium floruerunt, notas Romanas in usum communem revocare conati sunt, res haud omnino ex eorum sententia evenit.

Nam inde a saeculo sexto decimo post Christum natum mos apud Latine scribentes est ut notae numerales Romanae cum in librorum et capitulorum indicibus, tum etiam in monumentis lapideis et in titulis incisis usurpentur—hoc est, ornatus causa—ceteroquin notae numerales in libris et scriptis Latinis more Arabico describantur.[16]

Menses nostros Nonis et Idibus non iam metimur. Si tali modo aetate nostra semper loqui conati simus, necesse nonnumquam sit audientibus cunctari, cogitare, computare, ut tempus more Romano descriptum etiam secundum rationem nostram intellegant -- ne quid dicamus de eo quod annus Romanus paucioribus continebatur diebus quam annus noster! Nolumus enim quodam antiquitatis imitandae studio id tantum efficere ut sermo noster impediatur nostraeque voces a vita absonae esse videantur. [15]

Haud abs re erit quaedam de notis numeralibus, id est de rationibus numeros scribendi, hoc loco memorare. Homines Latine scribentes notas numerales ratione Arabica iam medio illo, quod appellatur, aevo conformare coeperunt: quam scribendi rationem ad fere omnem rerum magnitudinem describendam multo commodiorem esse quam Romanam compererunt. Litterulas supra scriptas nonnumquam addebant, quibus casus significaretur. Ut duo exempla ante oculos habeamus; notis numeralibus, quae sunt 1201°, idem significatur quod verbis, quae sunt "millesimo ducentesimo primo"; notae numerales, quae sunt 1201m, idem sibi volunt quod verba, quae sunt "millesimum ducentesimum primum." Quamquam quidam grammatici, qui aetate litterarum renascentium floruerunt, notas Romanas in usum communem revocare conati sunt, res haud omnino ex eorum sententia evenit.

Nam inde a saeculo sexto decimo post Christum natum mos apud Latine scribentes est ut notae numerales Romanae cum in librorum et capitulorum indicibus, tum etiam in monumentis lapideis et in titulis incisis usurpentur—hoc est, ornatus causa—ceteroquin notae numerales in libris et scriptis Latinis more Arabico describantur.[16] Apud

 De Latine dicendi normis quas scriptores recentiores vel neoterici servasse videntur. Quae Latinitas sit Moderna. TERENTIUS TUNBERG TERENTIUS TUNBERG http://linguae.weebly.com/de-latine-dicendi-normis.html

04

ADUMBRATIO LEXICI ANGLI ET LATINI       http://facweb.furman.edu/~dmorgan/lexicon/adumbratio.htm

This is the introduction to an  attempt by David Morgan to create a  Latin dictionary of modern words. Unfortunately the author made his task  difficult by dating every word and citing sources. The words are classified by subject: accessories, animals, etc. Inside each subject,  they are listed alphabetically. Mea sententia, if we really want to make useful large modern Latin dictionaries, without unnecessary toil, we must adopt a more utilitarian approach and limit information to the minimum, excluding both grammatical and historical information. If a word of Latim etymology is around in modern languagues, we need not hesitate  to re-latinize  and freely include it in  our sample of modern Latin words, which will accept  Latin of all ages and new technical words of recent coinage.

Adumbtratio Lexici Angli et Latini : 'Articulorum pars prior iuxta argumenta hic ordinata est. Haec argumenta quibusdam scribendi compendiis indicavi, puta .acsr (accessories), .anml (animals), ita ante lemmata interpositis ut vocabula more informatico sponte ordinari possent. Delebuntur postea huiusmodi litterae compendiariae lemmataque omnia secundum alphabetum, ut fieri solet, ordinabuntur. Quae anglice scripta sunt, ad lexici lectores spectant; quae latine, ad vos tantum. Quae signum < nonnullis in articulis sequuntur commentaria quaedam sunt, quibus exponitur cur hanc vel illam interpretationem latinam praeferendam censuerim. Interpretamenta latina quae post signum < relegavi eiusmodi fere sunt quae nobis accipienda non putarim, digna tamen quae notarentur. Auctorum recentiorum indicem in calce videte; multo plures mihi sunt recensendi.De forma ac ordine articulorum adhuc haereo; quaeso hanc rem pensitetis. Nondum addidi symbolas vestras; scio me quaedam vocabula hic tractasse quae iam a vobis tractata sunt; curabo posthac haec omnia unum in corpus redigenda.'

 Symbols and abbreviations:  + medieval word (first found 700-1400). * modern word (first found since 1400)

Alb. Sigrid Albert,

Anc. Gr. Ancient Greek

Byz. Gr. Byzantine Greek

EB Encyclopedia Britannica

eccl. ecclesiastical

Eg. Carlo Egger

EL European languages

Forc. Forcellini

Helf. Helfer

Lev. Levine, Latin Dictionary (1967)

LRL Lexicon Recentioris Latinitatis (Vatican)

LS Lewis and Short

Mod. Gr. Modern Greek

MLBS Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources

Parentheses surrounding the above two symbols indicate that the word itself is ancient, but the meaning is first found in the medieval or modern period. Certainty about the first appearance of post-ancient Latin words is impossible; our indications are based on consultation of certain dictionaries (see preface) and a number of primary sources.
A convenient  presentation of the two parts of this large work, in html text, can be found at Archive. Org
05
PARVUM VERBORUM NOVATORUM LEXICUM: COMMENTARIUM

The following Italian - Latin lexicon do not conform with practical principles for the construction a modern Latin dictionary for contemporary use.

LATINITAS.Opus Fundatum in Civitate Vaticana

PARVUM VERBORUM NOVATORUM LEXICUM

Apparavit Cletus Pavanetto

Verba novata magnam partem depromuntur ex operoso opere cui titulus Lexicon Recentis Latinitatis cura et studio Operis Fundati «Latinitas» ante aliquot annos foras dato.

Note. A perusal of Parvum Novatorum Lexicon let us with the false impression that Latin is a very funny language. For instance, in Italian we say "acqua minerale" with perfect correspondent in other languages, agua mineral, mineral water, etc. The lexicographer  translate it into Latin as "aqua medicata" , which nobody would translate back to italian as "aqua minerale". The exact, simple acceptable translation would be,  "aqua mineralis", just that, mea sententia. Besides that , "acqua gassata"  and "acqua minerale" are not the same thing, one is natural, the other industrial.The very title of the opusculum is  inadequate, it should be called, in utilitarian Latin, Latin for universal understanding: "Lexicon Parvum Neologismorum". 

Those interested on the original form of this lexicon, with diacritics and indication of the tonic syllables should consult the Vatican site bellow

05

LATINUM TECHNICUM MODERNUM:  VOCABULA COMPUTATRALIA. AUTORE  Konrad Kokoszkiewicz  DRACO


The digital revolution,  one of the most astonishing events of the last 30 years,  created a huge new English technical vocabulary for which all the languages of the world had to find a vernacular correspondent, neological or not, or, failing that, to  adopt the very raw English term. Fortunately for Latin users, English is a kind of neolatin language, in the sense that its vocabulary is around 65 percent pure Latin or of Latin lineage. The problems arise from the Anglo-saxon words the most frequently used in English.

The creation of the  first English-Latin vocabulary for computer matters was undertaken by the Polish Latinist,  , who adopts in some of his publications  the pseudonym Draco.

This first attempt to compile a Latin vocabulary for internet and matters concerning the digital universe follows  perfect classical Latin  lines in word formation. It refuses to banish the distinction between the Latin suffixes -tor, trix  and -trum, an evolution already made by all modern Neolatin languages. Therefore , instead of just ‘computator’, we find in this vocabulary  ‘computatrum’, and so forth. In consequence we do not find expressions as ‘de rebus computatoriis’, ‘about computatorial things’, easily understandable,  but “ de rebus computatralibus’,  e ‘vocabula computatralia’.

We reproduce below Draco’s pioneer work ‘ Vocabula Computatralia’  just for extending our personal discussion of Technical Latin.  Please consult the original article in  http://www.obta.uw.edu.pl/~draco/docs/voccomp.html

We shall  include inter double  bars || the single Latin term that seems to be suitable  for translating the English technical word. After that we list other Latin words and expressions contained in the item.

A

abort 1. vt interrumpere 2. subst. interruptus,us m. |abortus, abortare|, interruptio

address 1. (memory location) subst. locus (memoriae, in memoria); numerus octeti 2. (net location, URL) subst. inscriptio (interretialis vel interneti) 3. (e-mail) subst. inscriptio (cursualis) electronica 4. (to select a memory location) vt. locum (memoriae) eligere. |locum|, memoria, locatio, inscriptio.

assembler 1. (assembly language) subst. lingua machinalis; assembler,i m. 2. (compiler) subst. compilatrum (assembleri) |compilatrum|, compilator.

B

background 1. (of a picture) subst. fundus,i m 2. (about windowed desktop) ima,orum n.; to put a window into background fenestram in ima reponere. 3. (about a process) adj. inferus, posterus; to put into background in ima mittere; inferiorem facere ||

binary adj. binaris,e ||

bit subst. bitus,i m (binaris digitus); least significant bit bitus minimi momenti; bitus minimus

boot 1. subst. initiatio systematis; cold ~ initiatio frigida, initiatio e frigido; warm ~ initiatio calida, initiatio e calido. 2. vt. initiare ||

branch 1. (a relative jump) subst. saltus relativus 2. (a conditional jump) subst. saltus condicionalis (non: 'saltus conditionalis', quia non conditura, sed condicione saltus fiunt). ||

browse 1. (to look over text documents) vt. perlustrare 2. (the Web) vt. navigare

browser 1. (text viewer) subst. exhibitrum,i n. 2. (Web viewer) subst. navigatrum,i n.

bug (a mistake in program code) subst. mendum,i n

buggy (full of bugs) adj. mendosus,i m

bus (communication lines between computer components) subst. magistrale,is n; data ~ magistrale datorum; address ~ magistrale locativum

byte (eight bits) subst. octetus,i m; most significant ~ octetus maximi momenti, octetus maximus; least significant ~ octetus minimi momenti, octetus minimus; higher ~ octetus maioris momenti, octetus maior; middle ~ octetus mediocris; lower ~ octetus minoris momenti, octetus minor; least significant ~ octetus minimi momenti, octetus minimus; even ~ octetus par; odd ~ octetus impar

C

calculation subst. computatio,onis f.; ratio,onis f.

channel (virtual I/O device) subst. canalis,is m.

chip (an intergrated electronic circuit) subst. talus,i m.; integrated ~ talus integratus

clipboard subst. latibulum,i n.

command subst. iussum,i n.; mandatum,i n.

compilation 1. (translation into object form) subst. compilatio, onis f. 2. (collection) subst. collatio,onis f.

compile (translate into object form) vt. compilare

compiler (source to object translator program) subst. compilatrum,i n.

computer 1. subst. computatrum,i n; ordinatrum,i n. 2. adj. computatralis,e; ordinatralis,e

condition 1. (ref. to 'if' statement) subst. condicio,onis f. 2. (a state) subst. condicio,onis f.; status,us m.

connect vt. conectere

connection 1. (a link between computer elements) subst. ligamen,inis n. 2. (a link between computer systems via net) subst. conexus,us m.

constant subst. (valor) constans,ntis m.

coprocessor subst. processorium,i n. mathematicum

copy 1. (to duplicate a file) vt. copiare 2. (a result of copying) subst. exemplar,aris n.

crash 1. (about computer systems: to fail completely so that the machine has to be rebooted) vt. corruere; collabi; the system ~ed systema corruit 2. (about programs: to make a computer system crash) vt. diruere aliquid; evertere aliquid; the program has ~ed the system systema a programmate dirutum est 3. subst. collapsus,us m.

cursor subst. indicium,i n.

cyberspace subst. spatium cyberneticum; cyberspatium,i n.

D

data subst. data,orum n.

database 1. (program) subst. datorum ordinatrum 2. (data) subst. data,orum n.; plicae datorum

daemon subst. daemon,onis m.

debug (to correct mistakes in a program) vt. emendare

debugger (debugging program) subst. emendatrum,i n.

debugging subst. emendatio,onis f.

decimal adj. decimalis,e

delete vt. delere; eradere

desktop subst. tabula,ae f. (systematis); mensa,ae f.

digital adj. digitalis,e

direct adj. directus,a,um; rectus,a,um; ~ Client Connection (DCC) subst. Directus Clientium Conexus

directory subst. (plicarum) index,icis m.

disk 1. (physical device, disk drive) subst. discus,i m.; ~ image disci simulacrum 2. (hard disk) subst. discus durus; discus rigidus; discus fixus 3. (floppy diskette) subst. discus flexibilis; disculus,i m. 4. (CD-ROM) subst. discus compactus 5. (logical device, partition) subst. volumen,inis n.; discus,i m. 6. (floppy disk drive) subst. statio disculorum

diskette subst. disculus,i m.

download vt. extrahere (aliquid ex rete); prehendere

E

electronic adj. electronicus,a,um

e-mail 1. (a letter sent via the net) subst. litterae electronicae 2. (electronic mail) subst. cursus publicus electronicus

erase vt. eradere, delere

execute (to make a program run) vt. pellere

F

FAQ Frequenter Allatae Quaestiones

file subst. scapus,i m.; plica,ae f.

folder subst. index,icis m.; scrinium,i n.

font subst. typus,i m.

format 1. (data representation) subst. forma,ae f.; compositio,onis f. 2. (to organize data) vt. formare; conformare 3. (to format a disk) vt. formare 4. (to soft-format a disk) vt. purgare

G

generator (a program) subst. generatrum,i n.

H

hardware subst. armatura electronica; supellex,ctilis f.

hexadecimal adj. sedecimalis,e

homepage subst. pagina domestica

hypertext 1. subst. hypertextus,us m. 2. adj . hypertextualis,e

I

icon subst. icon,onis f.

indirect adj. indirectus,a,um

input 1. vt. data inducere 2. subst. initus,us m.

install vt. instituere; instruere

instruction subst. iussum,i n.

integer 1. adj. integer,gra,grum 2. subst . (valor) integer,gri m.

Internet 1. subst. Internetum; Interrete,is n. 2. adj. Internetalis,e; Interretialis,e

interpretate vt. intepretari

intepretation subst. intepretatio,onis f.

interpreter (a program) subst. intepretatrum, i n.

interrupt (hardware event) subst. interruptio,onis f.

IRC Interretialiter Relatum Colloquium

J

joystick subst. manipulus,i m.

jump 1. vt salire 2. subst. saltus,us m.

K

key subst. clavis,is f.

keyboard subst. claviatura,ae f.

kill (force termination) vt. occidere

L

library (collection of complex functions) bibliotheca,ae f.; shared ~ bibliothetca mutua

link 1. (hypertext link) coniunctio,onis f.; ligamen,inis n. 2. (to add precompiled libraries to an object code) vt consolidare

linker (a program) subst. consolidatrum,i n.

linking subst. consolidatio,onis f.; static ~ consolidatio statica; dynamic ~ consolidatio dynamica

list 1. (data structure) catena,ae f. 2. ( mailing list) grex Interneti 3. (mailing list owner) moderator gregis

listing v. program

load 1. (to copy data from a disk to the memory) vt legere; computer ~s a file plica a computatro legitur 2. (move data from the memory to a register) vt. movere

login (enter a network) vt. inire

logout (exit from network) vt. exire

loop (program structure) vt. ambitus,us m.

M

magnetic adj. magneticus,a,um

mail v. e-mail

mailing list v. list

memory subst. memoria,ae f.

modem subst. transmodulatrum,i n.

monitor subst. monitorium,i n.

mouse subst. mus,muris m.; musculus,i m.

multitasking 1. subst. processio multiplex 2. adj. ?

N

net subst. rete,is n.

netserver 1. (computer) subst. moderatrum,i n. 2. (program) subst. daemon moderans

node subst. nodus,i n.

O

operating system subst. systema internum

P

parallel 1. (hardware) adj. parallelus,a,um 2 . (software) simul operans

password subst. signum,i n.

pointer subst. index,indicis m.; stack ~ struis index; mouse ~ muris index

port 1. (connector) subst. portus,us m. 2 . (network device) subst. portus,us m. 3. (adjust a program for another platform) vt. transferre; transportare

procedure subst. procedura,ae f.

process subst. processus,us m.

processor subst. processorium,i n.

program 1. subst. programma,atis n.; ~ listing textus programmatis 2. vt. programmare

programmer 1. (human) subst. programmator,oris m. 2. (EPROM burner) subst. programmatrum,i n.

R

RAM subst. memoria volatilis; static ~ memoria statica; dynamic ~ memoria dynamica

real 1. adj. realis,e 2. (floating point value) subst. numerus (vel valor) realis

register 1. (a part of CPU or hardware port) subst. regestrum,i n. 2. vt. nomen addere; nomen profiteri

ROM subst. memoria fixa

rotate (bits) vt. volvere; rotare

routine v. procedure

run 1. vt. operari; the program is ~ning programma operatur 2. (running) subst. operatio,onis f. 3. (data structure, string) catena,ae f.

S

save vt. servare; conservare; reponere

scan vt. scandere (e.g. paginam, imaginem etc.)

scanner subst. scansorium, i n.

screen subst. scrinium,i n.; quadrum,i n.

screenmode subst. modus (imaginem) exhibendi

send vt. mittere

serial adj. serialis,e

server v. netserver

shift 1. (the key) clavis "shift" 2. ( to shift bits) relocare; to ~ left relocare sinistrorsus

shutdown 1. vt. claudere 2. subst. clausura,ae f.

software v. program

sound 1. subst. sonus,i m.; ~ generator sonorum generatrum 2. vt. sonare

spam 1. vt. saginare (aliquem); 2. subst. saginatio,onis f.

spreadsheet subst. tabula computativa

stack subst. strues,is f.

stop vt. sustinere

stream 1. (continuous sequence of data or instructions) fluctus,us m. 2. (logical channel) canalis,is m.

string subst. series,ei f.; character ~ litterarum series

subdirectory v. folder

subroutine subst. supprocedura,ae f.; supprogramma,ae f.

system subst. systema,atis n.

T

tape subst. taenia,ae f.

terminal subst. terminale,is n.

U

UNIX subst. Unix,icis m.

upload vt. mittere (aliquid ad rete); imponere

URL (Universal Resource Locator) Universale Rerum Locatrum n.

V

value subst. valor,oris m.

variable subst. (valor) variabilis; variabile,is n.

vector (a sort of a pointer) subst. index,icis m.; a jump through a ~ per indicem saltus

viewer subst. exhibitrum,i n.

W

window subst. fenestra,ae f.

wire subst. filum,i n.

word 1. (short word, 16 bits) subst. verbum,i n. 2. (long word, 32 bits) subst. verbum longum; verbum duplex

wordprocessor subst. (programma) editorium

web subst. tela,ae f.; World Wide ~ Tela Totius Terrae

write 1. (to create a program) vt. scribere, componere 2. (store data on the disk) v. save



06


DE LATINITATE HODIERNA. Novum opus auctore Marco Menna. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO, São Paulo, Brasil


‘Latinitas Hodierna.Vocabulary of Modern Latin Terms by Marco Menna’. This is the most recent effort to equation the problem of modern Latin vocabulary, particularly for the areas of Computing, Telecommunication, Transportation and Business. Dr. Marco Mena is Director of the Institute of Business Information Management and Professor at the School of Business of Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. Scripsit Marco Menna:


‘Basically there are two approaches for writing in Latin about modern concepts: Either to use Latin like a living language with the ability to form new words and expressions or to limit oneself to words and expressions found in Classical Latin. Both approaches can be useful, depending on the goal: While the first (contemporary) approach suits communication in our own era, the second (historical) approach is adapted to communication patterns and vocabulary of the first century BC. As a consequence, the contemporary approach allows expressing modern concepts in an easy and straightforward way, while the historical approach tends to become unwieldy and awkward as it needs to describe modern concepts in ancient terms. On the other hand, modern Latin texts written according to the historical approach will look more familiar to those accustomed to Cicero’s and Caesar’s writings. In this document we follow the contemporary approach.’


Marco Mena sets definitively the methodology for constructing a modern Latin vocabulary by making explicit the existence of two possible approaches the historical and the contemporary .The contemporary approach allows expresssing modern concepts in an easy and straightforward way


Haec perfecte cohaeret positione nostra , anno 1912, Latine exarata: Cito: ‘ Jean Bayet, in coeto Latinistae Franciae de adoptione linguae Latinae ut idioma internationale auxiliare, anno 1963, plus minusve, in conclusionibus finalibus laborum, ubi quaerendum erat quo modo, servato latino classico, formas novas scribendi possent adoptari, ut Latinum fieri posset linguam modernam auxiliarem, facile intelligendi et componendi, hanc imaginem linguae latinae praebuit:


‘Lingua latina est arbor duobus ramis. Latinum est magna arbor duobus ramis et uno trunco communis. Truncus communis est grammatica et vocabularium classicum. Primus ramus continet totam literaturam et philologiam classicam, sicut eas hodie intelligimus. In ramo hoc primo , forma scribendi conformata cum stricta stilistica classica et vocabularium est illud classicum usque ad annum 200 post Christum. Haec est Latinitatis Philologicae ramus.


‘Secundus ramus continet opera omnia latina non classica, christiana, medioaevalia, cientifica et utilitaria, producta usque ad dies nostros. Forma scribendi secundo ramo est normaliter ordo naturalis, recta, non hyberbatica, coherentis et similis cum syntaxi linguarum novilatinarum modernarum et Anglicum. Vocabularium secundo ramo comprehendet omnes formas latinas existentes, sine discriminatione aetatum, nec separatione inter vocabula prosaica et poetica.


‘Formas latinas legitimas essent non solum eae in existentia sed etiam omnia quae possumus normaliter derivare ab radicis latinis vel graecis per compositionem et derivationem, utendo praefixa et suffixa latina et graeca, ut in omnibus linguis modernis. Vocabularium latinum internationale esset integraliter adoptatum et praeferibile. Per vocabularium latinum internationale intelliguntur vocabula comunia omnibus linguis novilatinis et Anglicum, immediate inteligibilia omnibus , maxime illo scientificum.


‘Vocabulum peregrinum indispensabile esset adoptatum: Verbi gratia vocabulum neutrum invariabile. Ex. nomina propria. Ut vocabulum peregrinum latinizatum, in ea declinatione compatibile forma sua. Liceret iis qui latinum colunt adoptare unum ramum vel ambos, sed eos intelligere et uti ut entia linguae diversae cum plena independentia. Sic hodie res se habent, is qui in ramo classico sunt nolunt intelligere quod alium ramum independentem, non classico, potest esse utile instrumentum paedagogicum ad rapidam adquisitionem linguae classicae et accessum ad suam hereditatem litterariam.’ Darcy Carvalho Facultatis Oeconomiae, Universitate São Paulo, Brasilia. Lingua Latina Arbor Duobus Ramis.Finis citationis.


LATINITAS HODIERNA. Marco Menna

     http://hslu.ch/latinitas_hodierna_1.1a.pdf

Latinitas hodierna – Vocabularium rerum hodiernarum imprimis ad computationem transmissionem commeatum negotium spectans Marco Menna auctore * Scientiae computativae doctor, scientiae negotialis magister, philologiae Latinae baccalaureus (magisteriique candidatus), director instituti scientiae computativae negotialis et professor apud scholam negotialem Lucernensis universitatis studiorum usualium. Prima instauratio editionis primae, Lucernae, die primo mensis Martii anno 2014.


Latinitas hodierna – Vocabulary of Modern Latin Terms- particularly of Computing, Telecommunication, Transportation and Business By Marco Menna** PhD in Computer Science, MBA, BA (MA candidate) in Classics (Latin), Director of the Institute of Business Information Management and Professor at the School of Business of Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. First version (first revision), Lucerne, 1st March 2014.


Latinitas hodierna – Wörterbuch moderner lateinischer Latinitas hodierna – Wörterbuch moderner lateinischer Begriffe besonders aus Informatik, Telekommunikation, Verkehrs- und Geschäftswesen von Marco Menna*** Dr. phil. nat. der Informatik, MBA, BA der Philologie (Latein, MA-Kandidat), Direktor des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik IWI und Professor an der Hochschule Luzern – Wirtschaft. Erste Version (erste Revision), Luzern, 1. März 2014


http://hslu.ch/latinitas_hodierna_1.1a.pdf


PROPOSITUM


Usque ad hanc fere aetatem lingua Latina continuo ad crescendum atque accommodandum se variis necessitatibus colloquendi saeculis vertentibus valuit. Immo scripta Latina scientialia, et Latinitatis recentis, sermoni scientiali peritoque hodiernarum linguarum occidentalium exemplo erant. Nam scripta docta adhuc magnam partem verbis Latinae originis constare solent, quorum non pauca figurationes novae sunt vel verba usitata novas significationes praebentia. Satis recenter enim factum est, ut plerique scientiales investigatoresque Latine scribendo atque dicendo non abundanter erudiebantur. Perpaucis deditissimis exceptis lingua Latina hodie vividum instrumentum sermonis scientialis peritique esse paene desiit. Sed summae auctoritatis adhuc habetur ad vocabula scientialia fingenda, quae plerumque Latinitatem redolent. Hoc autem vocabulario demonstrare volumus linguam Latinam etiam hodie instrumentum sermonis scientialis esse posse, quo mira claritas subtilitas peculiarisque pulcritudo insit.


AIM


Until recently Latin has always been able to develop and to adapt to the changing communication requirements in the course of time. Indeed the Latin of scientific texts, including in Neo-Latin, has been the model for the scientific and technical registers of the modern Western languages. Learned texts still tend to have a high proportion of words of Latin origin, many of them modern coinages or classical words with modern meanings. It is a relatively recent phenomenon that the major part of scientists and researchers are not extensively trained in writing – and speaking – Latin. Today, apart from a small group of enthusiasts, Latin has all but ceased to be a living means of scientific and technical communication. But it remains extremely influent regarding the creation of scientific vocabulary, which more often than not has a Latinate appearance. With this vocabulary we intend to show that even today Latin can be a means of scientific communication of wonderful clarity and precision and peculiar beauty.


ZIELSETZUNG


Bis vor kurzem war die lateinische Sprache stets fähig, sich zu entwickeln und an die sich ändernden kommunikativen Anforderungen im Wandel der Zeit anzupassen. Mehr noch, das Latein wissenschaftlicher Texte, auch neulateinischer, wurde zum Modell für die wissenschaftlichen und technischen Sprachregister der modernen westlichen Sprachen. Gehobene Texte neigen immer noch dazu, einen hohen Anteil Wörter lateinischen Ursprungs zu haben, viele davon Neu-schöpfungen oder klassische Wörter in neuer Bedeutung. Es ist eine verhältnismässig neue Erscheinung, dass der grössere Teil der Wissenschaftler und Forscher nicht ausgiebig in Lateinschreiben – und -sprechen – geschult ist. Abgesehen von einer kleinen Gruppe von Enthusiasten hat Latein heute praktisch aufgehört, ein lebendiges wissenschaftliches und technisches Kommunikationsmittel zu sein. Aber es bleibt äusserst einflussreich, was die Bildung neuen wissenschaftlichen Wortschatzes betrifft, das sehr oft einen lateinischen Anstrich hat. Mit diesem Wörterbuch soll gezeigt werden, dass das Lateinische auch heute noch ein wissenschaftliches Kommunikationsmittel wunderbarer Klarheit und Präzision und eigentümlicher Schönheit sein kann.


LATINITAS HODIERNA – VOCABULARIUM RERUM HODIERNARUM


2014 Marco Menna


PRINCIPLES


Basically there are two approaches for writing in Latin about modern concepts: Either to use Latin like a living language with the ability to form new words and expressions or to limit oneself to words and expressions found in Classical Latin. Both approaches can be useful, depending on the goal: While the first (contemporary) approach suits communication in our own era, the second (historical) approach is adapted to communication patterns and vocabulary of the first century BC. As a consequence, the contemporary approach allows expressing modern concepts in an easy and straightforward way, while the historical approach tends to become unwieldy and awkward as it needs to describe modern concepts in ancient terms. On the other hand, modern Latin texts written according to the historical approach will look more familiar to those accustomed to Cicero’s and Caesar’s writings. In this document we follow the contemporary approach.

------------------------------------------

PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED IN WRITING MODERN LATIN ( Marco Menna)

What follows are principles that help to ensure that Modern Latin remains true to the particular character of the Latin language with regard to word creation and communication patterns.

1. Cicero’s and Caesar’s are not the only good examples for Latin prose language. Cicero and Caesar employ a select vocabulary that allows them to write in an elegant, yet natural way. For this reason they often use general words with multiple meanings, the intended meaning becoming clear from context. Later Latin developed a richer vocabulary that often is better suited to technical language with its need for precision and specificity. In creating new Latin terms, idiomatic Latin of all good Latin authors should judiciously be taken into consideration.

2. Latin words tend to be more general than in modern languages. For example scientia means, among other things, ‘knowledge’ as well as ‘science’ and ‘theory’. This wide range of meanings should always be considered. Therefore, when writing about ‘theory’ in a general way, scientia may be used keeping in mind that the other meanings remain implicit (if not excluded by the context); if adequate for the context alternatives like intellectus/-us can be used. We need to be conscient of the exact meaning we want to convey, on the aspect we want to emphasize.

3. Latin should be precise. We often employ words in an improper way, for example information technology for ‘computing’ (here ‘information’ usually stands for ‘computing’ and the meaning of ‘technology’ has usually become faded); in Latin, we could say more generally computatio or more specifically res computativa or even instrumentatio computativa depending on context.

4. Latin tends to be cautious regarding new words. There needs to be a compelling reason for a new word to appear; otherwise an existing word with adequate meaning, a two-word combination or a descriptive phrase should be used. For this reason, creating a new term has been avoided if a concept can adequately be expressed by an existing term. Examples: unitas ‘unit (= individual part)’ is unnecessary, as its meaning can be expressed with various terms, for example by pars ‘part’, elementum ‘element’ or nucleus ‘core’ in nucleus computativus ‘central processing unit, processor’.

5. But new items require new expressions. Cicero himself declared as much: “… sunt enim rebus novis nova ponenda nomina …” (De natura deorum 1.44), “… in omnibus hoc fit artibus, ut, cum id appellandum sit quod propter rerum ignorationem ipsarum nullum habuerit ante nomen, necessitas cogat aut novum facere verbum aut a simili mutuari” (Orator 211), “… nobis, quibus etiam verba parienda sunt inponendaque nova rebus novis nomina” (De finibus 1.3.3), “…ut, cum ea, quae legeram Graece, Latine redderem, non solum optimis verbis uterer et tamen usitatis, sed etiam exprimerem quaedam verba imitando, quae nova nostris essent, dum modo essent idonea” (De oratore 1.155).


6. Prefixation and suffixation is more prevalent than word composition. In Latin, word composition is much more restricted than for example in Greek. Instead, prefixation and suffixation is favored. However, the peculiarities of each prefix or suffix have to be taken into account carefully: some suffixes ceased to be productive already in the prehistory of Latin and can no longer be employed to create new words; an example for this is the instrumental (or, more precisely, mediative) suffix -trum1 (as in feretrum ’barrow’, mulctrum ’milking pail’). Therefore ×computatrum would not be an admissible word for ‘computer’. The suffix -eus has a specific use for denotating adjectives describing a material. Example: tantaleus ‘consisting of tantalum (chemical element)’ can be formed in analogy to ferreus ‘consisting of iron (ferrum)’.


7. Adjectives are easier to create than nouns or verbs. In Latin there are many more suffixes to create adjectives than nouns. But the possibility of using adjectives as nouns is limited. In particular it occurs with unspecific, often participles, denoting the result of an action. Example: depositum ‘a good placed in deposit’. Therefore too we can form instructum ‘program’ from instruere ‘to program (a computer)’.


8. Deriving verbs from nouns should be avoided. The best authors used denominative verb derivation only rarely. Therefore oleo illinere ‘to lubricate with oil’ should be preferred to oleare ‘to oil’.

1 The word spectrum ‘idea, mental image’, apparently created by one Catius Insuber and criticised by Cicero and others is the only word in –trum created in historical times and thus the exception that confirms the rule. 9. Two-word expressions are perfectly acceptable. An English word can often adequately be expressed by a Latin two-word expression. Examples: navis oneraria ‘freighter, cursus publicus ‘mail’. Two-word expressions are frequent also in English, e.g. ‘vending machine’.

10. Under certain conditions a classical word can be given an additional new meaning. The new meaning must not be inconsistent with or obscure the traditional meaning. Example: computare ‘to compute (using a computer or by a computer)’; industria ‘industry’ (classical industria ‘sedulity, diligence, activity, busyness’ is an apt illustration of the bustle of industrial production).

11. But specific Latin designations should not be given new meanings: For instance some modern Latin authors have used ludus latrunculorum, the name of an ancient game, to mean ‘chess’, notwithstanding the different rules and pieces of the two games; or they have employed tormentum ‘piece of artillery’ to mean ‘cannon’, even though tormentum is derived from torquere, but cannons do not use torsion.

12. Under certain conditions the meaning of a classical word can be restricted. Example: In antiquity, an architect did also engineering, so that a specific word was not needed. In modern times architect and engineer became separated professions. Therefore architectus should be limited to ‘architect’, while engineer can be translated as ingeniarius (from ingenium ‘clever device’, a legitimate extension of classical ingenium ‘character, talent’, but also ‘clever idea’).

13. Latin practice should be maintained if possible even if it is different from modern habits. Example: areas of expertise are often expressed as res or ars plus genitive or adjective, where English prefers a single word: res rustica ‘agriculture’, res divinae ‘metaphysics’, ars oratoria ‘oratory’. On the other hand, calends, nones, and ides no longer exist in public practice and therefore should not be used for expressing modern dates.

14. Greek terms should be used sparingly. A Greek term should be avoided, unless it is connected to the Greek-speaking world, has been current in Ancient Latin, or follows Latin practice, for example for naming scientific disciplines. The goal is to retain the Latin character of the language.

15. Taxonomical names should not be used in normal speech. Taxonomical nomenclature is a technical convention that is unsuitable for modern Latin conversation, because it changes over time following extralinguistic rules (e.g. Camellia sinensis ‘tea’, previously Thea sinensis), it can be erroneous or fatuous (Gavia sp. ‘loon’, classically gavia ‘gull’, Delichon sp. ‘a genus of swallow’ being an anagram of chelidon gr ‘swallow’), it is a Greek-Latin hybrid and has a level of differentiation and detail that is not necessary or useful in common speech (Ptyonoprogne sp., Delichon sp., Hirundo sp., Riparia sp. all denoting swallows, which would be called hirundo in classical Latin).

LATINITAS HODIERNA – VOCABULARIUM RERUM HODIERNARUM  Professor Marco Menna 2014

CONTENTS; CONSPECTUS RERUM; INHALTSVERZEICHNIS: Principles; Rationes ; Prinzipien Abbreviations; Breviationes; Abkürzungen Computing ; De computatione EDV. GENERAL COMPUTING TERMS; DE VOCABULIS COMPUTATIVIS GENERALIBUS; 

ALLGEMEINE INFORMATIKBEGRIFFE.

Computer ; De computaculo; Rechner / Computer; Computer usage; De computaculi usu; Rechnereinsatz; Computer science; De scientia computativa; Wissenschaftliche Informatik; Information; De informatione; Information; IT architecture; De dispositione computativa; IT-Architektur; Hardware; De structu computativo; Hardware; Computer components De elementis computativis Rechnerkomponenten; Software ; De instructu computativo; Software; Human-computer interaction; De interactione computativa; Mensch-Computer-Interaktion; Business information management; De computatione negotiali; Wirtschaftsinformatik; IT services; De muneribus computativis; IT-Services; Networking; De conexione; Netzwerktechnik; Internet; De internexione ; Internet; Telecommunication; De transmissione; Telekommunikation

GENERAL TELECOMMUNICATION TERMS; DE VOCABULIS TRANSMISSIVIS GENERALIBUS; ALLGEMEINE TELEKOMMUNIKATIONSBEGRIFFE

Telephony ; De translocutione; Telefonie; Radio; De transauditione ; Rundfunk; Television; De transvisione; Fernsehen

TRANSPORTATION; DE COMMEATU; VERKEHRSWESEN

General transportation terms; De vocabulis commeativis generalibus; Allgemeine Verkehrsbegriffe; Non-motorized transportation; De commeatu immotivo; Nicht motorisierter Verkehr; Rail transportation; De commeatu orbitali; Bahnwesen; Motorized transportation; De commeatu motivo; Motorisierter Verkehr; Navigation; De navigatione; Schifffahrt; Aviation; De aviatione; Luftfahrt; Business; De negotio; Betriebswirtschaft

GENERAL BUSINESS TERMS ; DE VOCABULIS NEGOTIALIBUS GENERALIBUS; ALLGEMEINE BEGRIFFE DER BETRIEBSWIRTSCHAFT

Leadership and management; De moderatione et administratione; Führung und Verwaltung; Business operations; De operationibus; Geschäftsbetrieb; Business projects; De inceptis; Geschäftsvorhaben; Enterprise organization; De dispositione consociativa; Unternehmensorganisation; Economy; De oeconomia; Volkswirtschaft; Science; De scientia; Wissenschaft; Technology; De peritia; Technik; Electrics and electronics; De electrica et electronica; Elektrik und Elektronik; Particle physics; De physica particulari ; Teilchenphysik; General terms; De vocabulis generalibus ; Allgemeine Begriffe; Planning and organization; De commentatione et dispositione ; Planung und Organisation; Numbers and digits; De numeris et cifris ; Zahlen und Ziffern; Shapes and objects; De formis et objectis; Formen und Gegenstände; General shape terms; De vocabulis formalibus generalibus ; Allgemeine Formbezeichnungen; Two-dimensional geometric shapes; De formis geometricis bidimensionalibus; Zweidimensionale geometrische Formen; Three-dimensional geometric shapes; De formis geometricis tridimensionalibus; Dreidimensionale geometrische Formen; Food; De cibo; Lebensmittel;

ENTERTAINMENT ; DE DELECTATIONIBUS; UNTERHALTUNG

Games; De ludis; Spiele; Art And Entertainment; Music De arte et spectaculis; De musica Kunst und Unterhaltung. Source:      http://hslu.ch/latinitas_hodierna_1.1a.pdf

Latinitas hodierna – Wörterbuch moderner lateinischer Begriffe besonders aus Informatik, Telekommunikation, Verkehrs- und Geschäftswesen von Marco Menna*** Erste Version (erste Revision), Luzern, 1. März 2014


07 DICCÍONARIO AUXILIAR ESPAÑOL-LATINO PARA EL USO MODERNO DEL LATIN POR JOSE JUAN DEL COL. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR JUAN XXIII BAHIA BLANCA. ARGENTINA, 2007. 1130 PÁGINAS. AN AUXILIARY SPANISH–LATIN DICTIONARY FOR MODERN LATINISTS. DICTIONARIUM AUXILIARE HISPANO-LATINUM AD UTENTES LINGUAE LATINAE MODERNAE. PROF. DR. DARCY CARVALHO. FEAUSP. SAO PAULO. BRAZIL. 2016. STUDIES IN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LATIN.

Published November 2, 2016 in Archive. Org. Usage: Public Domain Mark 1.0

http://www.colegiosanjose.net/latin/diccíonarios/diccíonario_latin.pdf

An auxiliary Spanish–Latin dictionary for modern latinists. Um dicíonario auxiliar espanhol-latino para o uso do latim moderno. Un dictionnaire auxiliaire espagnol-latin pour les utilisateurs de la langue latine moderne. El presente diccionario ofrece ayuda a quienes cultivan el uso del latin como lengua viva. La problemática del latin se centra en su inadecuada didáctica; un conocimiento profundo del mismo presupone no solo la lectura y estudio de los autores, sino tambien la  produccíon de textos escritos. Para,aprender una lengua es indispensable usarla  y usarla asiduamente. Se trata de un trabajo de recopilacíon cuya elaboracíon requirio al autor decadas de consultas y recoleccíon de datos. No acuñó neologismos ni giros latinos. Tan solo, en varias ocasiones, aplicó la estricta analogia para añadir voces derivadas de otras indicadas por tal o cual autor, maxime si eran voces de origen griego. En la recopilacíon practicó cierta seleccíon, dejando de lado neologismos que no  le parecian adecuados o que solo encontraba excepcionalmente, como traenus o traenum para tren; posta (-ae f) o postae.(-arum f pl) para correo y postalis para postal; sportum (-i n) para deporte y sportivus, a, um para deportivo. Este diccíonario para el uso moderno del latin es el primero del genero para hispanohablantes. Por lo menos, no consta la existencia de otro semejante en España o en América Latina. Este extenso trabajo constituye una contribucíon importante a la lexicografia del latin moderno. Source: Familia Salesiana: Colegio San Jose Net. Jesu Christo, Verbo Divino, Veritatis Ac Vitae Fonti Perenni, hoc recentis latinitatis lexicon Auctor ex animo et perlibenter dedicat. An auxiliary Spanish-Latin dictionary for modern latinists. An Spanish-Latin auxiliary dictionary for the use of modern Latin. The present dictionary offers help to those who cultivate the use of Latin as a living language. The problematic of Latin focuses on its inadequate didactics; A thorough knowledge of the Latin language  presupposes not only the reading and the study of the authors, but also the production of written texts. In order to learn a language, it is essential to use it and use it assiduously. This large work is a compilation whose elaboration required many queries and data collection. The author avoided neologisms or Latin twists. On several occasions, he applies the strict analogy to add voices derived from others indicated by this or that author, mostly if they were voices of Greek origin. In the compilation he practices a certain selection, leaving aside neologisms that did not seem appropriate or that are only found exceptionally, such as traenus or traenum for train; Posta (-ae f) or postae (- arum f pl) for mail and postalis for postal; Sportum (-i n) for deporte y sportivus, .a, one for sport. Finally, this dictionary for the modern use of Latin is the first of its kind for Spanish speakers. There is not yet any other similar in Spain or Latin America. In short, this extensive work constitutes an important contribution to the lexicography of modern Latin. Source: Salesian Family: Colegio San Jose Net.  http://www.colegiosanjose.net/latin/diccíonarios/diccíonario_latin.pdf

08 A SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ON LATIN IN ARCHIVE. ORG

https://archive.org/details/EnsaioSobreOUsoDoLatimNaBotanica

2  https://archive.org/details/SinteseDeGramaticaLatina

https://archive.org/details/LinguaLatinaMedicinalis.LatimParaMedicos

4 https://archive.org/details/LatinAndMedicalTerminologyForMedicineStudents

5 https://archive.org/details/OLatimEmDezLicoes

6 https://archive.org/details/LatinskijJazyk.LinguaLatina.TheLatinLanguage

7 https://archive.org/details/TheLexiconAnglumEtLatinumByDavidMorgan   

8 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28233/28233-pdf.pdf   [ Newton]

9  https://archive.org/details/PequenoDicionarioLatino-portuguesOrganizadoPorUmGrupoDeProfessores    [Cfr. Full Text]

10.        http://hslu.ch/latinitas_hodierna_1.1a.pdf

Dizionario italiano-latino Angeli Perugini

Tuomo Pekkanen's  LATINITAS IN NUNTIIS FINNIAE LATINIS ADHIBITA SIVE ADHIBENDA and Reijo Pitkärenta's QUID DE RERUM NORVEGIAE IN NUNTIIS FINNORUM LATINIS (1989-20140) RELATUM SIT.

These are two crucial articles for modern Latinists, in it Tuomo  Pekkanen and Reijo Pitkärenta indicate the sources of the modern vocabulary they use in the editions of Nuntii Latini Finniae. The editors tell also their norms for the adoption of  or the coining of modern vocabulary which are quite simple and sensible. They  allow borrowing from modern languages but  declare to be conservative in grammar: "Grammaticam sequimur classicam tam in morphologiam quam syntaxi. Stilus in Nuntiis Latinis est planus, non simplex nec elementarius, tamen intelligibilis. In id nitimur , ut omnia in Nuntiis sint exemplaria et ad institutionem linguae Latinae accomodatae". For didactical reasons, for quickly start using Latin after just learning declensions and the verb conjugations, we can follow the syntax of any of the modern analytical languages. This just concerns word order in a normal Latin sentence.  Read Carolus Raeticus: Latin word order: a glimpse into the vaults.

https://archive.org/details/NewsInLatinByReijoPitkaerantaAndTuomoPekkanen2005To2012


A modern version of the Latin language, grammatically simplified, for general use, at least in the academies, pressuposes the existence of a large vocabulary, comprising didactic, scientific, technical and literary terms.  Most of the existing vocabularies for modern Latin have as their basic sources the works left by the Roman civilization. This procedure is sensible but inadequate for the envisaged objectives of having a modern Latin vocabulary suitable for the present state of the world. Courney Roby in his article Latin Didactic, Scientific, and Technical Literature, that is reproduced below in this page, demonstrate the hard tasks of those trying to dig words out of  classical Latin for individual disciplines of yore. The literary traditions of individual disciplines (e.g., agriculture, architecture, astronomy, and surveying) are examined by Roby as case studies of broad patterns in literary developments, including the building of technical vocabularies, the choice of poetry and prose, and the degree of organization of the text. ... What we may call Latin technical literature was the result of translations of Greek works. Courtney does not mentions the translations of agricultural books of the Carthaginians into Latin. Modern Latin technical vocabulary for present use will be produced from the existing modern languages, by the same methods once employed by the Romans themselves, to incorporate foreign technologies into their civilization, by mere translations and extensive borrowings from the Romance languages and Greek.

Courtney Roby, Latin Didactic, Scientific, and Technical Literature

Subject: Classical Studies, Ancient Technology Online Publication. Oxford.  Date: Mar 2015 DOI: Keywords: didactic poetry, Roman science, Roman agriculture, land surveying, technical literature.  Abstract: Roman authors developed a rich and creative literature in Latin on a wide range of scientific and technical subjects, intended for a variety of readerships and spanning many different genres, including didactic poetry, as well as technical prose. This essay discusses literature in Latin that sought to illuminate the natural world for its readers or instruct them in manipulating it. Particular focus is placed on the problems of identifying and classifying these varieties of literature and their relationship to other literary genres; their structure, language, and style; and their engagements with Greek technical literature. The literary traditions of individual disciplines (e.g., agriculture, architecture, astronomy, and surveying) are examined as case studies of broad patterns in literary developments including the building of technical vocabularies, the choice of poetry and prose, and the degree of organization of the text.

Introduction

The scope of “technical” pursuits in Roman culture took in quite a broad swathe of possible subject matter: law, grammar, and rhetoric were of obvious cultural importance and possess rich literatures of their own. However, in the essay that follows, I will focus on the disciplines more often referred to as “technical” in modern parlance, which include “scientific” disciplines engaged in discovering and describing the world, as well as the “technical” disciplines focused on manual engagement with objects in the world: medicine, architecture, surveying, and so forth. The practitioners who actually carried out these engagements were, of course, not necessarily the authors of the texts in which their activities were described. In certain disciplines, such as architecture or surveying, many or all of the surviving authors make a claim to professional practice; in others, such as medicine and agriculture, the field of surviving literature is dominated by nonpractitioners.1 This essay will provide an overview of these texts as literature: the textual genres into which they might be said to fall, the language their authors use, their reception of earlier literature (often in Greek) on their subject matter, and so forth.

Discussions of technical and scientific literature in the Roman world must even now begin by dispelling two persistent misconceptions. First of all, the “technical writing” of ancient Greece and Rome cannot be distinguished, neatly or at all, from some notional category of “genuine” or otherwise nontechnical literature. Second, scientific and technical literature in the Roman world represents a complex and creative engagement with, rather than slavish imitation of, its Greek antecedents. Indeed, the surviving Roman technical and scientific literature highlights the cultural value of its subject matter in a number of different ways, whether emphasizing its novelty or its long-standing tradition; its immediate utility to man or its power to illuminate the far reaches of the cosmos; its enticements to honesty or its enhancement of man’s deceptive abilities.

Classification

The categories “didactic,” “scientific,” and “technical” are themselves subject to considerable uncertainty and debate. “Didactic” literature, while by definition at least purporting to instruct, ranged in subject matter from practical topics like agriculture to theoretical subjects like natural philosophy; it could be delivered in the form of poetry as well as prose; and the extent to which an author of a didactic work intended to teach his reader anything at all remains the subject of considerable debate.2 Dalzell makes the distinction that although poets of many kinds were widely regarded in antiquity as possessing the power to instruct, “didactic” poetry in the sense we speak of it today is distinguished as a poem that treats a given subject systematically.3 The same criterion of systematization may apply to prose texts as well.

“Technical” texts are often construed as a very broad category, including legal, grammatical, and rhetorical texts alongside works on topics involving building, engineering, and other forms of manual activity such as military tactics, agriculture, surveying, architecture, and navigation.4 Also often included here are texts that fall into a category modern readers often separate off as “scientific.”

The category of literature now most often labeled “scientific” is typically defined more narrowly than the “technical” texts, often encompassing mathematical texts and those that describe the natural world, from the atomic scale (e.g. Lucretius’s De rerum natura), to the global (e.g. Pliny’s Natural History), to the cosmic (e.g. Seneca’s Natural Questions or Manilius’s Astronomica). Purely mathematical texts in Latin from the classical period are all but nonexistent, but the surveyors who applied mathematical methodology in their work frequently incorporate the language and methods of Greek geometrical texts into their own Latin works.5

Bruun warns, in a discussion of Frontinus’s work on the aqueducts of Rome, that even if we deem it appropriate to label that work a technical “handbook” of some kind, nevertheless the “handbook” genre might have been saddled with quite a different set of expectations in antiquity than the works to which we would apply that label today.6 Likewise, in the domain of “didactic” literature Volk writes of Manilius’s astronomical poem that to accuse the author of incoherence or imprecision is to miss the point, that in fact Manilius has “a different intellectual modus operandi, a way of presenting thought in speech” that might strike a discordant tone with modern expectations for scientific discourse, but harmonizes perfectly with the varied chorus of instructive poetic voices in the ancient world.7 The same cautions must be observed for all kinds of “didactic,” “technical,” or “scientific” literature from antiquity: though it may be convenient for us to designate them with these terms, we should not impose on them expectations derived from modern works.

Texts that communicated scientific or technical information in the ancient world came in many forms. Taub offers a useful introduction to the most prominent of these, including “lectures” (i.e., texts based on notes written down on hearing a lecture, or perhaps notes for the author’s own lectures), treatises, problem texts, letters, introductory works (eisagōgai), and commentaries.8 Fögen has amassed from various Greek sources a list of labels for different types of technical texts: eisagōgē, synagōgē, encheiridion, hypomnēma, technē, pragmateia, epitomē, diēgēsis, and synopsis.9 Not all these forms are represented in the surviving Latin literature: for example, the epistolary form is not the mainstay of scientific communication it was in the Greek world, and most of the forms Fögen cites have no particular Latin equivalent. The introductory eisagōgē, on the other hand, was quite a popular form in Latin scientific literature, sometimes even referred to under the equivalent Latin label (isagoga). The form of the problem text, which presents a list of questions on one or more subjects along with their answers, is echoed in Seneca’s Natural Questions.

The term commentarius appears to have been used to label many of these texts, but is at the same time a particularly vexed category. Saastamoinen provides a concise history of the label’s use, ultimately arguing that though it was often deployed, it was not generically well defined.10 Callebat argues that properly speaking, a commentarius transmitted technical knowledge unadorned by any literary refinements.11 However, Frontinus several times refers to his De aquis urbis Romae as a commentarius (2.2.4), even though this text has at least enough material beyond the bare-bones technical details of the water system to be categorized by Peachin as a political pamphlet first and foremost, and by Bruun as a moralizing text at least in part.12 Other ancient texts conventionally denoted as commentarii, like Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum and Bellum Civile, also appear to have been intended as something other than unadorned technical handbooks.13 The term can additionally signify memoranda or illustrated instructions, or a text designed to accompany an object, like the text written by Agrippa to accompany his map.14 The challenge of unambiguously defining even this one type of text (even granted that the commentarius represents a particularly complex case) indicates some of the pitfalls that await those who attempt a simple classification of ancient “technical” texts.

Technical Texts and Literary Style(s)

The commentarius may represent a particularly challenging terminological problem, but it is hardly the only bramble-bush in this tangled literary landscape. Stückelberger defines a wide range of ancient “technical” textual forms on the basis of their level of organization, level of accessibility to the novice reader, and the effort apparently exerted by their authors to make the reader’s experience pleasant.15 Callebat divides Roman “technical literature” into the bare-bones, practical commentarii on the one hand, and texts with more literary refinement on the other, arguing that the latter were intended for a general audience seeking a superficial familiarity with, rather than a working knowledge of, their subject matter.16 In a similar vein, Fuhrmann defines the “Lehrbuch” as a stylistically unpretentious collection of information intended to transmit basic knowledge to a young or lay audience.17 Von Albrecht differentiates technical works from “works of fact” on the grounds that the latter “take pains to establish appealing literary form.”18

Deinlein distinguishes three types of nonfictional literature in terms of how their level of literary style might define an intended audience.19 The first type consists of texts (like Fuhrmann’s “Lehrbuch”) without literary style or ambitions, which foreground the technical content and are aimed only at practitioners. The second consists of texts shaped for literary appeal to an educated general audience; to this category belong for example the didactic epistle, the symposium, and the dialogue. The third type is intermediate between these, offering a balance of literary structure and style with thorough coverage of its subject matter: this is the “Sachbuch,” which Deinlein associates particularly with Roman literature.

Vitruvius’s De architectura presents a rich opportunity to consider how these criteria of a work’s “technicality” or “literary appeal” might apply to particular texts. This work is by far the most influential treatise on architecture surviving from the ancient Mediterranean world; that it is nearly unique in its survival is of course an important factor in its longstanding influence. Faventinus’s De diversis fabricis architectonicae, dating from the third or fourth century CE, is considerably shorter and indeed largely epitomizes Vitruvius’s own text; Palladius in turn draws on Faventinus for his remarks on architecture in his fifth-century agricultural work.20 Extant Greek antecedents are effectively nonexistent; the Greek works on building that survive, like Philo of Byzantium’s Parasceuastica et poliorcetica, are devoted to the construction of fortifications and other wartime structures. Vitruvius, on the other hand, is concerned principally with civil building; though he does mention principles of fortification and describes several siege engines in his tenth book, the De architectura is certainly not principally focused on building for military purposes. Vitruvius’s text remained a central focus of study for Renaissance architect-writers like Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio, and Andrea di Pietro (Palladio), who replicated the principles of proportion and architectural style Vitruvius enumerates.21 In short, the long-term utility of the De architectura as a “technical text,” in the sense of a work used by practitioners in the practice of their craft, cannot be denied.

However, Vitruvius’s reader does not find himself presented with a compendium of unadorned technical information. Vitruvius takes care to enliven the text with philosophical prologues, historical vignettes, and other elements that place architecture in a broader cultural context, where it is perhaps most likely to appeal to an elite readership.22 The architect, he says, should be versed in mathematics, history, philosophy, music, medicine, jurisprudence, and astronomy (1.1.3); the breadth of Vitruvius’s own work signals his own mastery of this diverse array of subjects. Vitruvius often reflects on his own authorial work, including explicit guidance in how the text can best be read.23 The work is constructed with care; Vitruvius describes the ten-book ordering of his De architectura as presenting “the whole body (corpus) of architecture” (10.16.12). Indeed, McEwen argues that the ordering of the books reflects the very ideas about symmetry that Vitruvius discusses throughout the work, particularly given the third book’s discussion of ten as a “perfect” number.24

Each of the ten books begins with a preface, which as Callebat observes are exemplars of the rhetorical genus deliberativum.25 These take on a variety of topics, from the praise of the patron in the first, to improving anecdotes about famous intellectuals of the past whose behavior either should (Aristippus, book 6) or should not (Zoilus of Macedonia, book 7) be imitated, to praise of the civic value of the discipline of architecture (book 9). Every prologue is linked somehow with the subject matter of its book, yet none reads as particularly “technical.”

The De architectura is one of many texts that problematize the differentiation of technical texts on the basis of their degree of literary polish. The distinction between technical texts with and without “literary ambitions” is particularly often raised in explanations for the popularity of didactic poetry in antiquity, as when Volk suggests that it was “appreciated for evoking (not actually teaching) an interesting subject matter in an aesthetic way.”26 Indeed, Dalzell compares didactic poetry to the modern coffee-table book; these, too, may be splendidly constructed and absorbing in their beauty but serve more to engage and aestheticize their subject matter than to offer practical instruction.27 The special role played by didactic poetry in making instructive material palatable is of course most often connected to Lucretius’s description of the poetic form of his hexameter verse work on Epicurean physics as the “honey” that makes the “wormwood” of its lessons less distasteful. Despite the rhetoric Lucretius here deploys, the pleasing form enhances rather than distracts from the poem’s instructive work, just as in Vitruvius, as well as a host of other Latin scientific and technical texts.28

Technical Vocabularies

The use of “technical terminology” or “technical vocabulary” is sometimes suggested as a way of distinguishing “technical texts” or “technical authors.” Fleury argues, for example, that Vegetius should be categorized as a technical author on the basis of his use of technical vocabulary: Vegetius is a technical author if and only if he uses precise technical terms.29 This criterion is not without advantages. For one thing, “technical terminology” seems like it ought to be straightforward to spot: such vocabulary might be distinguished by its infrequent appearance in the surviving corpus of literature, or by marked changes in a word’s meaning in a “technical” context. Encountering such specialized terminology in a text also markedly affects the reader’s experience. As Vitruvius notes, the specialized vocabulary that often allows technical artifacts to be described with maximum precision may have an alienating effect on the lay reader, so the presence, absence, and marking of such vocabulary can be an indicator of the audience for which a text is intended.30

However, “technical” language remains a complex and much-contested category. Schiefsky has suggested that “a term or phrase qualifies as a technical term if there is good reason to think that it was used in a reasonably standardized way by practitioners of a given τέχνη to refer to objects, concepts, or procedures connected with that τέχνη.”31 This definition is particularly useful because it does not exclude the use of words that already have some significance in common parlance from taking on specialized significance as technical terms. Langslow describes “technical languages” in a compatible manner, as “varieties of a language with their own history,” which may overlap with the “standard language” even though they tend toward application in a certain subject area or among a certain group of practitioners.32 Fögen uses modern linguistic analyses of technical languages to approach the problem of how ancient authors might have deployed comparable specialized languages. Following Langslow, Fögen differentiates “Fachsprachen” from “Sondersprachen” on the grounds that the latter are intended to restrict communication to a small community of experts, while the former primarily aim at precision and clarity rather than limiting the sphere of communication.33

The clarity of technical terminology of all kinds is often related to an ideal of univocality; hence one of the usual mechanisms for forming technical terminology is to narrow down the meaning of an existing word to a much smaller semantic sphere. Krenkel identifies some very clear examples of this type of development within the specialized language of naval terminology (the so-called sermo nauticus). The verb escendere, for example, narrows its everyday meaning of “climb” to the special significance in the sermo nauticus of climbing into the lookout to scan for fish or find one’s own location.34 The result of such a narrowing process may of course be that a single word signifies different things in different domains, or that close variants arise to describe related phenomena.35 Technical terminology may also be developed or differentiated through metaphorical or metonymic transfer of significance.36 All these mechanisms can be engaged to create terminologies that clearly signal their applicability to a particular technical domain.

Textual Structures

“Technical language” can thus operate on a local scale as a tool to distinguish literature that is meant to instruct. Other patterns may be discerned at a larger scale. The preface or proem is of course a signal feature of didactic and technical works of many different kinds, a place for an author to assign (at least notionally) a reader or addressee and to spell out the motivation and structure of the text that is to follow.37 Fuhrmann’s “Lehrbuch” is rigidly characterized by a predictable form consisting of three elements (classification, definition, and detailed description) deployed in a small set of predictable patterns with formulaic transitions between individual elements.38 While Fuhrmann’s proposed structure is too rigid to account for much of the surviving Latin technical literature, macrostructural properties nevertheless provide useful guidance for defining and classifying ancient technical texts.

Asper provides a thorough analysis of the structural patterns exhibited by Greek scientific works, many of which are followed in Latin texts as well. He distinguishes, for example, between “discrete” and “continuous” text structures. Series of problems or other formulaic passages are not explicitly linked in “discrete” texts, so that the reader must himself come to the text equipped with this relational knowledge.39 “Continuous” texts, on the other hand, use structural or lexical cues to bind the material together into a whole whose very principles of organization are often central to the text’s instructive work.40 Callebat makes a similar distinction, identifying Varro, Celsus, Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, and Seneca’s Natural Questions as examples of the discrete style and Vitruvius’s De architectura as an example of a text with more structural continuity.41

Completely “discrete” texts are comparatively rare in the surviving Latin literature. The compendium of surveying texts known as the Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum contains a few, like the section of the anonymous Ratio limitum regundorum about the significance of surveyors’ boundary markers, that consist purely of a series of statements structured in no particular order and not exploring a coherent collection of concepts. More common in the surviving literature are texts that house a collection of discrete informational nodes within a linguistic superstructure established by a preface or some other way of motivating the collection of information.

The large number of extant Latin texts on agriculture creates a good opportunity for observing the many possible variations in textual structure even on texts focused on a single subject. Praise of the landholder and instruction in agricultural technique is most thorough in several agricultural “manuals,” ranging from Cato’s second-century BCE De agri cultura to Varro’s first-century BCE Res rusticae to Columella’s first-century CE De re rustica.42 Diederich argues that these works were in different admixtures part technical text, part literary work, and part moralizing celebration of the tradition of elite Roman landholding.43 Kronenberg, in partial contrast, argues that Varro’s work at least was written with subversive, satirical intent.44 Rutilius Taurus Aemilianus Palladius’s fifth-century Opus agriculturae was of course written under literary and cultural circumstances quite different even from those that separated Cato from Columella. However, he drew much of his information from Columella, and his own status as a vir illustris keeps him squarely in the tradition of the elite agricultural author.45

Of the three major surviving Latin agricultural works, Cato’s De agri cultura might most uncontroversially be labeled a “technical treatise” on agriculture: the work consists principally of instructions for buying land and farm equipment, sowing and harvesting various crops, and maintaining the health of both animal and human residents of the farm. Cato’s text observes a more or less “discrete” structure, but this does not mean that the whole work consists of a haphazard aggregation of unrelated statements. Rawson observes that at the beginning of the work Cato follows some organizational patterns familiar from Greek technical literature, as when he provides a threefold division of types of cabbages and for each defines its natura and vis.46 However, though this classificatory approach does seem to suggest some common ground with Fuhrmann’s “Lehrbuch,” it does not closely match the bulk of the text. Most of the work leads the reader through a great variety of topics in a fashion that might not be quite random, but whose organizational principles are far from clear.47 The text is divided into 170 sections, each dealing with a single topic (planting an orchard, preparing cakes for sacrifice, sowing asparagus). Cato does not suggest connections between these sections or establish any rationale by which they build up into a coherent complex of concepts.

The structure of Varro’s Res rustica distinguishes it sharply from other Latin agricultural texts: it is composed as a dialogue between Roman speakers, supplied with names (Gaius Fundanius, Gaius Agrius, and Publius Agrasius) elsewhere attested as genuine Roman nomina but obviously chosen here for their agricultural resonance. These speakers are soon joined by Gaius Licinius Stolo and Gnaeus Tremelius Scrofa. The latter of these is said by Columella to have written his own agricultural treatise and indeed thereby to have “restored eloquence” to the topic, though how he achieved this we cannot know, since his text does not survive.48 By integrating Scrofa as a participant in his own dialogue rather than listing him among his sources, Varro imposes his own brand of eloquence on the topic.49 The dialogue format’s pretense of spontaneous, oral composition naturally places some constraints on the continuity of the discussion, though Fuhrmann comments on the surprising degree of didactic systematization Varro manages to impose upon the dialogue format.50 Varro himself promises in his preface to specify everything he is leaving out, and to follow through the rest according to its “natural divisions” (1.1.11). Nevertheless, Varro’s interlocutors do, as is often the case in dialogues, debate, interject, and double back to topics already touched on—the speakers impose their own idiosyncratic structure on the flow of the text, which does not always follow the orderly structure promised at the outset. For example, Kronenberg observes how Scrofa “completely bungles his own categories when he actually discusses them,” so that what originally looked poised to be an orderly review of the principles of agriculture turns into something considerably, perhaps even comically, different.51 Varro’s dialogue is considerably more freewheeling than the “problem texts” Taub mentions, or the “catechistic” question-and-answer format Asper describes in more detail for Greek texts.52

Columella’s De re rustica is a more traditional representative of the “continuous” technical treatise. The work might be taken at face value as intending first and foremost to offer practical agricultural instruction: it is prefaced by a lament that while men of his time appeal to experts in military matters, navigation, and most other practical matters, and even in frivolous pursuits like hairstyling, it is difficult to obtain instruction in agriculture. At the same time, the De re rustica bears many distinctive signs of literary polish, even before the reader arrives at the tenth, versified book. Fögen and Reitz both remark on the “signposting” language Columella employs, both at the level of connecting local sections and indicating the structure of the work as a whole.53 Some of these terms lend temporal structure, whether absolute (nunc, mox, deinceps) or keyed to the flow of the reader’s experience (tempestivum, opportune), while other references are keyed to the book structure.

Moreover, the text is addressed to a Publius Silvinus, whom Columella describes as having previously read and discussed his work on planting vines (4.1.1), but addresses the poem of the tenth book also to a certain Gallio (9.16.2). This Gallio seems likely to be identical with Seneca’s elder brother, suggesting the De re rustica was intended to circulate in some very elevated literary territory indeed.54 Besides the literary elevation he might himself bring to the subject of agriculture, Columella also reviews the achievements of his predecessors: Cato first transmitted the topic in Latin, Scrofa made it eloquent, Varro added further polish, Vergil gave it the power of poetry, and so forth.55

Palladius’s agricultural text is organized chronologically, describing the tasks to be performed during each month of the year; the list of tasks for each month is as “discrete” as Cato’s work, so that the text as a whole has a structure only slightly more complex than Cato’s own. In his preface he claims the work as a simple text for simple readers, arguing that whoever intends to instruct farmers should not (as many agricultural authors have done before him) vie with orators in eloquence, that doing so will only confuse the intended audience of rustici. Yet Palladius then immediately indulges in wordplay, saying that he must “prune back (recidamus)” his preface lest he do what he critiques in others. Nor is this the limit of his literary style; Diederich comments on the unassuming elegance of his prose, his use of variatio, his personification of inanimate objects and abstract concepts, among other flourishes.56 And this is only his prose: the Opus agriculturae concludes with a poem, the Carmen de insitione. Palladius writes off this poem as nugae in its prose preface, but the poem itself (written in elegiac couplets, rather than the hexameters usual for didactic poetry) is quite elegant and full of allusions to both Columella and Vergil. Clearly, a “discrete” textual structure need not connote a lack of literary style.

Prose and Poetry

Volk acknowledges that the form of didactic poetry seems to trouble modern readers, observing further that ancient critics seem to have relegated it to something less than a genre in its own right, classifying it rather as a subcategory of epic due to its hexameter form.57 Quintilian, for example, categorizes Lucretius among the epici alongside Vergil and Ennius (Instititiones oratoriae 10.1.51). Latin didactic poetry in the scientific vein most often retains the hexameter, though Ovid’s Fasti, if construed in this category, was written in elegiac couplets (as was his more famous, if distinctly unscientific, Ars amatoria).58

But didactic poetry has other features, besides appearing in verse rather than prose, that distinguish it from other forms of scientific and technical writing. Volk calls attention in particular to the poetic self-consciousness of the form, in which the author frequently intervenes to comment on his poetic handiwork and the work of teaching he carries out.59 Author-teacher and reader-student, in this view, form a strong didactic bond, a “constellation” of collaborators in learning not regularly seen in prose scientific and technical works. Indeed, Gale argues that (at least for the case of Lucretius’s De rerum natura) the instructive “journey to the truth” these two figures take together can be construed as a narrative, thus collapsing one of the persistent distinctions drawn between epic and didactic poetry.60

In turn, Columella’s De re rustica challenges any notional separation of the information-bearing responsibilities of poetry and prose, as the tenth of its twelve books, on the cultivation of gardens, is written almost entirely in hexameter verse. As already noted, Columella’s fusion of prose and poetry would be imitated centuries later in Palladius’s own text on agriculture. Columella prefaces his verse with a brief prologue in prose, where he explains that garden cultivation is now more in vogue than it had been in earlier generations, and thus claims the opportunity to explore a topic that did not receive as much attention in Vergil’s Georgics as its current prominence warrants. Columella frames his efforts not as correcting a mistake on Vergil’s part but as a poor and inadequate contribution to a topic Vergil indicated he would leave for future generations (10.3).

This kind of apologetic stance is a common feature of Roman poets, which Volk describes as a kind of “Roman Callimacheanism.”61 As Volk notes, many Latin poets (perhaps especially, though not exclusively, didactic poets) begin their works in a defensive stance, with an apology for the work’s inadequacy compared to its forebears. This then of course requires that the poet offer a reason for going ahead with the project, often a command from a god or another authority figure. Columella steps outside this framework slightly with his own reason: he will versify this topic, inadequate though his effort may be, because it covers a practice that has achieved a new practical prominence and thus requires a type of attention it never received before.

Columella was of course not the first or only author to combine poetry with prose. Reitz points out that Menippean satire appears to have consisted of varied combinations of poetry and prose, suggesting that in texts as diverse as the Satyrica of Petronius and the Consolatio philosophiae of Boethius, “single verses or short poems within the prose text seem to convey a certain impromptu character.”62 However, as Reitz observes, Columella’s tenth book represents quite a different literary phenomenon, something much closer to didactic poetry in its robust establishment of a consistent relationship between teacher and student, Columella and Silvinus. The poetic book is structured around a central inset passage where Columella explains his poem’s relationship to epic poetry: Calliope may still be his muse, but she permits him to fly only in a moderate gyre compared to the loftier epic poets (10.215–229).

Greek Antecedents; the Anxieties of Translation

Roman authors of scientific and technical literature, like their counterparts in other genres, exhibited considerable self-consciousness about working in territory that had been previously covered by Greek authors. Nearly every subdiscipline represented in the surviving Latin technical literature is known to have had Greek antecedents, even if in some cases (such as agriculture and architecture) these do not survive. Responses by Latin authors to preexisting Greek technical literature in both prose and poetry range from close translations to developments and extensions of the prior work to works that seek explicitly to compete with or correct their predecessors.63

Didactic poetry had a particularly strong tradition of Greek antecedents; these covered a very broad range of subjects, from the agriculture-focused instructional mode of Hesiod’s Works and Days to the natural-philosophical explanations of Empedocles’ On Nature. Aratus’s Phainomena, which combined a catalog of constellations (itself a poetic reworking of Eudoxus’s prose work of the same name) with instruction in their meteorological significance, attracted especially vigorous attention in the form of Latin translations and adaptations, like those by Cicero and Germanicus.64

Within the context of didactic poetry, Volk distinguishes three varieties of authorial engagement with a past literary tradition. The first is the act of producing a work in a preexisting genre or even simply possessing formal characteristics, like a poetic meter, typical of a certain type of literature. The second is more particularly marked as an imitation of or improvement on a particular prior work or group of works. The third is yet more strongly marked by the author’s explicit reflection on his participation in such a tradition. Volk exemplifies the difference between the second and third using Vergil. The Aeneid obviously alludes to the Homeric epics, but Vergil never explicitly announces that this is what he is doing. In the Georgics, on the other hand, he labels himself a Roman Hesiod (2.176).65

Authors of technical and scientific treatises in prose exhibit somewhat different patterns in the way they engage with prior work and other genres, but their responses to their predecessors nevertheless play a crucial role in shaping the text’s form as well as its content. Vitruvius’s De architectura incorporates many of the responses a Roman technical author could direct at his predecessors, and is therefore a good place to start considering these mechanisms. The originality of his work is the subject of ongoing debate. Varro is supposed to have written a work on architecture, which Vitruvius is sometimes alleged to have slavishly copied.66 Vitruvius does, however, allude to named Greek sources, and in fact includes an impassioned plea for acknowledging one’s sources; this goes ignored in strong claims like Fuhrmann’s that Vitruvius merely added some new details to a system of architectural knowledge already established by Varro.

In fact, Vitruvius acknowledges in his text a robust and complex relationship with his Greek forebears, as well as indicating the innovations he sees himself making. For example, in the preface to his fourth book he stakes a claim to be the first to put his material in the proper order, while at 9.7.7 he says he cannot himself invent a new type of sundial, but will rather offer a catalogue of those developed previously. Gros credits Vitruvius with a “triple originalité”: not only will he be the first to put the body of architectural knowledge into its proper, coherently organized form, but in doing so he will also create a Latin technical vocabulary, as well as carrying out a cultural transformation in which he shifts characteristically Roman buildings of his era (such as the theatrum latinum, the basilica, the forum, the domus, etc.) into the framework of symmetria that characterized Greek architecture.67

Varro highlights the Greek antecedents of his own text on agriculture even more intensively, providing a lengthy list of names, accompanied where possible by toponyms (I.1.7–8). The bulk of his list is occupied by prose authors, but at the end he lists additional contributors in poetry: Hesiod and Menecrates of Ephesus. Pride of place is reserved, at the end of this list, for Mago the Carthaginian, who Varro says composed an agricultural text in Punic in twenty-eight books, which was later rendered into a twenty-book Greek version by a Cassius Dionysius of Utica.68 Though Varro gives no details of the treatise’s contents, he emphasizes that Cassius added quite a lot of material, drawn from the very Greek sources Varro has just named, and removed eight books. Afterward, claims Varro, a certain Diophanes in Bithynia further reduced (redegit) the work to six books, and Varro himself proposes to do him one better by producing his own work in three books. As Fögen observes, all this adds up to something quite different from direct translation.69 The term Varro uses (vertit) for Cassius’s operation on Mago’s work clearly must mean something other than “translation” in the default sense in which we use it today. The same is true for a host of other Latin treatises that rework Greek subject matter.

Even where Latin authors appear to translate Greek texts (or parts of them) word for word, they may use those words to do very different work. The surveyor Balbus composed an Expositio et ratio omnium formarum (Description and explanation of all figures), which appears among the texts of the Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum. He begins with a preface in which he purports to describe his own experiences using surveying skills in wartime. The bulk of the work, however, consists of a catalog of pseudo-geometrical “figures”: straight and curving lines, areas bounded by various curves and polygons, and solid shapes, many exemplified by the real-world objects that resemble them, like rivers or race-tracks. Balbus describes these “figures” in language that suggests a Latin version of Euclid’s Elements, ranging from general patterns like the use of impersonal verbs to precise translations such as “a point is that which has no part (signum est cuius pars nulla est)” (97.15 Lachmann), an unmistakable translation of the beginning of Euclid’s Elements.70

Balbus is not, however, presenting his reader with a translation of Euclid, but rather repurposing Euclid’s work, transposing it into a material world to which it does not perfectly match up. He includes but a fraction of Euclid’s work, and of that only part is integrated through word-for-word translation; he likewise incorporates a great deal of extra material that is specifically concerned with the work of the surveyor, which is of course very different from that of the geometer. Yet he takes pains to make his integration of the Euclidean material crystal-clear by imitating both Euclid’s verbal and structural patterns, so leaving cues for his reader to understand the process by which he puts his Greek predecessor to work in a whole new field.

Astronomical poems in Latin represent a particularly rich opportunity to consider the relationship between Latin scientific texts and their Greek antecedents. These texts, many derived partly or wholly from the Greek Phainomena of Aratus, enjoyed remarkable popularity. Aratus’s poem was written in the third century BCE, composed in the hexameters typical of didactic poetry. He begins with a hymn to Zeus, goes on to describe the constellations in what appears to be a versification of the Phainomena of Eudoxus, and concludes with a list of atmospheric phenomena to be used in weather forecasting. Though we now delimit the scope of astronomy in a rather different way, the practical functions of astronomy in the ancient Mediterranean, particularly before the Julian calendrical reforms, included tracking meteorological phenomena by the stars. The risings and settings of certain constellations were very often a more reliable guide for predicting terrestrial climatic phenomena than state calendars, which often departed drastically from the solar year.71

Aratus’s ongoing popularity is particularly notable in light of the Julian calendar reforms that finally yoked the unruly Roman luni-solar calendar to the solar year.72 Even after the Julian reforms were put into place, the robust established tradition of literature linking astronomy and meteorology continued to develop. This tradition is reflected in the Fasti, Ovid’s calendar-poem, as well as in the calendar sections of Columella’s De re rustica, but perhaps most prominently in the many Latin versions of Aratus’s work. Cicero wrote his Aratea (of which some 500 lines survive) early in his career, while the minor poet Publius Varro Atacinus composed a Latin version of the material on weather-signs in the first century BCE. After the calendrical reforms, Germanicus composed an Aratea of his own; later versions include Avienus’s fourth-century translation and the anonymous eighth-century Aratus Latinus. Other debts to Aratus are less immediately apparent: Gee argues that Lucretius in turn drew on Cicero’s Aratea for his own De rerum natura; Farrell describes Vergil’s transformation of Aratean material for the first book of his Georgics (to say nothing of his explicit invocation of Aratus in Eclogue 4); and Volk traces Manilius’s poetic rivalry with Aratus.73

The broad spectrum of works engaging with Aratus’s poem suggests an equally diverse set of ways Latin authors could treat Greek source material. Latin “translations” might replicate Aratus’s star-catalogue perfectly or closely, or introduce modifications to the catalogue itself, or place the catalogue in a new philosophical context, and so forth. Gee describes Vergil as “Platonizing” Aratus, for example, introducing a motif of cyclical recurrence modeled on the human life-cycle into his account of the ages of man in the fourth Eclogue, fusing a modified Hesiodic cosmology with Aratus’s astronomical model (itself already engaged with Hesiod).74 Other modifications are subtler, as when Germanicus repeats Cicero’s exchange of bronze for iron in his own passage on the ages of man, which looks to Possanza like a poetic misstep and to Gee like a decisive echo of the motif of civil war as treated in Latin poetry.75 The act of “translation” that seems to be signaled by how closely these authors hew to Aratus’s work on a coarse level turns out to be more complex upon closer inspection of these fine-grained modifications, which include edits to the astronomical information, philosophical repurposings, and invocations of specifically Roman cultural touchstones.

Manilius’s Astronomica is in turn not without its Aratean influences, but is focused largely on astrological interventions in human fate. Manilius goes to considerable lengths to emphasize his own original contributions to the form. He will not commit the “theft” (furtum) of repeating others’ work, difficult as this may be in such a crowded literary field—he will even journey to the heavens in search of new territory to cover (II.58–60). He will preserve the mathematical intricacies of his astronomical subject matter even in poetic form (III.29–34), an approach quite different from Aratus’s distinctly qualitative account. Manilius reflects with particular clarity the element of aemulatio or rivalry that balances out the apologetic “Roman Callimacheanism” Volk observes in many Roman authors who engage with Greek antecedents.76 Both elements are present in Manilius (as they are in Lucretius, Vitruvius, Vergil, and a host of other Roman authors who engage explicitly with their disciplinary predecessors), but his brash assertions of originality highlight with particular brilliance that all these engagements serve to do new scientific and cultural work with preexisting texts.

Conclusion

Latin scientific, technical, and didactic authors might well be viewed as having engaged in a kind of literary reception comparable to that of their colleagues in other genres. They certainly perceived themselves as operating in a literary landscape already populated by earlier works, but they creatively reengaged with those works to build up new systems of scientific and technical knowledge and new ways of carrying that knowledge in textual form. Often, the texts they produced were anything but dry technical works intended for a narrow audience of specialists, and the techniques refined by authors in Latin to appeal to a broader readership were probably crucial to their survival. Indeed, texts in Latin that rework technical topics previously treated in Greek for a broader audience are often the best or only surviving textual sources on their subjects (think, for example, of Lucretius’s role in preserving Epicurean philosophy). These texts comprised creative re-imaginings and expansions of their Greek predecessors as well as purely Roman innovations and were thus “translations” in every sense: works of literature in Latin that have carried their subject matter down to us today.

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Sharrock, Alison. “Introduction.” In Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science, edited by Daryn Lehoux, A. D Morrison, and Alison Sharrock, 1–24. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

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Skydsgaard, Jens Erik. Varro the Scholar: Studies in the First Book of Varro’s De Re Rustica. Copenhagen, Denmark: E. Munksgaard, 1968.

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Stückelberger, Alfred. “Vom anatomischen Atlas des Aristoteles zum geographischen Atlas des Ptolemaios: Beobachtungen zu wissenschaftlichen Bilddokumentationen.” In Gattungen wissenschaftlicher Literatur in der Antike, edited by Wolfgang Kullmann, Jochen Althoff, and Markus Asper, 287–307. Tübingen: G. Narr, 1998.

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Taub, Liba Chaia. Aetna and the Moon: Explaining Nature in Ancient Greece and Rome. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2008.

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Volk, Katharina. Manilius and His Intellectual Background. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

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Volk, Katharina. The Poetics of Latin Didactic : Lucretius, Vergil, Ovid, Manilius. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

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Notes:

(1) Particularly good recent studies of the cultural status of these professions and the social status of their practitioners include Purcell, “The Apparitores”; Schürmann, Griechische Mechanik und antike Gesellschaft; Meißner, Die technologische Fachliteratur der Antike; Cuomo, Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity.


(2) See, for example, Dalzell, The Criticism of Didactic Poetry, 105–114; Volk, The Poetics of Latin Didactic, 158–169.


(3) Dalzell, The Criticism of Didactic Poetry, 8.


(4) On these texts as a population see Fleury, “Les Textes Techniques de l’Antiquité. Sources, Études et Perspectives”; Nicolet, “Introduction”; Kullmann, Althoff, and Asper, Gattungen wissenschaftlicher Literatur in der Antike; Meißner, Die technologische Fachliteratur der Antike; Fögen, “Zur Einführung: Antike Fachtexte als Forschungsgegenstand.”


(5) Guillaumin, “Géométrie Grecque et Agrimensorique Romaine. La Science Comme Justification D’une Idéologie.”


(6) Bruun, The Water Supply of Ancient Rome, 15.


(7) Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 12–13.


(8) Taub, Aetna and the Moon, 13–29.


(9) Fögen, “Metasprachliche Reflexionen,” 34.


(10) Saastamoinen, “The Literary Character of Frontinus’ De aquaeductu.” As well as offering a capsule history of the controversies surrounding Frontinus’s work, this chapter also contains helpful etymological and historical background to the term.


(11) Callebat, “Rhétorique et architecture dans le ‘De Architectura’ de Vitruve,” 31.


(12) Bruun, The Water Supply of Ancient Rome, 15.


(13) On the use of this term for Caesar’s work, see Bömer, “Der Commentarius.”


(14) Nicolet, Space, Geography, and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 101–114. See also Vitruvius, De architectura 9.pr. 14, I.1.4; 7.pr.11, and 7.pr. 17, as well as Pliny Naturalis Historia 17.234.


(15) Stückelberger, “Vom anatomischen Atlas des Aristoteles zum geographischen Atlas des Ptolemaios: Beobachtungen zu wissenschaftlichen Bilddokumentationen,” 287.


(16) Callebat, “Rhétorique et architecture dans le ‘De Architectura’ de Vitruve,” 32.


(17) Fuhrmann, Das systematische Lehrbuch; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Antike, 8.


(18) Albrecht and Schmeling, A History of Roman Literature, 566; see also Saastamoinen, “The Literary Character of Frontinus’ De aquaeductu,” 16–25.


(19) Deinlein, “Das römische Sachbuch,” 10.


(20) Cetius Faventinus, Plommer, and Vitruvius Pollio, Vitruvius and Later Roman Building Manuals,.


(21) On these figures and their relationship to Vitruvius, see for example Hart and Hicks, Paper Palaces; Kanerva, Between Science and Drawings.


(22) Meißner, Die technologische Fachliteratur der Antike, 178–182.


(23) Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 119–128.


(24) Vitr. 3.1.5; McEwen, Vitruvius, 39–54.


(25) Callebat, “Rhétorique et architecture dans le ‘De Architectura’ de Vitruve,” 33.


(26) Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 181.


(27) Dalzell, The Criticism of Didactic Poetry, 110.


(28) Among the many perspectives on this important question, see Conte, “Instructions for a Sublime Reader: Form of the Text and Form of the Addressee in Lucretius’s De rerum natura”; Gale, “The Story of Us: A Narratological Analysis of Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura”; Kenney, “Lucretian Texture : Style, Metre and Rhetoric in the De Rerum Natura”; Sharrock, “Introduction,” 1–11; the essays in the volume itself respond in various ways to the combination of poetic and scientific elements in Lucretius.


(29) Fleury, “Traités de Mécanique et Textes Sur Les Machines,” 71.


(30) Vitr. 5.pr.2.


(31) Schiefsky, “Technical Terminology in Greco-Roman Treatises on Artillery Construction,” 253.


(32) Langslow, Medical Latin in the Roman Empire, 5.


(33) Fögen, “Metasprachliche Reflexionen,” 34; Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 13–19. The connection between the qualities labeled saphēneia or perspicuitas and technical vocabulary is discussed in Fögen, “Metasprachliche Reflexionen,” 38. For discussion of lexical clarity in this context, see Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 28–34.


(34) Werner Krenkel, “Sprache und Fach-Sprache,” in Horster and Reitz, Antike Fachschriftsteller, 12.


(35) Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 42–44.


(36) Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 46–48; Schironi, “Technical Languages: Science and Medicine” discusses this type of development in more detail for the case of Greek technical terminology.


(37) Janson, Latin Prose Prefaces; Santini and Scivoletto, Prefazioni, Prologhi, Proemi di Opere Tecnico-scientifiche Latine.


(38) Fuhrmann, Das systematische Lehrbuch; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Antike, 25–26.


(39) Asper, Griechische Wissenschaftstexte, 57–212.


(40) Asper, Griechische Wissenschaftstexte, 213–367.


(41) Callebat, “Organisation et Structures Du De Architectura de Vitruve,” 35.


(42) Meißner, Die technologische Fachliteratur der Antike, 194–198.


(43) Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 1–8.


(44) Kronenberg, Allegories of Farming from Greece and Rome, 7–20, 73–129.


(45) Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 69–74, 395–401.


(46) Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic, 135. This particular discussion of the properties of cabbages (just one of many; they are a prominent feature in Cato’s work) occurs at De agricultura 157.


(47) Fuhrmann, Das systematische Lehrbuch; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Antike, 157–158; Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 15–20.


(48) Columella, De re rustica 1.1.12.6.


(49) On Varro’s relationship with his literary forebears, see Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic, 135–138.


(50) Fuhrmann, Das systematische Lehrbuch; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Antike, 163.


(51) Kronenberg, Allegories of Farming from Greece and Rome, 84; see also Skydsgaard, Varro the Scholar, 12–21.


(52) Taub, Aetna and the Moon, 22–25; Asper, Griechische Wissenschaftstexte, 245–262.


(53) Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 165–171; Reitz, “Columella, De Re Rustica,” 282.


(54) Reitz, “Columella, De Re Rustica,” 279–280.


(55) Columella, De re rustica 1.1.7–14; Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 210–211.


(56) Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 258–264.


(57) Volk, The Poetics of Latin Didactic, 1–3.


(58) On the choice of meter see Dalzell, The Criticism of Didactic Poetry, 137–138; on elements in the poem common to amatory elegy, see Volk, The Poetics of Latin Didactic, 163–173.


(59) Volk, The Poetics of Latin Didactic, chap. 1.


(60) Gale, “The Story of Us: A Narratological Analysis of Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura,” 57.


(61) Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 198.


(62) Reitz, “Columella, De Re Rustica,” 279.


(63) A selection of case studies illustrating some of these possibilities is given in Fögen, “Zur Transformation griechischer Wissensbestände durch römische Fachschriftsteller.”


(64) Gee, Ovid, Aratus, and Augustus; Gee, “Cicero’s Astronomy”; Possanza, Translating the Heavens; Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 34–40, 53–57, 188–192; Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition.


(65) Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 182–183.


(66) Fuhrmann, Das systematische Lehrbuch; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften in der Antike, 172–173.


(67) Gros, “Les Illustrations Du De Architectura de Vitruve: Histoire D’un Malentendu,” 43. The creation of Latin technical vocabularies from existing sets of Greek terms is discussed at Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 92–105.


(68) Diederich, Römische Agrarhandbücher zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Literatur und Ideologie, 25–27.


(69) Fögen, Wissen, Kommunikation und Selbstdarstellung, 89–92.


(70) Σημεῖόν ἐστιν, οὗ μέρος οὐθέν, Elementa 1 def. 1. On the deployment of language from Greek geometrical texts in the context of the Roman surveyors, see Guillaumin, “Géométrie Grecque et Agrimensorique Romaine. La Science Comme Justification D’une Idéologie.”


(71) Lehoux differentiates ancient meteorology into two traditions: the “Theophrastan” tradition tracked everyday atmospheric phenomena (ranging from haloes around the sun to the croaking of frogs) in an effort to make predictive connections with weather patterns, while the tradition of astrometeorology relied upon patterns in the appearance and disappearance of stars to mark the seasons, and so to predict the weather (Lehoux, Astronomy, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World, 5).


(72) Hannah, Greek and Roman Calendars, 98–130; Lehoux, Astronomy, Weather, and Calendars in the Ancient World, 35–53.


(73) Farrell, Vergil’s Georgics and the Traditions of Ancient Epic, 157–168; Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 28, 34–35, 188–192; Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition, 60–109, 189–231 (the latter an appendix presenting all the parallels).


(74) Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition, 39–48.


(75) Possanza, Translating the Heavens, 142–145; Gee, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition, 48–50.


(76) Volk, Manilius and His Intellectual Background, 197–215.


Courtney Roby

Courtney Ann Roby is assistant professor in the Department of Classics at Cornell University. She received her Ph.D. in Classics from Stanford University. Her research focuses on the literary aspects of scientific and technical texts from the ancient world. Her current book project (Technical Ekphrasis in Ancient Science: The Written Machine between Alexandria and Rome, forthcoming from Cambridge University Press) traces the literary techniques used in the textual representation of technological artifacts from Hellenistic Greece to late-ancient Rome.

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